US 2051707 A
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Filed May 16', 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Arm/vars 1936- J. A. HARRISON 2,051,707
BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed May 16, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 10 16 1: E 2 1 I @ML 82 A rraezvsrs Patented Aug. 18, 1936 UNiTED STATES 2.051.707 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION James A. Harrison, Detroit, Mich, assignor to Gertrude Atkins Harrison, Detroit, Mich.
Application May 16,-1933, Serial No. 671,358
This invention relates to building construction and, more particularly, to a type of construction that is made from steel and adapted for use in residences, garages, ovens, and other types of 5 buildings.
It is one of the objects of the invention to provide an improved form of construction that will embody factory-built units, of low cost, that may be readily assembled on the job with a minimum 10 of labor and expense.
A further object of the invention is to provide a type of construction that may be made up of sheet metal into standardized units that will be capable of assembly in different arrangements for 15 the purpose of providing structures which vary in size and shape.
Other objects of the invention and the features of novelty will be apparent from the following description, taken in connection with the accom- 20 panying drawings, of which- Figure 1 is a. fragmentary transverse section through a building structure embodying my invention;
Fig. 2 is a detail section on the line 2-2 of Fig. 3 is a section on the line 3--3 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 2 but showing a modification;
Fig. 5 is a detailed section on the line 55 of 30 Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is a detailedsection on the line '6--6 of Fig. 3; and
.Fig. '7 is a section on line 1-1 of Fig.1.
Referring to the drawings, l indicates any 35 suitable form of foundation in which there is secured as by bolts I I, a sill member comprising the nested channels I2 and I3, the vertically extending flanges of which are spaced apart to receive the vertically extending strips I4 and I which 40 constitute parts of studs or columns to be hereinafter described. The members just referred to may be secured together in any suitable manner, as by the bolts IS. The inner vertical flange I2 of the channel I2 is preferably of greater depth 45 than the outer flange in order to more closely simulate the base board of a room.
Arranged at suitable intervals along the sill are the studs or columns which support the superstructure of the building and also carry the inner 5.0; and outer wall panels I1 and I8, respectively. These studs or columns comprise, in the preferred form :of my invention, two pairs of angle bars, the bars I9 and 20 constituting one pair and the bars 2I and22 constituting the other pair. These pairs 55 Ofiangle bars are connected by'a plate or plates 23 to which they may be spot-welded, riveted, or otherwise secured. The strip I4 is spot-welded 'or riveted or otherwise secured to the laterally-projecting legs of the angle bars 2.I and 22 and :a batten strip 24 is secured in a similar manner on 5 the strip I4, and thereby to the laterally projecting legs of the angle bars 2I and 22, but the late eraledges of the strip24 project'beyond the. edges of the strip I4 to form, with the laterally projectinglegs'of the angle bars 2I and 22, longitudinally extending slots to receive the panels ll. These panels may be of sheetmetal or any suitable form of wall .board or other sheet material. The :construction just described is employed inconnection with the strip I5 and the batten strip '25 thereon and the lateral edges of the strip .25 form, with thelaterally projecting legs of the angle bars I9 and20, slots to receive the panels I8.
.As :will be seen from Fig. 1, thestrips. 24 and25 extend to the. upright flanges of the channel I2. At the upper-ends of the studs or columns there is a channel 26 on which there is a channel :21 and the outerflangesof these channels arespaced apart toreceive the upper end of the'strip "I5, these parts being secured together by bolts -28. Secured ontheupper side of the channel 21 *by welding, riveting, or otherwise, is an angle bar 29 which extends longitudinally of the wall :of "the building and carries the roof. The roof structure is made up substantially with the same form of v construction as the side walls of the building, and comprises rafters which consist of two-pairs -'Of angle bars, of which the bars 30 constitute one pair and the bars 3I theother pair. These. pairs are connected together by a plate or plates 32 35 similar to the plates'23. The laterally projecting arms of the angle bars 39 have secured thereon a spacing strip 3-3 on which there is a batten strip 34, this batten strip forming with the laterally projecting legs of the. angle bars 30, slots to 40 receive the edges of the roof 1panels'35.- In a similar manner, the laterally projecting legs :of the angle bars 3| carry a spacing strip 36 on which there is a batten strip 3-1 and the edge portions of this batten strip form, with the 'laterally projecting legs of the angle bars 3.I, slots to receive the panels 38.
