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Publication numberUS2047377 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 14, 1936
Filing dateFeb 1, 1932
Priority dateFeb 2, 1931
Publication numberUS 2047377 A, US 2047377A, US-A-2047377, US2047377 A, US2047377A
InventorsGeorg Liwschutz
Original AssigneeAdverteerings Mij Nv
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Display figure
US 2047377 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July 14, 1936 G. LIWSCHUTZ DISPLAY FIGURE Filed Feb. 1, 1932 3 Sheets-Sheet 1 I July 14, 1936.

G. LIWS CHUTZ 2,047,377

DISPLAY FIGURE Fiied Feb. 1, 1932 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented July 14, 1936 DISPLAY FIGURE Georg Liwschutz, Berlin-Charlottenburg, Germany, assignor to N. V. Adverteerings Maatschappij, The Hague, Netherlands Application February 1, 1932, Serial No. 590,118 In Germany February 2, 1931 8 Claims.

My invention relates to movable figures such as human or animal display figures and it'is one of the objects of my invention to provide mechanism which is particularly suitable for the operation of the limbs of such figures.

According to the present invention I connect the movable limbs of the display or other figure with pneumatically controlled means such as bellows which expand and/or contract under the action of variations of pressure within the pneumatic controlling system and I thereby control the limbs, raising or lowering and otherwise moving them as desired.

In a preferred embodiment of my invention I efifect the pneumatic control of the limbs by means of pneumatic mechanism such as hitherto used in connection with musical instruments of the pianola type comprising a tracker bar and a perforated sheet (note sheet) traveling in contact with the tracker bar and past the air holes arranged therein, this sheet by means of variously arranged holes and slots alternately covering and uncovering certain of the air holes and thereby creating predetermined difierences of pressure in the pneumatic system, which are utilized to control and actuate the movable limbs of the figures.

It is another object of my invention to combine with the figures thus controlled and actuated a sound instrument such as a talking machine and to have this machine also controlled by pneumatic means, preferably those controlling the figures.

In the drawings afiixed to this specification and forming part thereof various embodiments of my invention are illustrated diagrammatically by way of example.

In the drawings Fig. 1 is a front elevation and Fig. 2 is a side elevation, both partly in section, of a human figure having movable and articulated arms operated by bellows,

Fig. 3 is a perspective illustration of a figure resembling a jumping jack, with pivoted arms and legs,

Fig. 4 is an elevation of a human figure which has movable legs and appears to mark time,

Fig. 5 is a partly sectional elevation of a vacuum control for the bellows which may be housed in the body of the figure illustrated in Fig. 1, I

Fig. 6 is a section on the line VIVI in Fig. 5,

Fig. 7 is a section on the line VII-VII in Fig. 5, drawn to a larger scale, showing the mechanism for operating the bellows I I l, and

Figs. 8 and 9 are similar views of a valve of the wind chest in open and closed positions, respectively.

Referring now to the drawings, and first to Figs. 1 and 2, I is the body of a display or toy figure representing a man, with a cavity 2-in which the mechanism illustrated in Fig. 5 may be housed. 3 is the head of the figure which is preferably hollow and has a flange 4 at its lower end by which it is inserted in a depression of the body I, 5 and 6 are vertical and horizontal brac- 5 ing members in the head, and I is a bar at the lower end of the vertical member 5 for varying the angular position of the head relatively to the body.

8, 8 are the upper arms, 9, 9 are the fore-arms, 10 and I0, ID are the hands of the figure. Each shoulder joint is formed by bellows II which impart a rocking movement to the arms so as to swing them up and down. Each upper arm 8 is connected to the shoulder bellows I I by another 5 bellows I I arranged at right angles to the bellows I I. In this manner a universal joint is provided at each shoulder, the bellows II controlling the forward and rearward swinging of the arms. I2 and I3 are bellows provided at the elbow and wrist joints, respectively. The bellows are individually connected to a supply of air under pressure or to a vacuum tank, as the case may be, by flexible tubes. The tubes I4, I5 and I6 for the bellows II, I2, and I3, respectively, are shown in Figs. 1 and 2, the tubes for the bellows II having been omitted for the sake of clearness.

The bellows are designed inthe usual way, i. c. with a pair of hinged members connected by a joint II" or II, as shown for the bellows II and II, respectively, in Fig. 2. Means such as springs are provided which tend to return the bellows into a given initial position. In the present instance it has been assumed that the bellows are controlled by air under pressure and held infiated or expanded in the normal or initial position of the parts to which they are connected.

