US 2054155 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Sept.- 15, 1936. I c. F. DULKEN 254,155
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING YARN Filed Nov. 29, 1953 2 Sheets-Sheet l WITNESS INVENTOR t U/MRL 5 fIfil/L ms/v ATTORNEYS Sept. 15, 1936. i c. F. DULKEN 2,054,155
- METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR TREATING YARN Filed Nov. 29, 1953 '2 Sheets-Sheet 2 wrm ass INVENTOR g C'f/flRLES EpuL/(E/v Wan/MAM ATTORNEYS Patented Sept. 15,1936
PATENT OFFICE METHOD AND APPARATUS F0 TREATING YARN Charles F. Dulken, Arlington, N. J.
Application November 29, 1933, Serial No. 700,214
The present invention relates to the treatment of yarn and has for its object to provide an improved process and apparatus for introducin into and distributing substantially uniformly in a body of yarn wound 'upon a cone, cylinder, or
other form, a quantityof liquid which is less than the amount required completely to saturate such body of yarn.
In the textile industry it is the common practice to treat yarn to impart thereto a more or less I predetermined degree of moisture for a variety of purposes: Depending" on the nature of the moistening liquid, the object of the treatment may be to protect the yarn against deterioration, as by moistening the same with a preservative liquid or solution, or to improve its qualities for the; subsequent operations to which it is to be sub-E jected, or to restore it to its original weight where; it has lost moisture during previous operations; In each of these treatments, it is required that a comparatively small amount of liquid, much less than the amount necessary to saturate the yarn, be uniformly distributed throughout the whole body of yarn; The amount of moisture to be contained in the yarn is somewhat above that" which the yarn will normally retain when in equilibrium with the atmosphere under normal conditions. Thus in the case of .cotton yarn, a body of yarn exposed to the atmosphere will retain about 6% of its weight in moisture, while for the various weaving and other processes which such yarn is to undergo, or for the purpose of conditioning the yarn for storage, it is desirable that it contain moisture to the amount of about 8 /2%, or slightly mi e, of its weight. This amount will vary for different types of yarns and for difierent types of use, being higher, for example, for yarn which is to be employed for making knitted articles.
It is highly desirable, and in most cases, if not all cases, even essential, that the moisture introduced into a given body of'yarn be distributed substantiallyuniformly throughout the body thereof. Such even distribution of a limited amount of moisture in a body of yarn wound to a considerable depth upon a cone, cylinder, or other device has proved to be extremely difficult, and prior to the present invention, resultsobtained have not been entirely satisfactory.
The problem underlying the present invention is to be distinguished from various'known dyeing processes, wherein, indeed, a body of yarn is substantially uniformly moistened with a dyeing liquid. In such processes, however, the yarn is completely saturated with the dyeing liquid and an amount of liquid far in excess of that required for saturation is employed, the liquid being usually circulated back and forth through the yarn to insure thelthorough saturation of the latter.
According to the present invention, a predetermined degree of moistness, considerably less than that required for saturation, is imparted to a wound body of yarn under such conditions that local over-moistening or under-moistening is practically avoided and a predetermined, limited quantity of liquid having the necessary penetrating qualities, as determined by the nature of the yarn, the density of the winding, and the size of the yarn package or wound body of yarn, is caused to be distributed quite uniformly throughoutthe whole body of yarn.
The presentinvention is an improvement over the process described in my copending application Serial No. 422,273 and my United States Patent 'No. 1,935,261, dated November 14, 1933,
wherein there is introduced into a body of yarn only that quantity of liquid which it is desired to distribute within the yarn. According to the present invention there is employed a quantity of liquid which, while it is considerably less than the amount required to saturate the mass. of yarn under treatment, is nevertheless larger than the amount which it is desired that the yarn retain. According to the invention, therefore, this excessive quantity of liquid is introduced into the yarn under such conditions and in such manner that the excess amount is expelled from the yarn to such an extent that the desired'quantity remains in the yarn and is uniformly distributed therein.
