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Publication numberUS2058732 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateOct 27, 1936
Filing dateDec 4, 1934
Priority dateDec 4, 1934
Publication numberUS 2058732 A, US 2058732A, US-A-2058732, US2058732 A, US2058732A
InventorsAlfred W Simon
Original AssigneeJames T Barkelew, Forrest J Lilly
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Terminal voltage regulation for electrostatic generators
US 2058732 A
Images(5)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Oct. 27, 1936.

A. w. SIMON 2,058,732 TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS Filed Dec. 4, 1934 5 Sheets-Sheet 1 6/ LOAD Pi 2. I I

m 5mm om? VOLTA GE 4 .Tfiueni 'vr. flzfrea. Z0. Szmaw g Mam."

A. W. SIMON Oct; 27, 1936.

TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS Filed Dec. 4, 193 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 I7'w'enfor. flyred. Z1 5277207?) (Jet. 27, 1936. A w SIMON 1 2,058,732

TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATION FGR ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS Filed Dec. 4, 1934 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 lime/afar g l red, Z0. 527720/7/ A w. SIMON 2,058,732

TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS Oct. 27, 1936.

Filed Dec. 4, 1934 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 n yezzibr Oct. 27, 1936. A. w; SIMON 2,058,732

TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATION FOR ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS Filed Dec. 4, 1954 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 1720672 for flyred ZZZ 51772070 Patented Oct. 27, 1936 PATENT OFFICE TERMINAL VOLTAGE REGULATION FOB ELECTROSTATIC GENERATORS Alfred W. Simon, Chicago, Ill., assignor of twosixths to James T. Barkelew and one-sixth to Forrest J. Lilly, both of Los Angeles, Calif.

Application December 4, 1934, Serial No. 755,933

39 Claims.

This invention relates generally to electrostatic generators, and more particularly to methods of and means for regulating the terminal voltage of electrostatic generators.

In the old and well known rotating disc type of static machine, such as the Toepler-Holtz, Wimshurst, etc., as well as the more modern traveling belt types, no provision is made for controlling the voltage generated. The terminals of these machines, usually provided with a pair of spark spheres, are allowed tocharge up either until spark-over occurs, or, with the spheres widelyseparated, the corona leakage from the machine balances the rate of charging of the spheres.

A machine of this nature in normal operation thus periodically charges up from zero to maximum voltage, and then suddenly drops back to Zero voltage as spark-overoccurs, or, ii operated with spark-over spheres widely separated, or

without aspark gap, the voltage generated is determined by the corona losses. In neither instance is the machine designed for maintenance of its terminal voltage at a definite and constant value when a load is applied thereto, as is desirable in commercial uses of the generator.

It is therefore an object of the present invention to provide a method of and means for maintaining the terminal voltage of an electrostatic belt, or gas blast type, is allowed to transport electric charge to the collector until the collector is at the desired potential, and then the charge transported to the collector by the carrier is regulated until the rate of charge input into the collector (electric current input), just balances the rate of outflow of current from the collector, i. e., equals load plus leakage current. This method of charging up the collector, or collectors,

until the desired potential is reached, and then regulating the. current input to the collectors to balance the current output at that potential, will be seen to allow independent variation of voltage and current, since the collector voltage can be it into effect, and several subdivisions of each or the latter.,

A first general typical method of carrying the principle of the invention into effect is by variation of the amount of charge carried per second 5 by the carrier to the collectors. A second general typical method is by regulation of the charge per second that is appropriated from the carrier by the collectors. Several variations of each of these methods will be set forth in the body of the to specification, together with other methods in accordance with the broad invention, detailed consideration of which will lead to a full understanding of the broad invention.

It is a further object of the invention to 'pro- 15 vide for automatic regulation of the potential of the high voltage electrode of the electrostatic generator.

