US 2049278 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 2s, 1936.
s. E. TOUSSAINT ET AL BUILD'ING CONSTRUCTION FiledJan. 5, i953 5 sheets-sheet 1 .AV/M 1 Julyl 28, 1936. s. E. TOUSSAINT ET AL 2,049,278
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Jan. C5, 1955 5*,Sheets-Sheet 2 JrfP//fA/ f. fvwm/Afr?- y JOI/A5 f-T A400125 i -`fa j a? y July 28, 1936. s. E. TOUSSAINT ET Al.
Filed Jan. 5, 1953 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 JTbD/Mw f. fouff/f/A/f ./05/,45 f M0 ofef July 28, 1936 K s. E. TOUSSAINT ET AL 2,049,278
` BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Eiled Jari. s,` 1933 5A sheets-sheet 4 f www Patented July 28, 1936` PATENT ori-"ICEA BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Stephen E. Toussaint and Josias F. Moore, Chicago, Ill.
Application January v3, 1933, Serial No. 649,834
Our invention relates to aimethod of constructing exterior and interior walls, roofs and ceilings of buildings and is applicable primarily to walls surfaced with sheetrmetal coatedeither with porcelain enamel or other suitable paint, varnish, lacquer or resin, although we do not confine ourselves to such material, for the surface units may be made of phenolic or asphaltum pastics, or similar plastic material, laminated with a suitable insulation board. p
In the erection of porcelain 'enamel buildings, practice has shown thatit is impractical to use bolts, nuts, rivets or nails or the like where the same may touch the porcelain enamel because l out.in the claims.
Yof chippage of the enamel during erection..
. material, permittingl a continuous smooth surface without the use of bolts, nuts or rivets, except in the construction of the framework upon which the surface units are supported. Another object of our invention is to construct a building surface, each unit of which is seated separately from each other unit on a framework so that expansion and contraction of the unit under the normal uctuations of temperature will in no wise affect any other unit, and by the use of plastic material between the units each unit is cushioned against each other unit.
This application is a continuation in part of applicants co-pending application Serial Number 586,160 filedrJanuary l2, i932.
In porcelain enamel building, occasional chippage of a surface unit is inevitable, and our inventlon permits the removal of damaged surface units after the building is nished and in use without demolition of the wall surface; they can be replaced by removing only the units between the damaged u nit and the nearest opening in the wall by sliding the units between the damaged unit and the opening horizontally or upward as the case may require until the damaged unit is reached.
Other objects of our invention will appear and be described in the specification.
The novelty of our invention will be hereinafter more fully set forth and specifically pointed In the accompanying drawings: Fig. l is an isometric view of the frame Work for a building.
Fig. 2 is an isometric view oi' a portion of a frame work with Va portion of the surfaceunits in place, and an alternate type of corner.
Fig.4 3 is an isometric view of the preferred type of corner construction. 5
Fig. 4 is a vertical cross-section along the line A--A of Fig. 3.
Fig. 5 is a vertical cross-section along the line B-B of Fig. 3.
Fig. 6 is a horizontal cross-section along the 10 line E-E of Fig. 2.
l Fig. 7 is a horizontal cross-section along the line F-F of Fig. 2.
Fig. 8 is ahorizontal cross-section along the line C-C of Fig. 3.
Fig. 9 is an isometric view of a surface unit, with a cut out section showing the insulation, and the clip anges I3.
Fig. 10 is an enlarged cross-section of a horizontal joint.
Fig. 11 is a vertical cross-section along the line K-K of Fig. 3. g
Fig. 12 is a vertical cross-section along the line H-H of Fig. 3.
Fig. 13 is a detail drawing of the base joint. 25
Fig. 14 .ls a horizontal cross-section along the line L-L of Fig. 13.
The same numerals of lreference are used to indicate identical parts i'n all the figures.
, In employing our invention using steel T col- 30 umns as the columns of the frame work a structure such as is shown in Fig. 1 is erected. The columns l are tied together by cross bars or girts 2 of about 1/8 iron straps, the cross bars being set out from the faces of the studs at least 115 35 inch by washers 3, or other suitable means, and being fastened to the studs by screws or bolts 4, Fig. 5., The function performed by the washers permits the removal of damaged surface units as hereinafter described; the washers may be omitted in construction if the removal feature ls not desired.