In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, a measured quantity of liquid insufficient to saturate the yarn, but nevertheless in excess of the-amount required to bring the moisture content of the yarn to a desired value, is caused to be distributed uniformly within the body of yarn with the aid of centrifugal force, the body of yarn being rotated at such high speed that the excess amount of liquid is expelled before it is able to seep into the interior of the yarn fibres. Thus a' measured amount of liquid is introduced into the interior of, for example, a cone of yarn, either while the body of yarn is being rotated or shortly before the rotation is begun, and the speed of rotation is so controlled that the liquid is forced to travel rapidly through the body of yarn before it'has had time to soak into and be retained by the innermost layers of yarn. The speed at which the yarn is to be rotated will depend upon a number of variables, such as the nature of the yarn itself, the thickness of the yarn package, the density of the winding, the viscosity of the treating liquid, the duration of the rotation, and the number and size of the holes in the cone, etc., and for every type and condition of yarn the optimum speeds can readily be determined empirically. I have found that speeds of from about 2000 to 6000 R. P. M. will suiflce for yarn cones of the types generally met in practice. The speedrange of 4500-5000 R. P. M. has been found to give the best results in most cases.
The treating liquid is introduced into the interior of the body of-yarn either with the aid of pneumatic or hydraulic pressure or by gravity, and is preferably introduced within the hollow, perforated core upon which the yarn is wound.
Suitable apparatus for carrying out the invention is illustrated by way of example on the accompanying drawings, wherein Fig. 1 represents a vertical section through a centrifugal apparatus in which the liquid is introduced into the interior of the body of yarn under pressure; while Fig. 2 shows a similar apparatus wherein the liquid is poured by gravity into the interior of the body of yarn.
Referring to Fig. 1, the numeral l represents a body or mass of yarn wound upon a cone II which is adapted to be mounted upon a holder l2 arranged to be rotated at high speed, as explained more fully hereinafter. The holder I2 is provided with shoulders l3 and I4 so arranged that a narrow conical space l5 separates the holder from the cone II when the latter is in position upon the holder. The space |5 communicates with a series of passages l6 leading from a central bore I! in the holder. The holder is located within a perforated basket N! which is clamped to a rotating sleeve l9 by means of bolts 20 which simultaneously fix the holder |2 to the basket.
The sleeve I3 is keyed to a vertical shaft 2| which is supported through the medium of antifriction bearings 22 and 23 upon a support 24 which is seated upon a rubber ring 25 resting upon a ring 26 fixed to the frame 21 of the machine. A cover plate 23 serves to protect the bearings against foreign matter. The inner bearing raceways are clamped between a shoulder 29 on the shaft 2| and a lock nut 30, with which cooperates thelock washer 3|, a spacer ring 32 being interposed between the two bearings.
The treating liquid is introduced into the interior of the body of yarn by means of a fitting 33 which is connected through a flexible hose 34 with I a nozzle 35 extending from a sleeve 36. From the sleeve 36 there leads a tube 31 which communicates through a central passage 38 in the shaft 2| with the bore II. The rubber connection 34 may be securely clamped upon the nozzle 35 by means of a wire ring 39. The support 24 terminates at its lower end in a threaded reduced section which receives a nut 40, the latter engaging a sleeve 4| serving to compress a series of packing elements 42 which prevent leakage of fluid from within the tube 31 to the space about the shaft 2| and within the bearings. The lower end of the nut 40 is threaded to receive a nut 43 which supports a ring 43a serving as an abutment for a compression spring 44 surrounding the nut 40 and engaging the under side of the ring 26. This spring operates to exert a downward pull upon the support 24 and tends to hold such support securely upon its seat 25, and thus aids in steadying the whole structure. The purpose of the resilient mounting 25 for the support 24 is to permit limited lateral movement of the support without strain upon the various parts.
The tube 31 is keyed to the support 24 to prevent rotation of such tube; while a pipe 24a may be provided to supply lubricant to the packing rings 42. A shield 26a may be arranged to protect the mechanism against foreign matter.
The sleeve l9 and hence the shaft 2| are driven by an electric motor 45 by means of a belt or cable 46 passing around a pulley 41 upon the motor shaft and about a pulley 48 integral with the sleeve Hi. It will be understood that any suitable regulating device may be associated with the motor for controlling the speed thereof.