If, by any suitable control, the air in the inflated bellows is allowed to escape to a greater or lesser extent, the springs contract the bellows in proportion. Thus in Fig. l the right arm of the figure hangs down, all its bellows being fully inflated. If it is desired to raise the arm, the tube I4 at the corresponding side of the body is opened by the aforesaid control for a shorter or longer period, a portion of the air, or all the air in the bellows being allowed to escape and the springs contracting the bellows, rocking the arm upwards about the hinge II of the bellows II, as shown for the left arm in Fig. 1. The arm is now raised to a given position. If it is desired to swing it forwards, the pressure in the bellows II' is reduced, these bellows being also connected to a flexible tube (not shown) whereby the bellows are made to contract under the action of their springs and the arm rocks about the hinge II'. In a similar manner the bellows at the elbow and at the wrist joints are operated by their respective tubes I 5 and I6.

If the figure is operated by a vacuum control,

as will be described with reference to Figs. 5 and '7, a vacuum is maintained in the bellows so that they are normally held contracted by atmospheric pressure and allowed to expand if the vacuum in the bellows is reduced. Obviously in this instance the springs of the bellows tend to expand the bellows, and by regulating the vacuum the bellows are permitted to expand to a greater or lesser extent, so that the members or limbs, to which they are connected, will move in the manner described.

The figure may also be designed with a movable lower jaw, movable lips and eyes, and a talking machine may be connected to it, as will be described with reference to Figs. 5 and 6. The bellows for operating the lower jaw, the lips and the eyes are not shown in Fig. 1, but two of the flexible tubes for their control are indicated at I! and I8. The operation is similar to that described for the arms and will be understood without illustration.

Referring now to Fig. 3, I9 is the body of a toy figure here shown as a jumping jack. 28 are its arms which are pivoted to the body at 2I, and 22 are its legs which are pivoted to the body at 23. The figure is secured to a truck 24 with wheels 25 moving on a race or track 26, 21 being an upright extending from the truck, 24 to the body I9 of the figure. 28 are four bellows controlling the arms and legs.

Only the mechanism for one side of the body will be described. 29 is a cable or the like by which the bellows 28 at the right are connected to a point near the pivot 2I of the left arm 20 and 30 is a cable connecting the other bellows to a point near the pivot 23 of the left leg 22. 3I is a cable extending from the end of cable 29 to a lever for moving the mouth, and 32 is a cable extending from the end of cable 38 to the left eye 33 of the figure. The two other bellows 28 are connected in a similar manner to the arms and legs at the right. 34 are flexible tubes connecting the bellows 28 to a control. I9 is a guide, here shown as a coiled spring, for preventing interference of the several cables.

Means may be provided for moving the truck to and fro on its track 26. Winding drums 35 and 36 are mounted in suitable brackets at the ends of the track and cables 31 and 38 are connected to opposite ends of the truck. Rotation-is alternately imparted to the drums by suitable means such as a belt 39 on a pulley on the shaft of drum 36.

Referring now to Fig. 4, 46 is the body of a figure which is secured by suitable means (not shown) to a casing 4| having wheels 42 running on a track 43. 44 is one of the cables which is attached to the casing M at 45 for moving it to and fro on the track, as described with reference to Fig. 3. In the example illustrated only the legs 46 and 41 of the figure are movable, but obviously means such as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2 might be provided for moving its arms, lips, eyes, etc., as desired.

The operating mechanism for the legs of the figure is housed in the casing 4|. The feet 48 and 49 are mounted to rock about pivots 58 in slides 58 which are reciprocated in the top plate of the casing 4|. 5| is an arm on the pivot 56 for the left foot 48 and 52 is an arm on the pivot for the right foot 49. The feet are mounted to slide on extensions of the arms beyond their pivots. and 56 are bellows near the rear wall of the casing. 53 is a rod connecting the bellows 55 to the arm 5| for the left foot 48, and 54 is a rod connecting the bellows 56 to the arm 52 for the right foot 49. 51 is a flexible pipe connected to the bellows.

Reciprocation is imparted to the slides 58 by means of two bellows in the base of the casing 4|, one of the bellows being shown M59. 60 is a rod by which the bellows are connected to the slide 58 for the foot 48 and SI is a flexible tube for supplying air under pressure to the bellows 59. A similar arrangement, with a connecting rod 62, is provided for the other slide 58 and its bellows (not shown).

Bellows 63 are inserted at the knees of the figure to which flexible pipes 64, 64 are connected. The feet '48, 49 are alternately reciprocated horizontally by means of the slides 58 under the control of their bellows 58 while at the same time they are rocked about their pivots 50 in the slides 58 by the bellows 55 and 56. The bellows 63 at the knees are inserted in order to complete the imitation of walking or marking time by raising and lowering the feet.

