US 2050151 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
N. J. BAUMER Aug. 4, 1936.
CANDLE LAMP 3 sheetssheet 1 Filed Feb. 10, 1935 yNornb e r Baumer ,1
v wow'ww N. J. BAUMER CANDLE LAMP Aug. 4, 1936.
Filed Feb. lO 1933 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Norbert J. Baumer,
Mgg/W Aug. 4, 1936. N, J, BAUMER 2,050,151
CANDLE LAMP Filed Feb. lO, 1953 5 Sheets--Shee'cl 5 IN VEN TOR Ifor 27e/' JI Ba unzer BY m L ATTORNEY5 Patented Aug. 4, 1936 UNITED STATES 'PATENT' OFFICE 20 Claims.
This invention relates to candle lamps, and particularly to candle lamps designed as sanctuary lights.
A general object of the invention is to provide a candle lamp which, while not restricted to such use, is particularly adapted to satisfythe requirements of a sanctuary light', among which requirements are dependability of the lamp as to the amount and continuity of .luminosity it dispenses and the time it will function, simplicity of construction and ease of refilling, and capability of thus dependably functioning with candle material of high melting point.
'I'he invention is intended, therefore, to produce a candle lamp of simple 'construction and ease of refilling that will maintain a definite, predetermined rate and duration of combustion under conditions of climatic and temperature fluctuation encountered in the use of such a device, that will ensure with either high or lowmelting-point candle material that the combustion of the candle results in a clearly visible, steady iiame of unvarying luminosity, shape and dimensions under the variable operating conditions, and that will further ensure that the necessary reiillings will these results.
In candle lamps of the prior art, considerable difficulty has been experienced, especially when attempting to use beeswax or the like high-melting-point candle material prescribed by certain ecclesiastical bodies for sanctuary'lights, in the irregular melting of the material about the wick, the tendency being forV the melting to occur only over a small area closely adjacent the wick, instead of uniformly over the entire top surface of the candle, with resulting' formation of a deep well about the wick. ,This well formation occurs particularly when the light is started burning in low temperatures or upon' a sudden lowering of the temperature at any time during the burning. With the formation of such a well, the light recedes Within it and is thereby obscured; and, moreover, should the temperature then rise sufficiently to melt the solid rim portion of the well, a flow of molten fuel into the well occurs which is apt to extinguish the flame. vantage, incident to candle lamps of the type having a holder closely embracing the candle throughout its length, has been the tendency of the candle material to congeal from its molten state on the comparatiuely cool walls of the holder as the level of the material drops during the consumption of the candle. These disadvantages, it is to be observed, follow from lack of sufnot vary the uniformity of Another disad- (Cl. 24o-13)- use as a sanctuary light which will meet the strictest requirements as to the use of high-meltingpoint candle material and which will also be free,
whatever the candle material used, from the dis-l advantages hereinbefore mentioned as incident to prior art lamps of this class.
For such a lamp, my invention contemplates a translucent container or holder having a central 'chamber completely receiving the candle and forming the combustion chamberthereof, with the holder of a multiple wall construction insulating the combustion chamber against the outward escape of heat and of an inner wall construction absorbing heat from the candle flame u and the uprising products of combustion and distributing that heat to the' candle material in a manner keeping that material iiuid across the entire top surface of the candle body. Thus the wick is provided with an ever-ready supply of iiuid fuel to feed the flame, and adherence of the candle material to the sides of the container is prevented as is also that irregular melting of the material which results in the formation of wells .abouathe wick which obscure or extinguish the flamef The foregoing principles and advantages of my invention and other principles and advantages thereof will more fully appear from the following description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, of certain concrete embodiments of the invention. It is to be understood, however, "that these embodiments are merely illustrative examples of my invention in Y preferred forms, and that the invention is not limited thereto but may be embodied in other vforms and constructions of candle lamps Within of Figs. 2 and 3, looking in the direction of the arrows on those figures, but with the candle itthe section line 2-2 of Fig. 1, looking downwardly in the direction of the arrows associated with that line on Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a horizontal transverse section along the line 3-3 of Fig. 1 looking upwardly in the direction of the arrows associated with that section line on Fig. 1;' andy Fig. 4 is a section through the longitudinal vertical axis of another form of candle holderembodying my invention, with the candle shown therein in vertical side elevational view.