.Eachof the rafters, above described, is secured to the upstanding leg 39, of the angle bar v29, by means of an angle clip 49 which may be secured 50 to the laterally projecting legs of the bars 3| by the bolts 4!, as shown in Figsaxl and .2. Theivertically extending portion of the clip 40 is secured to the leg'39 of the angle bar 29, by bolts 52, and is slotted, as indicated .in-Fig. 5, at :43 to span the bolt 44 which ties the opposite walls of the building together. The ends of the bolt 44 are threaded to receive the nuts 45, as shown in Fig. 1.
The ridge of the roof structure is constructed on the same principle as the studs and rafters and comprises the plate or plates 46 and the pairs of angles 41 and 48 which are welded or otherwise secured thereto and have their laterally projecting legs deflected downwardly in accordance with the pitch of the roof. A spacing strip 49 is arranged on the angles 41 and a similar strip 50 is secured to the angles 48, and these strips have secured thereon the strips 5| and 52, respectively which are analogous to the batten strips 24 and 25 and which form, with the laterally projecting legs of the angles 41 and 48, slots to receive the edges of the panels 35 and 38 and also the ends of the strips 33 and 36 by which the rafters are secured to the ridge structure. These parts may be secured together by bolts 53 arranged at inter vals longitudinally of the roof.
One method of closing the lower end of the roof structure is illustrated in Fig. 1, wherein the panels 35 are bent downwardly as indicated at 54, so that their lower edges will meet the lower edges of the panels 38. These edges may be secured together by the clips 55 or in any other suitable manner.
Where the size of the structure requires it the bolts 44 may be supported, at the middle thereof, by hangers 56, as shown in Fig. 1.
A modification of the above described constructions of the studs and rafters, is shown in Fig. 4,
wherein a relatively wide strip 51 is secured to the laterally projecting legs of the angle bars 58 by welding or riveting or otherwise and has its ends extended beyond the ends of the legs and into the spaces between the flanges of the channel members I? and |3 and 26 and 21, as do the strips l4 and I5 in Fig. 1. These legs have their edge portions bent, as shown, to form slots for the panels 59. When it is desired to provide a smooth wall surface, either on the interior or exterior of the building, the construction illustrated on the left-hand side of Fig. 4 may be employed and, in this construction, the panels 60 have spot welded to the edges thereof the strips 6| which enter the slots between the angles 58 and the strip 51 so that the panels 66 will be flush with the strip 51, as shown.
In order to provide for a ceiling construction, a horizontally extending angle 62 may be secured to the upper ends of the studs, by means of the bolts 28, as shown in Fig. 1, or otherwise. It will be understood that angle bars similar to the bar 62 will extend around the room and serve as supports for the spaced pairs of angle bars '63 shown in Fig. 3. A spacing strip 64 is secured on the horizontally extending legs of the angle bars 63 and another strip 65 is secured thereon so that the edge portions thereof will form with the laterally projecting legs of the angles 63, slots to receive the ceiling panels 66. The angle bars 63 may be secured to the angle bars 62 by bolts 61, as shown in Fig. 1.
A modification of the above described construction of the studs for the side walls is illustrated in Fig. '1, wherein the angles I9, 20, 2| and 22 carry pins 68 and the tie plate 69 for these pairs of angles has slots 10 therein which will permit the plate to be dropped into position and lock the parts together, as will be clear from Figs. 1 and 7. This, of course, will be done before the channels 26 and 2! are connected to the studding.
A preferred method of closing the ends of the roof structure is shown in Fig. 3, and consists of the pairs of channels H and i2 which have their horizontally extending flanges spaced apart to receive the panels 35 and 3B, and the strips 49 and 50 of the ridge structure. The channels H and 12 may be secured in position by bolts 13. The studding of the end wall of a building having a hip roof, such as shown in Fig. 1, will, of course, vary in length, and a convenient method for securing this studding to the roof structure is illustrated in Fig. 3 and consists of a channel 14 which is secured to the upper end of the spacing strip l5. An angle bar 15 is arranged in the exterior corner between the end wall of the building and overhanging portion of the roof structure, and another angle bar 16 is similarly arranged on the inner side of the wall and all of these parts are secured together by bolts 11 and screws 11'.
