US 2053778 A
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Sept. 8, 1936. H.'PLATT TREATMENT OF TEXTILE FABRICS Filed Feb. 15, 1954 INVENTOR HERBERT PLATT Y ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 8, 1936 PATENT OFFICE TREATMENT or TEXTILE FABRICS Herbert Platt, Cumberland, Md., assignor to Celanese Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware Application February 15, 1934, Serial No. 711,396
This invention relates to the delustering and surface treatment of textile fabrics formed of artificial yarns or filaments, especially those containing organic esters of cellulose.
An object of the invention is the economic and expeditious production and preparation of textile fabrics, one or both sides of which are of a soft delustered appearance or on which there are delustered patterns. Other objects of the invention will appear from the following detailed description.
In the drawing: a
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of a device for carrying out the invention wherein the abrading surface is moved with respect to the fabric being treated.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of a device for carrying out the invention wherein the abrading surface is held stationary.
Fabrics formed of artificial filaments that have not been given special and often times expensive chemical treatments may be glossy or shiny in appearance and slick in hand. For certain purposes these properties are not desired. By marring the surface of the exposed filaments the light reflecting surface is broken up and the shine destroyed as well as an improved soft hand imparted to the fabric. Moreover by treating a fabric of artificial filaments that has been dyed black or other dark shade, it is possible to obtain fabric of subdued lustre and dark color-an effect heretofore not obtainable. It is essential however to be able to control the marring action such that if desired the exposed surface of the filaments are merely scratched and not so drastically that filaments are severed or materially weakened. For forming a nap on thefabric a coarse abrasive and other means may be employed to sever a part of the filaments.
According to this invention I deluster a part or the whole of a surface of a textile fabric by puting fine scratches across and/or longitudinally of the exposed surface of the filaments and yarns. This may be accomplished by an abrasive such as fine sand paper, emery paper, stone and other similar abrasives. According to this invention I have designed two modes of devices for accomplishing, by mechanical means, the even or desired type of abrasion. I
The material to be treated may be a textile fabric woven or knitted from yarns or filaments or sheets or films of a continuous nature. The yarns or filaments that are used to form the fabrics may be formed by any of the methods of forming artificial filaments and may comprise artificial silk,
reconstituted cellulose (formed by either the euprammonium or viscose method), or organic derivatives of cellulose. The organic derivatives of cellulose that lend themselves to such processing are the organic esters and ethers of cellulose or organic ether-esters of cellulose. Examples of organic esters of cellulose are cellulose acetate, cellulose formate, cellulose propionate and cellulose butyrate, while examples of organic ethers of cellulose are ethyl cellulose, methyl cellulose and benzyl cellulose.
The fabrics may be composed of a single type and composition filament or of mixtures of various types of filaments. The fabrics may be treated while dry or they may be treated while slightly damp or completely wet. When damp or wet fabrics are employed, there is no tendency of thermoplastic materials, which may be present in certain types of filaments,to glaze due to the heat created through friction.
In Fig. 1 of the drawings is shown one form of a device for carrying out the invention where H) is a suitable frame having mounted therein suitable guide rollers II and a large roller I2 or a plurality of same. The large rollers may be formed of stone or they may be coated with a suitable abrasive material l3; They are journaled in suitable bearings in the frame l0 and are adapted to be power driven by any suitable means (not shown) as by a chain operating on sprocket wheels on the ends of their supporting shafts. Provisions are provided on the frame I!) for supporting a roll of fabric it that may be equipped with a suitable brake to apply tension to the unwinding material. Also mounted on the frame In is a take-up roll I6 adapted to be rotated by belt I! working upon a pulley connected to the shaft l8 supporting the roll l6.
In operation, a roll of fabric I4 is placed on the frame It! and the fabric threaded over the guide rolls II and under the abrading rolls l2 to the take-up roll ii that is driven at substantially uniform speed. By a brake mechanism the roll It is caused to exert a drag on the fabric holding it under tension and preventing sagging. The rolls I! are caused to rotate usually at a high rate of speed and in a direction opposite to the travel of the fabric. The rolls It may be of a fine grain All stone or steel or wood rolls covered by an abrasive vention wherein 2| is a suitable frame having mounted thereon a driven roll 22, guide rolls 23, a take-up roll 24 and a feed roll 25. The takeup roll 24 may be suitably driven for example by power from the roll 22 which is positively driven by belt 26. The feed roll 25 may be equipped with a suitable brake such that the fabric 21 will be held taut while passing under the shoe 28. The shoe 28 is connected and pivoted to the frame by means of the arm 29 pivotally mounted both to the frame and to the shoe. For the purpose of balancing and adjusting, the pressure of the shoe upon the fabric, the shoe is equipped on each side with pivoted arms 3| adapted to receive weights 32.
In place of the feed-roll and take-up roll a continuous band of fabric may be formed such that the material is continuously rerun under the shoe 28. This shoe may be formed of a cut or molded abrasive material or a metal or wooden form that is surfaced with an abrasive material 33 such as sandpaper, emery cloth or abrasive containing plastics. The entire fabric contacting surface of the shoe may act as an abrasive or the abrasive may be formed in stripes upon the shoe thus forming stripes upon the fabric.
By varying the particle size of the abrasive material and/or the pressure of the abrasive surface, upon the fabric being treated, the degree and type of deluster imparted to the material may be controlled. By suitably placing the abrasive material on the abrading device a full surface or striped deluster may be imparted to the fabric.
By forming the rolls l2 or shoe 28 of an engraved hardened steel or other suitable metal the fabric may be delustered without taking on particles of abrasive material. The rolls I2 may also consist of brushes of metallic fibres. Alternatively the rolls I2 may have smooth peripheries to which may be applied loose finely divided abrasive, such as emery, silica and the like.
It is to be understood that the foregoing detailed description is given merely by way of illustration and that many variations may be made therein, without departing from the spirit of my invention. 7
Having described my invention, what I desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
L'In apparatus for reducing the lustre of fabric containing artificial filaments, the combination of means for feeding a web of fabric, said means being spaced apart so that the fabric is unsupported over a distance, and an abrasive device adapted to rest on and be supported by the said fabric at a point where the fabric is unsupported, the construction and arrangement being such that the relative movement between the fabric andthe abrasive device causes roughening of the surface of the fabric thus reducing the lustre thereof.
2. In apparatus for reducing the lustre of fabric containing artificial filaments, the combination of means for feeding a web of fabric, said means being spaced apart so that the fabric is unsupported over a distance, and an abrasive device mounted for free movement about a pivot, said device being adapted to rest on and be supported by the said fabric at a point where the fabric is unsupported, the construction and arrangement being such that the relative movement between the fabric and the abrasive device causes roughening of the surface of the fabric thus reducing the lustre thereof.
3. In apparatus for reducing the lustre of fabric containing artificial filaments, the combination of means for feeding a web of fabric, said means being spaced apart so that the fabric is unsupported over a distance, an abrasive device adapted roughening of the surface of the fabric thus reducing the lustre thereof.
4. In apparatus for reducing the lustre of fabric containing artificial filaments, the combination of means for feeding a web of fabric, said means being spaced apart so that the fabric is unsupported over a distance, an abrasive device fixed with respect to horizontal movement and adapted to rest on and be supported by the said fabric at a point where the fabric is unsupported, the construction and arrangement being such that the movement of the web of fabric past the abrasive device causes roughening of the surface of the fabric thus reducing the lustre there- HERBERT PLA'IT.