Fig. 5 is a partial side elevational View of the candle holder shown in Fig. 1 with certain additional features slightly modifying the Fig. l construction;
, Fig. 6 is a partial side elevational view of the candle holder shown in Fig. 4 with certain additional features slightly modifying the Fig. 4 construction; and
Fig. 'l is a sectional view along the line 'i-V-l of Fig. 6.
The lamp may be of either the standing or hanging type, a stand lamp being shown in Fig. 1; and this lamp'may have a base of any conventional or desired design and material suitable for the mounting therein of my improved candle holder which preferably, although not necessarily, has a rounded bottom portion as shown in Figs. 1 and 4.
The form of lamp shown in Fig. l comprises a base or stand I of any Isuitable material, such as brass, for example, of suflicient rigidity and strength to function as the supporting base of the lamp, and having an upwardly extending cup-like annular flange 2, with terminal fingers 3, for the mounting therein of my improved candle holder which forms the main body portion of the lamp.
The form of candle holder of my invention shown in Figs. 1 and 2 comprises a double walled receptacle with a rounded closed bottom and central open top, of general cylindrical shape but tapering slightly toward the bottom, with its inner and outerv walls, 4 and 5, of glass joined together at the top but spaced apart elsewhere throughout their extent to form an inter--walll or jacket space 6 about the candle chamber of the holder. The union of these outer and inner glass walls at the top of the holder is preferably made by fusion of the glass duringthe manufacture of the holder, although it may be made, if desired, by a low-melting solder, such as one of the bismuth alloys having a co-eflicient of expansion approximately that of the glass parts to be joined, or any other suitable joining and sealing compound may be used. The jacket thus formed is designed, as a heat insulating jacket, to protect the central candle-containing and combustion chamber of the holder from external temperature conditions and prevent the escape of heat outwardly from that chamber, and thereby conserve Within it the heat generated by the candle llame. To secure this functioning of the insulating jacket, air may be .withdrawn therefrom to constitute the same a vacuum jacket, or the air may be vreplaced by a fluid or semifluid mass, of low heat conductivity, such as carbon dioxide, carbon tetrachloride, hydrocarbon jellies (petroleum jelly), glycerine-gum or glycerin-resin (Canada balsam) or either of these with oil in emulsions, or water, alone or mixed witli other materials, for example. An alpha-monobromnaphthaline-gelatin jelly is especially suitable. The jacket may be thus evacuated of air, or the air therein replaced by a uid or semi-fiuid of low heat conductivity, in any suitable way during the process of manufacture of the holder. For example, this may be done by the customary pump connection to an aperture 'i in the bottom portion of the outer glass wall of the holder and the aperture thereafter sealed over, as indicated by the glass seal tip 8, anda cap 9 supported on the exterior of the lamp holder base and cemented over the glass seal tip to protect the same, as shown in Fig. 1. While the heat insulating jacket may be either a vacuum jacket or one filled with a fluid or semiuid of low heat conductivity, I preferably employ the same as a vacuum jacket, and Fig. 1 is intended to thus represent that jacket.
Preferably, and as shown in Fig. 1, the outer glass wall 5 of the holder is formed at its top with an outward annular bulge, as indicated at I0, to constitute an annular flange on that wall, over which the lower rim portion I I of the open-work ornamental cap I2 of the lamp is spring-pressed to mount and retain that cap in position.
My invention contemplates means for utilizing the products of combustion to prehcat the incoming airso as to further conserve thc heat of the candle flame within the candle chamber as well as to prevent chilling of the flame and the candle material by contact therewith of unheated air, and further to so sub-divide the outilowing and inflowing streams of combustion gases and air as to prevent sputtering of the candle. In the example of the invention shown in Fig. 1, such means comprises a heat-regenerator of cap-like form positioned over the open top of the candle holder. As shown in Figs. l and 3, this consists of a grid formed by a corrugated strip I3 and a plain band or strip I4 wound, in side-by-side contact, from the outer circular boundary of the grid inwardly in an ascending spiral upon a wire frame member I5, with the curved top surface of the cap-like structure thus formed sui-mounted by another wire member I6, and the two wire members I5 and I6 bound together by a binding wire I1 so as to clampthe grid body between them.