A vacuum control for use in connection with the figures above described will now be described with reference to Figs. 5, 8, and 9.

The illustrated control is of the vacuum type and corresponds substantially to the well known pneumatic control of musical instruments of the pianola type. In a vacuum control the bellows are normally held contracted by the vacuum existing within them, as described, and means such as springs are provided for expanding them against the vacuum. In a control which regulates the admission of compressed air to the bellows, these are expanded by increasing the pres 35 sure existing within them and means must be provided for contracting them when the pressure is taken off.

Referring now to Figs. 5, 8, and 9, 65 is a casing which, if desired, may be housed in the cavity 2 of the figure illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. 66 is an electric motor on the bottom plate of the casing, 61 is a pulley or sprocket on the motor shaft, 68 is a pulley or sprocket on a driven shaft 69, and 10 is a belt or chain connecting the pulleys or sprockets 61 and 68. II is a. crank pin on the pulley or sprocket 68, I2 and 13 are links which are pivoted to the crank pin II at one end and at their other end are connected to bellows I4 and I5, respectively, which are connected to opposite sides of a vacuum chamber 16. I1 is a wind chest and I8 is a pipe connecting the wind chest to the vacuum chamber 16. The wind chest TI is subdivided into as many compartments as controlling operations are to be performed. Each compartment is equipped with a relay I9 and a valve chamber 88. The valve chamber of each compartment is connected to the flexible tube for one of the bellows, for instance to the tube I4 for the bellows I I 'in Fig. 1. While Fig. 8 illustrates the position of the parts at the moment, when a perforation of the perforated sheet' is in register with the tube 82, Fig. 9 illustrates the valves in the position of the sheet, where the tube is closed by a. solid portion of the sheet. The suction device connected to the tracker bar creates permanent reduced pressure in the conduits of the wind chest, in which the small leather bags I48 and I44 are arranged, which control the valves proper by lifting them, when expanding, and lowering them, when collapsing. Both these bags operate in a partial vacuum, The air which may be contained in these bags escapes through the pores of the leather and thebags then assume the fiat form shown in .Fig. 9. Thus, if the control sheet coversthe opening in the tracker bar, the leather bag I40 is flattened down and the wooden valve disc I mounted on the bag, being acted upon by the outer air and carrying the head I42, closes the conduit I43. The other leather bag I44, being not supplied with air, is flattened down also and by lowering the valve disc I48, which may alternately close the apertures I45 and I5I in the discs I52 and I53, respectively, allows atmospheric air to flow through the aperture I45 and tube l4 into the corresponding bellows connected therewith. This means that the bellows is filled with atmospheric air whenever a solid portion of the control sheet covers the aperture in the tracker bar. On the other hand, if a perforation of the sheet registers with such an aperture, the atmospheric air flows through tube 82 into the leather bag I40 (Fig. 8), which is now expanded and lifts the valve Ill and its head I42, thereby uncovering the conduit I43, which is now connected with the atmosphere. The air flowing through the conduit I43 into the bag I44 causes same to expand, whereby the disc I46 is lifted off its seat connecting tube I4 and conduit I54 with the evacuated chamber 80. In consequence thereof, the air escapes from the tube I4 and from the bellows connected therewith. The pressure in this bellows being reduced, it will collapse under the pressure of the atmospheric air, thereby producing the desired mechanical effect. This condition lasts only until the perforation in the sheet has passed over the aperture in the tracker bar, whereupon the supply of air to the bag I40 is interrupted, so that the bag is evacuated and flattened under the influence of the partial vacuum surrounding it. In consequence thereof, valve I and head I42 descend and close the conduit I43, the bag I44 being now also evacuated and collapsing. Disc I48 now descends and severs the connection between tube I4 and the vacuum chamber 80, while allowing atmospheric pressure to enter tube I4 through the aperture I45, whereby the bellows connected to tube I4 is opened by a permanently acting force such as a spring. In other words, whenever the solid part of the perforated sheet covers the aperture in the tracker bar, the corresponding bellows is held open by a spring or the like, while, when a perforation in the sheet comes to register with the aperture, the bellows collapses. The relays 19 of all compartments are connected to a tracker bar 8I by tubes 82. The tracker bar has an opening 83 for each tube 82 and these openings are controlled by a control sheet 84 which corresponds to the note sheet of the musical instrument referred to and has openings 85 by which the openings 83 in the tracker bar are connected to ,the atmosphere as the control sheet moves past them.

86 is an upper and 81 is a lower cylinder for supporting the control sheet. 88 and 89 are the shafts of the upper and lower cylinders, respectively, which are mounted to rotate in vertical plates 90 and 9| depending from the top plate 92 of the casing.