The surface units have a face, l0, as shown in the drawings, and in the preferred metal type are made of 20-gage sheets, preferably coated with porcelain enamel, forming a pan with four flanges, Il, I8, I9, 20, Fig. 9, within which is placed an insulating material Il of about 1%, inch thickness; the insulation is held firmly in place without the use of plastic or other adhesive by the flange I 6 at the butt of the panas shown in Figs. 4, 9 and 10; at the topof the pan is horizontal underlapping flange l2, while on the right Side 0f the pan is vertical underlapping ange 55 I5; clip flanges I3, being an extension of the iange I6, complete the standard surface unit.
It is to be understood that in practice, the standard surface unit may have the vertical underlapping flange I5 at the left of the pan I0, instead of at the right, as in Fig. `9, the position of this flange depending on the design and method of building erection. In each tier4 of surface units forming a. wallwith thealternative type of corner las shown in Figs. 6 and '1, one unit must omit vertical overlapping flange I5 to permit a t with the corner unit. This is not necessary in the corner type shown in Fig. 8. In, all standard surface units, the position and length of the clip flanges I3, Fig. 10, is so spaced that each clip flange is equal in length to the distance between them, while each clip flange is spaced adistance equal to half its length from the Aedge of thel surface unit, for the reason that when. surface units are positioned on girts which are not offset from the columns, the clip flanges I3 will never conflict with the columns.
Besides the standard surface unit, in the construction of a wall, interior wainscoting or the like, special units must be used at Athe top and bottom, and to form the corners. The preferred design for a surface unit for the first tier of a ywall or wainscoting is that shown in Fig. 12 in which the flange 35 at the butt of the pan is proportionately larger than flange I6 .shown in Figs. 4, 9, and 10, to permit the use of standard pan I0 as is seen in flange 25 of'Fig. 11, the
flange being curved back upon itself as at 21 in Fig. 11.
The preferred types of corners in our method of building are shown in Figs. 6, '1, and 8, while an isometric view of the corner type of Figs. 6 and 7 is shown in Fig. 2 and an isometric view of the corner type of Fig. 8 is shown in Fig. 3. In the first type, referred to herein as the fitted corner, special units are used having additional flanges 2I and 22 appended to vertical flanges I1 or I9 as the case may be. Where vertical flange I1 forms the corner, as in Fig. 6, theunit contiguous to it around the corner, on which vertical underlapping flange I5 is omitted, fits into flanges 2I and 22 of the corner unit, flange. 22 forming a wind break; in the next tier of units, vertical flange I9 forms the corner, and flange I1 of a standard unit fits into flanges 2| and 22 of the corner unit, as in Fig. 7. In the second type of corner, referred to herein as the formed corner, special units as shown in Fig. 8 are used, the method of construction being shown in Fig. 3.
In constructing, the outer surface of a building by our method, after the frame work is erected on the foundation 33, as shown in Fig. 1, a water table 30, Figs. 12 and 13, butting against the lowest girt 2, Fig. l2, and cushioned on a plastic I4, is first put in place. The water-table, which should be of copper, is designed with a base, a butt flange` 3|, a face 30, theface being' at an acute angle to the base in the preferred type of construction and having a curved edge 32 to form a continuous contact with the face of the lowest tier of surface units. The water table is formed at the corners of the building and is joined as shown in Figs. 13 and 14 by a male and female joint. The first tier of surface units iS then placed inposition, flange 35 and clip flange I3 clamping butt flange 3I of the water table firmly to the base girt 2, Fig. 12. Succeeding Atiers of surface units are placed one on top of another in each tier, the clip flange I3, clamping the horizontal underlapping flange I2 of thelower unit to the girt 2; clip flange I3 is so designed with relation to the width of the horizontal girts and horizontal underlapping flange vI2 .that the lower surface unit is 'firmly' locked in placeby spring action in theclip flange I3; a loose contact between ilanges I2 and I3 and the girt 2 is'shown in the drawings, Figs. 4, 10, and 12, simply for the purpose of clarifying construction, but in practice vthe contact should be such that the lower surface unit is firmly locked by the upper.
When the top yof the wall is reached, special top units as Vshown in Fig. 11 are used. The co1- umns I are topped with a top angle 29, at the rearV of which a continuous bar or plate 24 sets off atop plate 23 from the'top angle. Flange 2G of l the top 'surface' unit fits into the space formed by plate 24,- curving back on itself at 21. A copper flashing formed as in Fig. 1l is'then placed over the parapt fitting inr to the interstice 21. the space between theflashing and theflange of the top unit being filled with plastic I4 to make the joint water tight. `The flashing is fastened at the rear of the parapet a's in Fig. 4.