The rotatable basket I8 is arranged within a fixed housing 49 which is supported from the frame 21 of the machine by three or more posts 50. The basket is'provided with a holding plate 5| hinged at 52 to the cylindrical body thereof and equipped with a latch device 53 for locking the various factors, such as the type of yarn, the
pressure at which the liquid is supplied, etc., and
can best be determined experimentally for any given set of conditions. The housing 49 is provided with a trough 56 for collecting the excess treating liquid, such excess liquid being drawn off in any suitable manner. that the perforations in the basket I permit the escape of liquid expelled under centrifugal force from the body of yarn l0. To prevent leakage of liquid from within the cone, a resilient packing ring 64 may be arranged to be engaged by the lower edge of the cone.
The apparatus just described operates as follows: Upon starting the motor 45, the sleeve l3 and with it the shaft 2|, basket l8, holder I2, and yarn body ID, are set into rapid rotation. Either during this rotation, or shortly before the motor is started, a measured quantity of liquid under pressure, in excess of the amount which is to be retained by the yarn, is introduced through the pipe 33, the liquid travelling through connection 34, nozzle 35, tube 31, shaft 2|, and bore l'l, into the radial passages l6, from which it is forced upwardly into the space l5, and thence through ports 55 in a plurality of streams into the body of yarn Ill. The speed of the motor 45 is so deter- It will be understood mined with relation to the rapidity with which' qualities of the treating liquid, substantially all parts of the mass of yarn are contacted by such liquid, so that all the layers of the yarn are subjected to substantially the same moisture absorbing conditions for substantially the same period of time. As a result, all parts of the 'mass absorb practically the same unit amounts of moisture, and by the time that the predetermined excess of liquid is expelled from the cone of yarn, the remainder has become uniformly distributed time of treatment for any particular cone or otherpackage of yarn must be determined empirically to insure the expulsion of the correct excess of liquid by the time that the motor is stopped.
A number of the above described treating units in Fig. 2, the cone is inverted in order to receive a measured, excess quantity of liquid by gravity through a spout 60 which is rotatable on a vertical axis 6| and receives the liquid from any suitable measuring device (not shown). The cone of yarn is supported directly within the basket. I 8, a spiral,
in the manner shown more fully in Fig. 1. Thesleeve I9 is fixed to a shaft 2| which in the present instance may be solid and is supported, as in Fig. 1, upon a support 24 through the medium of anti-friction bearings 22, 23. The support 24, however, is solid at its lower end and receives the nut 40 about which is coiled the-spring 44 which serves to pull the support 24 toward its rubber seat 25. The other parts of the driving and supporting structure" shown in Fig. 2 are similar to the corresponding parts shown in Fig. 1.
The plate 5| of the basket l8 in--'Fig.2 may be provided with a fitting or plug 63 which upon the interior thereof is designed to fit within thebase of the cone LI and is provided with a lining 64 of yielding material, such as rubber, which engages the edge of the cone andforms a water-tight seal therewith. The inner portion of the fitting 63 serves as a stop for liquid tending to rise along the-inner wall of the cone during the rotation of the same and forces such'liquid back into the cone. The operation of the mechanism shown in Fig.- 2 is similar to that shown in Fig. 1, except that the liquid is introduced into the interior of the cone by gravity instead of under pneumatic or hydraulic pressure. As already indicated, the liquid may be introduced shortly before the rotation of the cone of yarn has begun or during the rotation of the cone.
I claim: 1. The method of body of yarn substantially uniformly with an which comprises forcing throughoutsubstantially to saturate the body of yarn but is in excess of the amount to be retained by the yarn, from the interior of the body of yarn outwardly while rotating the latter about its axis at a speed greater than that at which the yarn can absorb all of the liquid until theexcess of liquid has been forced out of the body of yarn and there remains distributed in the yarn an amount of liquid which is less than the maximum amount which can be retained by the yarn at such speed of rotation.