Rotation is imparted to the shafts 88 and 89 by the crank shaft 93 of a vacuum motor under the control of a reversing gear. The sheet is normally operated by one of the cylinders 86 or 81. In the position illustrated rotation is imparted to the lower shaft 89 from the shaft 93 through a train of gears 94, 95, 98, and 91. The spur gear 98 is mounted on a sleeve 96a with a pinion 98. The sleeve is adapted to be displaced on a slide bar 89 by a lever I 00. When the lower end of lever I is rocked to the right the pinion 88 is moved into mesh with the spur gear I02 on the crank shaft 93 and the spur gear 98 on the sleeve "0 engages intermediate gearing I03 by which the cylinder 86 is rotated in the opposite direction to and at higher speed than the cylinder 81, for returning the sheet 84 to its initial position. The lever I00 is connected to bellows I04 which are attached to the inner vertical bearing plate I 05 of the motor. The bellows are connected to the compartment 11a of the wind chest by a tube I08.

The crank shaft 93 of the motor which has three throws, is mounted to rotate in the vertical plate I05 and a parallel vertical plate I01. I08 (Fig. '1) is a vacuum chamber in the motor which is connected to the principal vacuum chamber 16 by a tube I08. Each of the three throws has a connecting rod I09a and a slide valve IIO, which move on a port face III at one side of the vacuum chamber I88 and control ports H2 and H3. Port II2 opens into the vacuum chamber, port H3 is connected to bellows II4. Three bellows 4 are provided and connected to the respective throws by rods II5.

In the position illustrated in Fig. 7 the slide I I 0 of the throw which is almost at the lower dead centre, connects port II2 to port I I3 so that the interior of the corresponding bellows H4 is connected to the vacuum chamber I08 and the bellows are folded up by the pressure of the atmosphere. The bellows for the throw which is almost at the upper dead centre, are also folded up, but the corresponding slide H0 is in such a position that it closes the port I I2 and lays open the port H3, admitting atmospheric air to the interior of the bellows which therefore are free to expand. The bellows for the third throw are fully expanded.

In the example illustrated in Fig. 5 a talking machine of the gramophone type a detail of which is shown in Fig. 8 is combined with the pneumatic control. H6 is the vertical shaft of the record plate II 1 which is connected to the outer end of the crank shaft 93 by bevel gearing H8. H9 is the sound arm which is mounted to rock at I20 in the usual manner, and I2I is the sound box. The gramophone is controlled from the compartments 11b .and 11c of the wind chest through the medium of bellows I22 for rocking the sound arm and I23 for lowering the stylus of the sound box I2I onto the record I24 on the plate H1. The compartment 11b is connected to the sound box control bellows I23 by a tube I 25. Compartment 11c is connected to the bellows I22 for rocking the sound arm I I9 by the tube I28. I21 is an arm at the movable member of the bellows and I28 is a lug on the sound arm which is arranged to be engaged by the arm I21. The 60 sound box control bellows I 23 are secured to a horizontal plate I29 which may be attached to the inner end of the sound arm.

In operation the openings 83 in the tracker bar 8| are alternately opened and closed by the sheet 5 84 in conformity with the disposition of the holes in the sheet. When .a hole registers with the opening 83 of a definite tube 82, the vacuum in the compartment of the wind chest 11 to which this particular tube is connected, is reduced to a 70 greater or lesser extent as determined by the area exposed. Several holes 85 may be combined into a slot so that the corresponding opening 83 in the tracker bar is exposed for a longer period. On the other hand certain holes may be smaller than 75 others, and so on. Consider, for instance, the compartment at the extreme left of casing 88 which is connected to the tube I4 for the bellows I I at the right shoulder or the figure illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. This figure is shown for operation by air under pressure, 1. e., it will move its arms when the pressure in the bellows is reduced so that the bellows contract. In combination with the vacuum mechanism illustrated the bellows would obviously have to be so designed that they are contracted under a vacuum. 11 the vacuum is reduced the bellows II are allowed to expand to a greater or lesser extent under the action of their return springs, and this expansion causes the figure to lower the corresponding arm. In the position illustrated in Fig. 5 a normal (circular) hole registers with the tracker-bar opening 83 and the arm will be raised only for a short period. If, however, a longitudinal slot exposes the opening 88 for a longer period, the figure will hold its arm raised for a corresponding time and during this period the fore-arm and hands may be operated under the control oi other holes in the sheet moving past the corresponding holes 83.