'The foregoing *describesl the method used for constructing the exterior surface of a` building, and the interior, ceiling or roof is treated in substantially the same way. l
It' will be seen that since each surface unit is seated independently lof each other surface unit, that a damaged unitmay be removed without disturbing any other units'than those between it and the nearest wall opening; since in the preferred type of construction, the girts on which the surface units areA seated are offset from the columns, any unit next a wall opening may be slid out along the girt, which'permits the removal of the unit immediately below simply by lifting the unit. By sliding or lifting units as the case may require, any unit may be reached and replaced with another. -K
Having fully described our invention, we claim:
1. In a wall, vertical structural columns and a series Vof substantially parallel girts for supporting surface units-on said columns, means in said surface units for applying said surface units to said girts,"said means permitting vthe seating ofv each surface unit upon said girts independently of eachother surface unit in said wall.
2. In a. wall, the combination of vertical structural columns and girts spaced horizontally to said columns for supporting surface units, and
, surface units supported independently of oneanother on said girts, being cushioned vertically and horizontally against one another by the luse of 4.1m a building, vertical structural columns,
spaced horizontal cross bars, metal surface units provided with clips engaging said cross bars, and with butt flanges, insulation in said surface-units, said insulation being held in'place in said surface units by saidbutt flanges in the units, and by engagement of said clips in contiguous units with said cross bars.
5. In a building surface composed of multiple I units,.. each supported independently of the others seats for the subsidiary units.
7. In a corner for a building consisting of multiple surface units each independently supported on a frame work, a surface unit formed as a corner having clip flanges at the base thereof, which said clip flanges support the saidv corner unit on a frame work and hold lower corner units in position on said frame work to form the corner.
8. A formed corner unit for aA building consisting of two contiguous faces set at an angle to form the corner vertical and horizontal flanges at right angles to-the said faces, butt :flanges at the base of and parallel to thesaidl faces, said butt flanges being provided with clip viianges'to seat the said corner.
9. A building having a surface composed 4o1y a.,l
multiplicity of units, a water table yatlthe base of said building, having .a vertical inner: flange butted against a horizontal base lgirtgon the frame Work of said building, said water table being` held Ain position by clipA fiangeson the lowest tier of surface units interlockingthe said vertical inner flange of the water table with the'base girt on thek framework. g
10. A water table for a buildingifsaid water table being held inoperativepositionv bythe surface 1bnits of saidmuildmg, hurting the same' against base girts ailixed to the columns of said building, said units clipping saidwater table to said girts. A l' 11. vA building 'composed of vertical structural columns and spaced horizontal cross bars, surfaced with multiple surface units,'a parapet on said building, composed of a top'angle and continuous top plate, said top plate being set 0R from said top angle, a series of top surface units 'seated vcross bars.
surface units having means for individually seatat their bases on girts, said top units having horizontal top flanges bent back upon themselves to flt the interstice between the top angle andthe top plate and a flashing, protruding over the face of the top surface unit, formed to flt the said 5 interstice, being suitably fastened at the inner base of the parapet.
12. A surface unit for the parapet of a sheet metal building, said unit being composed of a face, vertical side anges, and a horizontal base flange, a butt ange at the base provided with clip flanges to seat the said unit, and a top horizontal ange, forming the top ofthe parapet, said top horizontal flange being bent upon itself at the end farthest from the face of the unit. 15
13. In a wall vertical structural columns, and girts for supporting a multiplicity of surface units on said columns, surface units having rectangular faces, vertical and horizontal flanges at right angles to said faces, and means in the base horizon- 20 tal flanges for supporting said surface units on said girts independently of A one another, said means permitting the unit to move independently on said girt, said units being so spaced on said girts that the horizontal and vertical flanges of 25 one unit at'no place touch the horizontal or vertical anges of another unit, and plastic in the interstices between said units to cushion one unit against another.
14. In a wall, the combination of vertical structural columns, spaced horizontal cross bars fas- Y .tened on said columns being set .off therefrom, Y said cross bars forming an independent seating means for surface units, surface units provided with horizontal and vertical flanges parallel to the faceof saidunits and with means for interlocking one surface unit with another on said cross bars, said interlocking means permitting the sliding o f individual surface units on said 15. In a wall. the combination of vertical structural columns, horizontal cross bars fastened on said columns being setoff therefrom, surface units independently seated on said cross bars said ing insulation, means in said surface units for interlocking one surface unit with another on said cross bars, said interlocking means permitting the sliding of individual surface units on said J OSIAS F. MOORE.