The grid is snugly housed in the lower portion of the open-work top or cap I2 of the lamp, as shown in Fig. 1; and as thus housed, the grid presents a large number of vertically disposed passages I8 of small cross sectional area distributed over the entire surface of the grid, through which passages the products of combustion are vented and air for combustion supplied. The upflowing gaseous products of combustion from the centrally disposed wick of the candle naturally in the main take the passages in the central area of the grid indicated' at I9 in Fig. 3, thus heating the walls of those passages, which heat is quickly extended throughout the grid due to the continuity of the metallic strips, and thus the air for combustion, entering mainly through the passages in the outer area of the grid, is heated before it enters the candle chamber. It is also apparent that the large number of these relatively small passages spread uniformly over the entire area of the grid break up the entering air into finely divided currents and thereby prevent gusts of air in the combustion chamber which would cause irregular name formation or sputtering of the candle.
While its use is not essential to the proper functioning of the lamp, it may be advantageous to provide an air deflecting member, indicated at 20 in Fig. 1. consisting of acentrally apertured metal plate having a rim portion clamped between the horizontal ledge 2| of the ornamental cap I2 and the upper rim portion of the candle holder, and having an upwardly flared portion terminating in the central aperture or mouth. The main advantage of such a deilector'is in deflecting the incoming air to the candle flame when that ame is at its upper levels in fairly close proximity to the wide open mouth of the candle holder. The deflector also serves to some extent to assist in the conservation of heat in the candle chamber by in part radiating back to that chamber and in part conducting to the inner glass boundary wall of that chamber the heat it receives from the uprising products of combustion. My invention further contemplates a candle holder having an inner wall construction absorbing heat from the candle flame and the products of combustion and distributing that heat to' the candle material in a manner to assist in keeping that material fluid across the top surface of the rcandle body. Ordinary glass will function to some degree to that end where, as also contemplated by my invention, the candle-containing chamber and the candle are of such 'complementary shape as to closely fit the candle to the chamber with a larger surface area of contact between them than is afforded by the customary circular cross-sectional contour oi'fthe chamber and candle'. But I preferably use, in the form of the invention shown in Fig. 1, a glass for the inner wall 4 of the candle holder of a composition substantially increasing the heat-absorbing properties of the glass over that of ordinary glass.
By heat absorbing glass is meant a glass which will absorb radiations between the extreme visible red and about 5 Mu (u). Various types of heat absorbing glass are available under the trade name Heat absorbing glass, usually containing certain compounds as, for instance, those of chromium, cobalt or nickel, which cause absorption oi' certain radiations. A heat absorbing glass which is especially suitable is Cornings Aklo, Other good heat absorbing glasses are Cornings Lab. G124JA, Crooks Sage-Green (American Optical Co. Lab. #30 Ferrousli and Crooks Blue- Green (American Optical Co. Lab.` #59). The desired red color can be obtained by either` coloring the plastic jacket hereinafter referred to, by adding red coloring matter to the heat absorbing glass, or by coating `(dashing) the heat absorbing glass with red glass.l Generally, however, the inner wall of the candle holder is made of a glass which has the heat-absorbingA properties just stated but -which is transparent to all the light rays, whilethe outer wallis madeof ordinary glass, that is, glass having the usual -low heat absorbing or high heat transmitting properties. and has the coloring matter incorporated in its composition rendering it essentially transparent only to those light rays which must be passed to secure the desired color effect which, in sanctuary lights, is generally ruby red.
My invention also contemplates such a depar-` wall from its circular-line boundary at regularly spaced intervals inwardly toward the longitudinal axis of the candle. This has the 'advantage of distributing the heating effect of the container wall more uniformly over the top area of the v candle and thereby substantially assists in keeping the candle material fluid entirely across that area. This feature is embodied in the form of' the invention shown in Figs. 1 and 2, in which the inner glass wall 4 of the candle: holder is formed throughout the major portion of the length of the holder, from near its bottom upwardly, with longitudinally extending inward bulges orridges 22, of arcuate form in cross section as shown in Fig. 2; and the candle 23, which is a preformed body inserted in the candle holder,
is formed throughout the corresponding portion part along the heated inner wall of the chamber. With a relatively deep candle holder having an opening only at its upper end for escape of products of combustion and entrance of air, which is the form preferably used in my invention, if the holder is of the usual circular shape in cross section-throughout, as the candle burns down upward diffusion of the products of combustion` and downward flow of air to feed the flame become more and more impeded until there is apt to be an accumulation of dead gases in the holder.