Various specific forms of the invention will be set forth in the following specification, reference 24} for this purpose being had to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a diagram indicating one form of electrostatic generator provided with potential control devices in accordance with the present inven- 25 tion;

Fig. 2 is a diagram showing the relation between voltage and current in such a system as Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 shows a gas blast type of electrostatic 3g generator provided with potential control devices in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 4 is a diagram showing a form of belt type electrostatic generator provided with potential control-devices in accordance with the present as invention;

Fig. 4a is a section taken on line lit-4a of i Fig. 5 is a view looking toward the right at the generator shown in Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a section taken on line 5-6'01' Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view 01' a gas blast type of electrostatic generator provided with cer tain potential; control devices in accordance with the present invention;

Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic .view of an electrostatic generator provided with variational forms of potential control devices in accordance with the present invention; i

Fig. 9 is a section taken on line 99 of Fig. 8; 5

Fig. 10 is a. diagrammatic view showing the upper or high potential portion of an electro-- static generator of the belt type and also the electrostatic pick-up device of my automatic potential regulation system;

rely the low. an elect ..;tat .rator of the belt type to which is applie one form of potential control means as controlled by the electrostatic pick- Fig. 13 is a diagrammatic view showing a variational method by which the electrostatic pickup oi Flu. il inn-l omatic control n of Fig. 11 may bl. ipphcil to potential control oi" the electrostatic generator;

Fig. 14 shows a further variational system for accomplishing tli. purpose; and

Fig. 15 is a diagran showing a further variatlonal scheme of automatic potential regulation. The systems first to be discussed involve the method. oi variation of the quantity of electric charge carried per second by the carrier toward the collectors. Fig. 1 illustrates a method and means for accomplishing this result, in the instance of a belt-type static machine, by regulation of the potential difference applied between inductor electrode and ionizer electrode. In that figure there is shown a machine comprising two units l0 and I0 which are identicalexcept for being arranged with opposite electric polarities. A description of one unit will accordingly sufflce for both, and for convenience parts on the second unit corresponding to those described and given nuinerals on the first unit "will be designated by the same numerals but with primes annexed.

Numeral designates the flexible, dielectric belt of the first unit, which passes around a lower driving drum |2 and an upper drum |3. There is shown around upper drum l3 a hollow electrically conductive shell l4 which serves as the upper terminal electrode of that unit. This electrode I4 is provided with ports l5 and I6 for entrance and exit of the charge carrier belt On opposite sides of belt just above the point where it leaves lower drum |2, are an inductor electrode 20 and an ionizing electrode 2|.

The ionizing electrode 2| involves a point or points, as shown, or a knife edge, or a wire, or other equivalent conformation having a very small radius of curvature, placed adjacent one surface of the belt. The inductor electrode 20 presents a surface to the other side of the belt which is much larger in area and avoids sharp points, or ciimiorniations of small radius of curvature, on'that surface. For instance, the inductor may comprise a substantially flat plate parallel to the belt, but curved away from the belt at its edges, as indicated in Fig. 1. In the in stance of Fig. 1, ionizer electrode 2| is mounted to be movable towards and from the belt in a slide mounting 24, this mounting member be-- ing of electrically conductive material and being in electrically conductive relation with ionizer electrode 2|. Inductor electrode 20 is shown provided with an integral slide element 25 extending perpendicularly thereto and is similarly movable toward and from the belt by sliding of element 25 within a slide way 26 provided in a mounting member 21, member 2'1 being in electricolly conductive relation with the inductor. In the present instance the inductor is grounded,

and the ionizer electrode is raised to a high potentlal above ground, altho h these :may be reversed, without c the machine. As shown, however, mounting member 2'1, and therefore inductor 20, is grounded by a ground Wire 3|), whi e ionivcr elcrtr l. is connected by in ing arm of a potcn 01.. ctei' r .1 s ancc a. cal is bridged across battery 33. In the present instance the negative sid grounded. It will. difference between inductor l trode 2| will depend upon the setting of pot/en tiometer 32.

a point and a flat plate pl. of a belt causes a discharge from. the point of gaseous ions of polarity the the of the point, and that th n; .is i the belt and are carried away tlfllJlEWllLll. arrangement shown in Fig. Ii, the ionizing point 2| will be positively charged an belt will receive a positive l carry upwardly toward the t al elcc or, 3 it. The positive charge on the belt is collected th from within terminal M by means of a col comb 3B, which may comp a point, or points, or the equivalent, pl .z z l adjace t belt. This collector 36 is filllllll n conn terminal l4 by an electrical will be understood by those lllcd in th collector 36 appropriates the charge belt and conveys it to terminal 18. minal or collector l4 accumulates a po t charge from the positively charged belt- The other unit of the generator, at the rigtt hand side of the figure, is arranged with the po tive pole of its battery 33' connected to so that its ionizing electrode 2i becoi tively charged, and therefore sprays a negative charge on the upwardly rising of bolt l i, The collector or terminal l4 accordingly ac-- cumulates a negative charge, as indicated.