The cylinders 86 and 81 are under the control oi the compartment Ila to which the bellows are connected by the tube I08. The compartment Ila, as will be understood from the foregoing, is connected to a hole '83 in the upper bar 8| by one'ot the tubes 82. This tube has been omitted in Fig. 5 for the sake of clearness.

The record plate III rotates continuously but its sound arm and sound box are controlled by the bellows I 22 and I23 and the compartments 11b and 110, which are in turn controlled by holes in the sheet 84, as described. Normally the bellows are contracted by the vacuum existing within them. Fig. 5 shows both bellows expanded, i.e., in the position they will assume when a hole or slot in the control sheet 84 registers with a hole 88 in the tracker bar. A spring (not shown) or other suitable means is provided for normally holding the sound arm H8 in inactive position with respect to the record I24 on the plate III. When the vacuum in the bellows I22 is reduced in the manner described by a hole or slot in the sheet 84 registering with a hole 83 in the tracker bar 8|, the bellows expand and rock the sound arm into active position with respect to the record I24. Obviously the sound box I2I with its stylus must be lowered onto the record only after the sound arm has been moved into active position. When it has arrived in the active position, the bellows I23 must be allowed to expand by the hole 83 allotted to it being uncovered by a slot or hole in the sheet 84. If this occurs, the bellows I23 expand as the vacuum therein is reduced, and the sound box I2I is lowered, caus ing the stylus to engage in the groove of the record I24. The possibility of raising and lowering the sound box I2I through the medium of the bellows I28 also permits interrupting the speech or music at any desired moment without returning the sound arm II8 to its initial position. As soon as the hole 83 corresponding to the bellows I23 is closed the bellows contract and lift the sound box ofi the record, interrupting the speech. The speeches are resumed as often as the corresponding hole of the tracker bar is exposed by a slot or hole in the sheet 24.

The term limbs used in the claims is intended to include all parts of the human body, for instance the lips, eyes etc.

Iwishittobeunderstoodthatldonotdesire to be limited to the exact details of the construction shown and described, for obvious modifications will occur to a person skilled in the art.

1. In combination with a figure, movable legs and feet jointed to said figure, a pair of slides arranged for horizontal reciprocation, a bellows operatively connected to each slide, a lever pivoted to each slide and operatively connected to a foot, a bellows operatively connected to each lever so as to rock it, bellows connecting the feet to the figure and tubes for connecting the individual bellows to periorated-sheet-controlled pneumatic means.

2. In a figure in combination, a body, a movable limb, a pneumatic device attached to said body and supporting said limb and perforatedsheet-controlled pneumatic means arranged to control said device.

3. In a figure in combination, a body, a movable limb, a bellows attached to said body and supporting said limb and perIorated-sheetcontrolled pneumatic means arranged to control said bellows.

4. In a figure in combination, a movable limb in at least two parts, a bellows forming the connection between adjacent parts and perforatedsheet-controlled pneumatic means arranged to control said bellows.

5. In a figure in combination, a body, a movable limb in at least two parts, separate pneumaiic means connecting said limb with said body and adjacent parts of said limb with each other, a perforated-sheet-controlled pneumatic device and means connected with said device for separately controlling each pneumatic means.

6. A figure, comprising movable limbs, a plurality of bellows for moving said limbs, each bellows moving a different limb, pneumatic means for actuating-said bellows, and a control sheet comprising various sets of perforations, each set being correlated with a bellows and adapted to impart a series of predetermined independent movements to the limbs correlated with said bellows.

7. A figure comprising movable limbs, a plurality of bellows for moving said limbs inserted at the movable joints of said figure, pneumatic means for actuating said bellows, and a control,

sheet comprising various sets of perforations, each set being correlated with a bellows and adapted to impart a series of predetermined independent movements to the limbs correlated with said bellows.

8. A figure, means for imparting motion and supplying accompanying sound to such figure, comprising movable limbs attached to said figure, and a sound producing apparatus having a movable stylus cooperating with a record, a plurality oi bellows, certain of said bellows being adapted to move said limbs and others being adapted to bring said stylus into contact with said record, pneumatic means for actuating said bellows, and a control sheet having various sets of perforations, each set being correlated with a bellows, said control sheet being adapted to control the motion of said bellows, thereby imparting a series of related simultaneous movements to said limbs and said stylus and to thereby coordinate the motion and the sound supplied to said figure.

GEORG LIWSCHU'IZ.

Referenced by
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Classifications
U.S. Classification40/455, 446/190, 40/416, 40/412, 40/420, 40/419, 40/415
International ClassificationA63H11/00, G09F19/00, G09F19/02, A63H11/10, G09F19/08
Cooperative ClassificationG09F19/08, A63H11/10, G09F19/02
European ClassificationA63H11/10, G09F19/08