and an insufficient supply of air to feed the flame, f
with the result of a sputtering flame and not infrequently its extinguishment. The conformation of the inner chamber walls shown in Figs. l and 2, avoids those difficulties in the functioning of the lamp because that conformation presents the chamber with an axial central area and well defined side areas along the walls of the holder, conducive to the ready upward diffusion, to a large extent through the central area, of the products of combustion from the candle .frame and to the down-flow of the air for combustion in substantial part through the side areas along :jthe inner wall of the holder. In other Words, the
circulation essential for the diffusion of the products of combustion away from the candle flame and the supp'y of air to feed that flame is substantially improved while at the same time the air is heated 'by its traverse along the hot inner wall ofthe holder. This diffusion of products of combustion upwardly from the candle flame and downward flow of air to feed the flame are further facilitated by the upwardly a-ring and downwardly tapering shape of the holder, upwardly flaring in the direction of the outflow of the spent gases and downwardly tapering in 'the direction required for the flow of air to the candle flame. In addition, that shape of the holder facilitates the insertion of the candle into the homer in the r'eqmred intimate contact with containingchamber is particularly effective in insuring'intimate contact of the candle materialv in its fluid condition with the container walls .its walls.v 'I'he downward taper of the candieand thereby the maximum heat eiIect of those walls on that material.
In the form of candle container and candle shown in the drawings, it is to be noted that theterior wall of the container rst enter the open lower ends of the grooves on the candle and guide the candle to .and center it in its fully inserted position. Another advantage afforded by this rib-and-groove arrangement which is of considerable practical importance is the support and accurate centering of the candle in the container even when variations in the dimensions of the interior chamber of the candle holder and the cially lafter a body oi' molten wax had i'ormedl candle prevent that snug ilt ofthe candle in that chamber throughout the entire side surface and curved base portion of the candle shown in the drawings. .Some variations may occur in the dimensions of the candle-receiving chamber due to manufacturing exigencies as the glass container is generally made in a mold and variations may occur in the thickness of the glass blown in candle-receiving chamber and the candle may,
however, occur by shrinkage of the candle body through aging of the candle material in candles withheld from use over a substantial period of time after manufacture, such shrinkage being primarily caused by loss in moisture content of the wax and by thermal contraction. When these variations from standard size between the candlereceiving chamber and the candle occur so that the candle is of less length and diameter than required to snugly i'lt the container throughout the entire side surfaces and curved base portion of the candle, the rib-and-groove arrangement of the invention still functions to accurately center the candle in supported position, for the upper ends of the ribs on the container wall then so engage in the grooves in the candle and against the end walls of those grooves as to centrally suspend the candle on the ends of those ribs without that lateral displacement or tipping of the candle which would otherwise occur and which would result in-a one-sided leaning of the wick to the point of' extinguishment of the llame, espeabout the wick, orl to an unbalanced play of the candle ilame against one side 'of the glass container.
The candle 23 is provided with the usual wick 25 extending axially throughout the length 0f the candle body and with a rigid base disk 26 of metal or other suitable material for supporting the' wick in the fluid candle material after the candle' has burned down close to its base.