Output loads 40 and ii are shown elec connected to terminals l4 and i l, rc l The power load is connected across these lead All and M in the event the generator is to be used as a source of continuous power, as for eta-ample to operate an X-ray tube. In such event it i not actually essential that the terminal ele I4 and Id be employed, since the load can be i nected immediately to collector combs 3t and z the use of the large terminal electrodes i l and I4 is, however, of considerable advantage, in that they act as accumulators or reserve of electric charge and thus prevent sudden c i in the voltage across the load due to l the load device or due to other causes, whit they occur too rapidly, might be t" control mechanism to follow ilzltantsc For this reason it is also oi advantage to n d to the electrical capacity of the terminal by ilbnectingin parallel with them Loy u:- r forms of condensers to as :e stabi. provision of the large terminal electrode 14 also suits the generator the method eration which involves charging c in trodes up until arc-over occi Large terminal electrodes e1 le l crating voltages without corona or bru charge.

lllow it will be evident ti on the belt produced by the O c or, as is sometimes said, the amount Ell fill

sprayed on the belt by the ionizing electrode, is proportional to the-field intensity between ionizing electrode and inductor, and hence upon the potential difference between those electrodes, which in the instance here considered depends upon the adjustment of potentiometer 32. The rate at which charge is transported by the carrier belt from ionizer to collector therefor depends upon the regulation of potential difference between ionizer and inductor. The relations between various factors involved are shown in the diagram of Fig. 2. In this diagram the voltages between ionizer and inductor are taken as abscissa, and the corresponding electric currents carried by the belt toward the collector (quantity of charge per second) are taken as ordinates. The voltage-current curve 45 shown in. the dia gram is characteristic of such a system as that shown, namely, a point and plate, and is also characteristic of such systems as a fine wire and plate, a wire and concentric cylinder, etc, which may be employed in modified forms of the machine. current flow accomplished by the carrier belt until the voltage reaches the incipient corona value. From this point the current gradually rises, as shown by the curve, until the voltage between ionizer and inductor reaches a spark-over value;

and when spark-over occurs, the electrostatic field between ionizer and inductor of course breaks down and charging of the belt (the electric current of the diagram) falls immediately to zero. The operating voltage range of the machine is accordingly between the incipient corona voltage and the voltage for spark-over and for proper operation the voltage must be so regulated at all times as to be within these limits.

The present method of operating the generator to supply a load current at a substantially constant terminal voltage is first to adjust the ionizerinductor voltage to allow the high voltage terminals to charge up to the desired terminal voltage, and then to regulate the ionizer-inductor voltage to maintain the inflow of current to the terminals (rate of transportation of electric charge by the carrier belt) to equal the outflow of electric current from the terminals, this outflow current being made up of load current plus leakage. In this way a load current of any value can be drawn from the terminals at any terminal voltage desired, within the range of the generator. It will be evident, therefore, that this method of regulation permits independent variation of load current and terminal voltage.

The generator shown in Fig. l is a two unit.

machine, involving two terminal electrodes charged positively and negatively, respectively. It is equally possible to operate the generator as a one unit machine, the load being connected, for instance, across the terminal M of one unit and ground. It will be obvious that the method of voltage regulation of the present invention applies to such a. one unit type of machine in precisely the same way as described for the double unit machine. I

A single unit gas blast type of machine is shown in Fig. 3. Numeral 48 designates a dielectric insulating tube, of pyrex glass or other suitable material, connected at its inlet end 49 with a tube 58 leading from a suitable fan or blower, designated at The opposite end of tube 48 is shown discharging to atmosphere, although if desired the tube may be arranged for closed cir- As shown by this diagram, there is no in the present instance culation simply by connecting the outlet end of tube 48 with the blower inlet pipe 52.