The method of connecting the ceiling structure to the end wall of the building is illustrated in Figs. 3 and 6, and consists of the angle bars 18 and 19 which are arranged above and below the ceiling panels 66 and spaced apart to receive the edges of these panels. The anglebars I8 and 19 have the strips 86 and 8| secured thereto but the spacing strips l4 and the battens 24 extend upward past the angle bars i8 and 19 for conmotion to the roof structure and, in order to permit the battens 24 to pass the angle bars 18 and 19, the vertical flanges of these angle bars are cut out, as shown in Fig. 6 at 82. The angle bars 18 and 19 and the strips 80 and 8| are made up in units of sufficient length to extend from one stud to the next and these units are secured to the angle bars 2| and 22 by bolts 83.
The various elements of the structure above described may be made up at a factory and, as a matter of economy, the various angle bars may, in many instances, be made from sheet metal and the members of the different units may be permanently secured together by spot-welding, riveting, or otherwise. These units may then be readily assembled, on the job, and secured together by' bolts, as shown. In erecting the side walls, a progressive method of assembly may be used and, according to this method, when each stud is placed in position, the panels, such as H and I8, are
inserted in the slots provided therefor in the lateral edges of the studs, and then thenext stud is placed in position, and so on. A similarmeth-' 0d of assembling the roof structure may be employed. In order to insulate thewalls of a structure of this kind they may be filled with any suitable insulating material as they are erected and before the top closure elements of the walls are placed in position.
While I have illustrated and described what I now consider tobe the preferred details of construction, it will be evident that various changes may be made in these details without departing from the spirit of the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. A structural unit for building structure comprising two pairs of angle members and a connecting plate therefor, the members of each of said pairs being positioned on opposite sides of said plate and secured thereto with legs project-- tioned strip and projecting beyond the edges of the latter so as to form, with said laterally projecting legs, longitudinally extending slots therebetween.
2. A structural unit for building structures comprising two pairs of angle members and a connecting plate therefor, the members of each of said pairs being positioned on opposite sides of said plate and secured thereto with legs projecting laterally in opposite directions, spacing strips secured on the laterally projecting legs of each of said pairs and extending longitudinally thereof and beyond the ends of said legs, and strips overlying and secured on the first mentioned strips and projecting beyond the edges of the latter so as to form, with said laterally projecting legs, longitudinally extending slots therebetween.
3. A structural unit for building structures comprising two pairs of angle members and a connecting plate therefor, the members of each of said pairs being positioned on opposite sides of said plate and secured thereto with legs projecting laterally in opposite directions, a strip abutting against and secured to the laterally projecting legs of one of said pairs and extending longitudinally thereof and beyond the ends of said legs, the edge portions of said strip being spaced from the longitudinal edge portions of said legs to form longitudinally extending slots therebetween.
4. A structural unit for building structures comprising two pairs of angle members and a connecting plate therefor, the members of each of said pairs being positioned on opposite sides of said plate and secured thereto with legs projecting laterally in opposite directions, strips abutting against and secured to the laterally projecting legs of said pairs of angle members and extending longitudinally thereof and beyond the ends of said legs, the edge portions of said strips being spaced from the longitudinal edge portions of said legs to form longitudinally extending slots therebetween.
5. A structural unit for building structures comprising a pair of angle members arranged backto-back and secured together with legs thereof projecting in opposite directions, a spacing strip secured to said legs and extending longitudinally thereof and beyond the ends of said legs, and a strip overlying and secured on the first mentioned strip and projecting beyond the edges of the latter to form with said legs longitudinally extending slots in the lateral edges of the unit.
6. In building construction, a plurality of members each comprising a plate, two pairs of angle bars secured to said plate so that the bars of each pair are arranged back-to-back and have legs projecting laterally-in opposite directions, longitudinally extending strips secured on said legs and extending beyond the ends of said angle members and having their lateral edges spaced inwardly from the lateral edges of said legs, a strip wider than the first mentioned strip and secured thereon and forming, with the lateral edge portions of said legs, longitudinal slots, and plates between said members having their lateral edges positioned in said slots.
JAMES A. HARRISON.