Where, as contemplated by my invention, the candle holder isprovided with a jacket exhausted of air or `filled with other gas to form a heat insulator about the combustion space, it is highly desirable to make provision for avoiding that substantial scattering of pieces of the container walls which is apt to occur upon breakage of the holder. In the embodiment of the invention shown in 5 Figs. 1, 2 and 3, the provision for preventing scattering of pieces of the holder walls upon breakage takes the form of a thin coating or layer 21 of a translucent plastic composition over the entire exterior glass surface of the holder. This coating 10 Vor layer may be formed of lacquer or cellulose acetateA or any other suitable hardened plastic composition. Cellulose compounds of the formyl, acetyl and their ester groups and the various celluloid-like substances containing or made from l5 casein and/or blood albumen, gelatin, or the synthetic resins or condensation' products such as phenol-aldehyde condensates, urea formaldehyde condensates, aldehyde (and keton) condensates, hydrocarbon-acid condensates etc. are examples 20 of plastic compositions or products which may be used. The desired color eiect of the light from the candle flame, which, as already stated, in sanctuary lights is generally ruby red, may be attained by making the inner or outer glass walls of 25 the holder, or both, of a glass passing onlythe light rays from the candle iiame which give this color effect, or by incorporating in the outer layer of plastic composition the necessary ingredient to give the color effect. Where, as in the embodi- 30 ment of the invention shown in Fig. 1, the inner glass wall of the holder is made of heat-absorbing glass, it is generally preferable to make that glass of a composition transmitting all the light rays and absorbing only the heat rays, and employing in the outer glass wall or in the plastic coating the necessary ingredients to give the desired color Fig. 4 shows another form of candle holder of my invention designed to be used with the air heating grid and other parts of the lamp shown in the Fig. 1 construction. The candle holder shown in Fig. 4 comprises a heat-absorbing glass liner 4' and an outer rigid and non-shatterable jacket 5' of hardened plastic composition, such as bakelite or any of the other-plastic compositions previously mentioned. 'lhe glass liner is held in the jacket by an out-turned annular iiange 28 on the liner entering an annularV recess 29 in the jacket, and by a spring lock consisting of' a split ring 3l sprung into place in a recess in the jacket immediately above the line of junction of the liner therewith. The hner is also centered below in the jacket by a 'lug 3| on the former entering a pocket 32 in the latter. 'Ihe space i' between the glass liner and the jacket may be lled with a iluid or semi-duid of low heat conductivity, such as carbon dioxide or carbon tetrachloride, or any of the other fillers previously mentioned, in which ease thejoint be- 60 the liner and the jacket, as well as the spring lock, would be cemented over to seal the inter-wall space. Y
The advantagev of making the outerwall or jacket ofl plastic composition as in1 the Fig. 4 construction is that such a jacket has itself heat insulating pro es, and therefore gives a heat insulation -in addition to that derived from illling the inter-wall space with a iiuid of low heat con- ,o ductivity. In fact, in the Fig. 4 construction the heat insulating properties of the outer jacket itself are suilicient to dispense, if desired, with the lling referred to, in which case the inter-wall 'space may be left unfilled with the iiuid but other- 75 wise undisturbed. Or, a transparent binder may be used between the liner and the jacket to make them adhere together. With all these variations, .the glass liner and outer jacket of hardened nonvitreous plastic composition together form a shatter or scatter-proof candle holder or container of low heat conductivity.
'I'he coating or layer 21 of hardened plastic composition on the outer glass wall of the candle holder in the Fig. 1 constructiomand the selfsustaining outer wall 5' of hardened plastic c'omposition of the candle holder in theFig. 4 construction function not only to prevent scattering of pieces pi' the glass walls of the holder upon breakage of those walls but also as reinforcing jackets about the glass walls to so reduce the liability of breakage as to render the candle holder practically shatter-proof. Further, the coating or. layer 21 of hardened plastic composition on the outer glass wall of the candle holder in the Fig. 1 construction functions to a substantial extent as a heat insulating jacket about the combustion chamber of the lamp, for, like the outer wall or jacket 5' of the candle holder in the Fig. 4 construction, it is of -a material of lower heat conductivity than glass. i
To improve their functioning as reinforcing jackets about the glass walls of the candle holder Without appreciable impairment of their functioning as heat-insulating jackets, the coating or layer 21 of plastic composition in the Fig. 1 construction andthe wall 5 of like material in the Fig.,4 construction may themselves be reinforced. For example, an inconspicuous wide-mesh metal screen or an expanded metal fabric may be stretched over glass wall 5 of the candle holder of the Fig. 1 construction prior to the application to that wall of the cellulose acetate, lacquer or other plastic, the metal mesh structure` thus becoming embedded in layer 2 1 before its setting. A similar metal mesh structure may also be incorporated within the outer wall or jacket 5 of the candle holder of the Fig. 4 construction during the molding or forming of the plastic comprising that wall. Figs. 5, .6 and 7 present the modifications of the Figs. 1 and 4 constructions here referred to. Fig. 5 shows a partial side elevational view of the candle holder shown in Fig. 1,
with the outer coating 21 of hardened plastic `composition partly broken away to expose a widemesh metal screen 33 stretched over the outer face of the glass wall 5 of the holder' and embedded in the coating. Fig. 6 is'a partial side elevational view oi.'v the candle holdr shown in Fig. 4 withthe metal screen 33' shown in dotted lines as embedded in the wall 5' of hardened plastic composition, while Fig. 7 is a sectional view through a portion of the wally 5 on the line 1--1 of Fig. 6, showing the wire screen 33 -in edge view along its strands in its body of the wall 5'.