Supported within tube 48 is an ionizing electrode, being in the present instance a concentric wire 54 projecting forwardly in the tube from a mounting generally designated at 55. The details of the mounting here shown will be discussed at a later point in the specification, it being sufficient here to note that there is provided anionizing electrode in the form of a forwardly projecting, concentric wire. This ionizing cally grounded, as indicated at 56. Mounted in tube 48, around ionizing electrode 54, is a cylindrical inductor 58. This inductor is shown with a binding post 59, to which is connected a wire 60 leading to the moving arm of a potentiometer 6| which is connected across a suitable source of high potential, as battery 62. One side of this battery, herethe negative side, is grounded, as indicated. Potentiometer 6| and battery 62 represent any suitable source of electromotive force, the potential of which can be regulated. Mounted in tube 48, at some distance beyond the in ductor and ionizing electrodes, is a collector 64, and this collector may be simply another conductor passing through the wall of the insulation tube beyond the inductor in the direction of gas circulation, although a comb type collector, substantially as used in the usual rotating disc static machine, may be. used to advantage. The form electrode is electrihere shown is simply a conductive cylinder in the wall of tube 48. The collector is shown provided with a binding post 65, to which is connected a lead 66 which goes to the load. The generator here illustrated being of the single unit type, the other side 51 of the load will be connected to ground, as indicated.

A vigorous circulation of the gas in the insulating tube is maintained by the blower or pump. As is evident from Fig. 1, the direction of the circulation is from the inductor 58 to the collector 64. The potential difference between inductor 58 and ionizing electrode 54 is adjusted tosuch a value,

by regulation of potentiometer 6!, that gaseous ionization or corona is produced at the surface of ionizing electrode 54, and such that gaseous ions so produced, which are of the same polarity as inductor 58 (here positive ions) are drawn in and held by ionizing electrode 54, while the ions of opposite polarity (here negative ions) are attracted toward inductor 58. The attraction of the negative ions to move toward inductor 58, however, is overcome by the gas blast, and these ions are therefore moved up the tube toward collector 64. This selective difierentiation between the ions of opposite polarities is ofcourse due to the considerable difference in the intensity of the field adjacent the small ionizing electrode 54 and adjacent the comparatively large area inductor 58, the force exerted on the negatively charged ions to move toward the latter electrode of course being very much smaller than the force exerted on the positively charged ions to move toward the small ionizing electrode 54. Thus, instead of traveling across the tube and lodging on the inductor, the ions of polarity opposite to that of the inductor are carried along the tube in the direction of the circulation of the gas.

The eirect of the inductor abated and more negative ions are continually formed and carried along the tube, so that there is produced a continuous stream of electric charges of one sign passing along the length of the tube. In so passing up the tube this electric charge oi cou does work in moving against the attractive force of the inductor, and this work must appear as increased potential of the charges as they travel along the tube. The charge from this current oi gas is collected from the gas current by means of collector 64, and the potential of this collector accordingly rises proportionately to the quantity of charge which it collects from the gas stream. It is now possible to connect a load across collector B4 and ground, as indicated in Fig. 3. Oi course, if two such units as shown in Fig. 3 are provided, the load may be connected across their respective collectors, alter the manner of the connections shown for the belt type machine in Fig. l.

The current and potential relations will new again be as shown in the diagram of Fig. 2, and the machine may be regulated in precisely the same manner as explained previously in connection with Fig. l. The potential difference applied across inductor and ionizing electrode is adjusted until the gaseous ionization is produced, whereupon collector 64 immediately begins to charge up. When the potential of the collector has reached the desired value, the potential difference between inductor and ionizing electrode is then regulated until the quantity of charge passing up the tube per second, or in other words the rate of electric current input to collector 64, just balances the load current plus leakage losses, which constitutes the output of the machine. Thus again the machine is capable of independent adjustment of current and terminal voltage.

The quantity of charge given to the carrier may also be regulated in several different manners by shii ting the ionizing and inductor electrodes relatively to each other or to the carrier.