2. The method of moistening the whole of a ilfi' bpdy of yarn substantially uniformly with an moistening the whole of aamount of liquid insufficient to saturate the yarn,
amount of liquid insufiicient to saturate the yarn, which comprises distributing substantially uni formly along the length of a body of yarn an amount of liquid which is less than that required to saturate the yarn but is in excess of' the amount to be retairledby the yarn throughout the whole body of yarn, and forcing the liquid through the yarn at such speed that the liquid cannot be entirely absorbed by the layers of yarn initially contacted by it, and for so long a time interval that the excess amount of liquid is forced through and .out of the body of yarn before it can be absorbed by the yarn and there remains distributed in the yarn an amount of liquid which is less than the maximum amount which can be retained by the yarn at such speed of rotation.
3. The method of distributing substantially uniformly within the whole of a body of yarn a quantity of liquid insuflicient to saturate the yarn,
which comprises introducing within the interior of the body of yarn an amount of liquid less than that required to saturate the yarn but greater than the amount to be retained in the yarn and distributing the liquid substantially uniformly along the length of the body of yarn, and rotating the body of yarn at high speed about its axis to cause the liquid to pass through the mass of yarn and reach the outer layers of yarn where it is expelled centrifugally, and continuing the rotation until the excess of liquid over the predetermined amount to be retained is expelled from the yarn, the amount of liquid charged into the'body of yarn and the speed of rotation being so related that the amount retained is less than the maximum amount which can be retained by the yarn at such speed of rotation.
4. Apparatus for moistening yarn comprising, 'in'combination, a rotatable support fora body of yarn, means for distributing substantially uniformly along the interior of the body of yarn a quantity of liquid less than the amount required to saturate the whole body of yarn but greater than the predetermined amount to be retained by the yarn, means for rotating said support at such speed that the liquid flows through the body of yarn faster than it can be absorbed by the 5. Apparatus for moistening yarn comprising,
in combination, a rotatable support for a body of quantity of liquid less than the amount required to saturate the whole body of yarn but greaterthan the predetermined amount to be retained by the yarn, means for rotating said support at such speed that the liquid flows through the body of yarn faster than it can be absorbed by the yarn and is thus expelled in part from the outer layers of yarn, means for collecting the excess of liquid, said support including a basket adapted to receive a yarn package, and spacing elements upon the inner wall of sad backet for separating the whole of the package from the basket wall.
. 6. Apparatus for moistening yarn comprising, in combination, a rotatable conical basket adapted to receive a perforated cone of yarn with the cone in inverted position, a pivoted retaining member havingan apertured plug at the center thereof and movable into position to-lock the cone within the basket, the plug then fitting over the upper edge of the cone, mechanism for delivering into the interior of the body of yarn and through the opening in the plug a quantity of liquid less than the amount required to saturate the whole body of yarn but greater than a predetermined amount to be retained by the body of yarn, and mechanism for rotating the basket at such speed that the liquid is distributed by centrifugal action along the length of the cone and is forced through the body of yarn and the excess thereof is expelled at the exterior surface of the body of yarn.
7. Apparatus for moistening yarn comprising, in combination, a rotatable basket for supporting in inverted position a body of yarn wound upon a perforated cone, the upper wider end of the cone being open, means for delivering into the interior of the cone through its open end a measured quantity of liquid less than the amount required to saturate the whole body of yarn but greater than a predetermined amount to be retained by the yarn, and mechanism for rotating said support, the measured quantity of liquid being distributed by centrifugal force along the periphery of the cone and along the whole length thereof, said rotating means operating at such speed that the liquid is forced through the whole body of yarn at a rate faster than the rate of absorption of the liquid by the yarn so that a predetermined excess is expelled at the exterior surface of the body of yarn while the remainder is substantially uniformly distributed throughout the yarn, the inner surface of the cone being unobstructed and the liquid being thus free to pass along'the inclined sides of the cone, and a hinged cover for the basket and a plug fitting within only the upper portion of the cone and attached to the cover, said plug being moved against the upper edge of the cone, when the cover is closed, to close the cone and prevent upward escape of liquid and being provided with an aperture leading into the interior of the cone and through which the liquid to be distributed is introduced.
CHARLES F. DULKEN.