What I claim is: f f 1. A candle lamp comprising the combination, with'fa candle, of a, translucent heat-insulating container surrounding the sides and one end of said candle, said container having van outer boundary portion of material having a lower heat conductivity than glass. 2. A candle lamp comprising, incombination, a candle -holder having acandle-receiving chamber with an o-pen top, a closed bottom', and a lateral boundary wall of general circular contour in cross section tapering in the downward direction from said open top to said closed bottom and provided with ridges spaced apart circumferentially location within theA and running longitudinally of said wall and extending inwardly toward the central vertical axis of the chamber, and a candle within said chamber of tapered shape and depressions in its sides complementary to said ridges fitting said candle snugly within said chamber in contact throughout all its side surfaces with said boundary wall of said chamber.
3. A candle lamp comprising a. candle holder having an inner glass wall forming the candlecontaining combustion chamber and a jacket surrounding said Wall formed of non-vitreous and non-metallic material rendering said jacket translucent and less frangible and of lower heat conductivity than said inner glass wall. 15
4. A candle lamp comprising a multiple-walled candle holder having an inner glass wall forming the candle-containing combustion chamber, an outer glass wall forming with said inner wall a heat insulator jacket about said combustion 20 chamber and a coating of non-vitreous material" on said outer wall rendering said coating translucent and non-frangible wherebysaid coating is adapted to prevent scattering of glass outwardly of said holder upon breakage of said glass walls. 25 5. A lamp comprising a combustion chamber provided with an opening for the escape of the gaseous products of combustion and entrance of air for combustion, and a grid device covering said opening and having a plurality of passages for 30 the ow therethrough of said gaseous products of combustion and air, said passag being formed of a plurality of metallic walls in contact with each other at a plurality of points spaced along their surfaces adapting said walls to be heated 3 by the outflowing gases and thereby heat the inflowing air.
6. A lamp as defined in claim 5 and in which said grid device comprises a. supporting frame and one corrugated and one uncorrugated metal strip wound together in side contacting relation upon said frame in an inwardly ascending spiral starting from the outer boundary of said frame.
7. A candle lamp comprising a glass walled" chamber having a closed bottom and an open top adapted to receive through said open top a preformed candle and to house the same entirely below said top and a surrounding translucent jacket of hardened plastic composition extending from the bottom to the top ofsaid chamber,A sealed from communication with said chamber and filled with a uidof lower heat conductivity than air.
8. A candle lamp comprising a candle holder having an inner glass wall forming the candler`,containing combustion chamber and a reinforced jacket surrounding said wall, said Jacket comprising a. foundation of hardened plastic composition and a wire mesh embedded therein.A y 9. A candle lamp comprising the combination, with a. candle, of a holder having an inner glass wall forming the candle-containing kcombustion chamber, said wall being of a composition substantially increasing .the heatabsorbing and heat retaining properties of the glass abovev that of ordinary glass, and-a surrounding translucent jacket of no -vitreous material having a lower heat conduct vity than that of glass.
10. A candle lamp comprising` a candle container having a. double glass wall forming an 70 intra-mural sealed space, and a translucent coating of non-vitreous material on one face of said wall adapted to prevent scattering of glass upon breakage of said wall.
11. A candle comprising an elongated solid fuel vuniformly decreasing cross-sectional dimensions from its wick end to its base and having longitudinally extending and circumferentially spaced grooves presenting curved faces, said body form and surface conformation adapting said candle to snugly fit into a candle holder of comple-A mentary interior conformation.
12. A candle as in claim 11 and further characterized by each of said grooves forming an arc of a circle in the transverse plane of greater extent across the chord of the arc than depth of curvature measured from the high point of the curve to the chord.
13. A candle lamp comprising a candle container having an inner glass wall of a composition substantially increasing the heat-absorbing and heat-retaining properties of the glass above that of ordinary glass, and an outer translucent wall separated from said inner wail by an evacuated space. l
14. A candle-lamp comprising a translucent heat-insulating candle holder having an inner glass wall in the form of a cup-like receptacle having a closed bottom and an open top adapted to receive through said open top a preformed candle and to house the same entirely below said top and function as the candle-combustion chamber, and an outer glass wall surrounding and spaced Vfrom the sides and bottom of said receptacle and joined with the glass wall of said receptacle circumferentially of the rim portion thereof about said open top to form with said inner glass wall a completely glass-enclosed and permanently sealed inter wall space extending uninterruptedly about the sides and bottom of the combustion chamber.
15. A candle lamp comprising, in combination. a candle-combustion chamber having-an open top, a closed bottom and an annular side wall of glass extending from said open top to said closed bottom, said glass wall being formed with ribs spaced apart circumferentially and running longitudinally of said wall toward the bottom of said chamber from beglnningpoints in a transverse plane substantially below the open top of said chamber, said glass wall being free of said ribs above said plane and substantially circular in interior cross-sectional contour, and a preformed candle inserted in said chamber, said candle being of general circular contour in cross-sectionandl having grooves in its sides complementary to said ribs and running longitudinally of said candle beginning at points in a transverse plane so below the4 wick end of said candle as to dispose said candle in said chamber entirely below the open top thereof in supported position on said ribs with said ribs engaging in saidgrooves to center said candle in said chamber. i
16. In a candle lamp, a double-walled heat-insulating candle holder comprisingl an elongated cup-shaped glass receptacle adapted to receive a candle and forming the combustion chamber therefor, said receptacle having ari upper rim edge formingthe mouth of said combustion chamhe 'for the, insertion of the candle therethrough into said chamber and for entrance of air for the candle combustion and exit of waste gases, an outer translucent wall of cup shape surrounding the bottom and sides of said receptacle in spaced relation thereto and having an upper rim edge adjacent the upper rim edge of said receptacle, and means comprising a clampingrng element engaging said outer wall and said receptacle at their said upper rim edges to secure said receptacle and outer wall rigidly in their said spaced relation and form with said receptacle and said outer wall a completely enclosed interwali space surrounding the entire bottom and sides of the said combustion chamber.
17. A candle lamp comprising a candle-con- Itaining combustion chamber having an inner translucent annular wall, and an outer translucent annular wall spaced from said inner wall to provide an linter-wall space laterally surrounding said combustion chamber, with said inner and outer walls formed respectively of materials giving said inner wall substantially greater heatabsorbing properties thansaid outer wall, and
closure means to air seal said inter-wall space.
18. A candle lamp as defined in claim 17 and in which said inner and outer walls are glass walls and said inner wall is of a composition substantially increasing the heat-absorbing property of the glass above that of ordinary glass.
19. A candle lamp comprising a candle-combustion chamber having an annular glass wall formed'with internal heat-conducting ribs and with said wall and ribs thereof of a composition of glass having substantially greater heat-absorbing properties than ordinary glass, an outer translucent annular wall spaced from said inner wall to provide an inter-wall space laterally surrounding said combustion chamber, closure means to air seal said inter-wall space, and a candle for fitting said combustion chamber and formed with grooves for fitting said ribs.
20. A candle lamp comprising a candle-contamin'g combustion chamber provided with an opening at the top for the escape of the gaseous products of combustion and entrance ofv air for combustion, and a combined exhaust vent and air supply andheatingdevioe comprising a rigid cap body of heat-absorbing and conducting lmaterial mounted on said combustion chamber over said opening, said cap body having a plurality of passages therethrough distributed about the central longitudinal axis of said combustion chamberand f separated from each other by solid walls of the kmaterial of said cap body, each of said passages having a straight-line extent from end to end said extent as transversely ofv