In Fig. 1, for instance, ionizing electrode 2| is shown mounted to slide perpendicularly towards and irom the carrier belt in slide way 24a in its mounting member 24, while the rearward perpendicular extension 25 of the inductor plate 20 is arranged to slide in way 26 provided in mounting member 21. It will be evident that the strength of the electrostatic field between ionizer and inductor is adjustable by moving either the ionizer or inductor towards and from the belt, or, more broadly considered, by moving the ionizer and inductor electrodes relatively to each other. And this may be accomplished, either by moving either one of the two alone, the other remaining sta tlonary, or by adjustment of the position of both. The principle of operation of the machine with this adjustment means is essentially the same as before, the electrodes being moved toward each other sufliciently closely to produce gaseous ionization and. charging of the upwardly rising belt, and being sufficiently close to each other (of course, avoiding sparlvover) that the charge on collector or terminal electrode l4 continues to build up and the terminal voltage of the collector continues to rise until the final desired terminal voltage is reached. Inductor and ionizing electrodes 2D and 2| are then relatively separated from each other and adjusted at such a distance that the rate of charge input to terminal electrode M just balances the load current and leakage losses which constitutes the output from the terminal electrode.

In the of a two unit mach ne such as shown in Fig. 1, each unit must be adjusted as described above independently of the other.

4. 5 and 6 show a variational manner of adjusting the quantity of charge given to the belt carrier by movement of a charging electrode. 'The electrode 93 and collector till.

belt ill is shown '[Jtliiol chi" drums II and 12, the unp rounded by collector sphere i 14 is shown. adjacent the ir ing sides ol' the belt, a an in comb i5 is shown adjacent the outer shrine the belt immediately opposite inductor i l. Col 15 is shown to consist of electrically co t belt. Of course, any equivale t for P0) as a knife edge, etc, may be used specific points. Bar it is arran d to versely in a way til provided in a inoiuil".

ber 8|. A suitable source oi electronm will be understood to be applied c rt comb or electrode "ill and inducto' When the comb is in 13031 the belt, the entire width oi tlu charge, and this position the 1 ing position. When the belt what to one side, as shown i l. width of the belt is reduced to the by the comb, and the .t al. cho 'ge belt evidently reduced accordii. y. instance the charge per second c carrier belt is regulated by adiustni tive width of the belt, which in turn by transverse adjustment movement of the lo. ing comb or electrode.

Fig. 7 shows a typical application of t" e of relative movement of inductor electrode as applied to the blast erator. In this figure blower to maintain a blast of in o. 9i. Placed in tube ill an. ltll'llr. support 92 which carries trode 93 in a central posi on on 9d placed around tube ill movable longitudinally thereon. source 96 oi electromotive force one side to inductor lit and ed, as at 81. The source oi electronic 95 connected as shown merely typi means for applying suitah ence between ionizing electro electrode 94. Located. along l rection of gas flow from inducto H ll 1 nal collector tube iltl, here shown i'urni a forwardly projecting arm end a terminal electrode I0! leading from terminal Hill to load, while the oth r" i be grounded, as indicated.

The generator of Fig. l or the same manner as the form of Fig. 3, the potentic my be Ci oi the loco sufllcient that the electrostatic between said electrode creates gree of ionization about inner ol ctro. duce the desired cl'iarge oi the that when inductor electrode tube Hi to a position entirely ing electrode wire Elli, the J between is at a maximum, i charge given to the curr the tube to the collector is then at its n side of the belt is the usual inductor plate H9 c eeses value. Inductor 84 is shown in this position in full lines in Fig. '7. On the other hand, by moving inductor 94 along tube 9|, the electrostatic field between ionizer and inductor is decreased in intensity, with the result that gaseous ionization is lessened, and, finally, the electric charge carried along the tube by the gas current is decreased. Here again, the method of operation of the generator is first to place inductor electrode 94 in such a position, as the full line position in Fig. 7, that the charge on the collector and terminal electrode will continually build up until the desired collector terminal voltage is reached, at which time inductor electrode 94 is moved relatively to ionizing electrode 93 to adjust the electrostatic held between those electrodes to such a value that the rate of electric charge carried along the tube to the collector and terminal electrode just balances the load current and leakage from the collector and terminal electrode.

Certain of my machines now to be described accomplish the terminal voltage regulation meth- 0d of the invention by adjustably shielding the ionizing electrode, in such a way that only a desired extent of the ionizing electrode is active in producing charge.

Figs. 8 9 show this form or the invention applied to a belt type generator. lin said figures numeral llll designates generally the flexible belt,

which passes downwardly around lower drum ii i v and then rises to pass over an upper drum H2 at the collection end of the generator. A spher ical collector electrode H3 surrounds drum iii. Placed adjacent the inner surface of the rising X" and. located oppositely thereto, on the other side oi the belt, is a rod till? which extends transversely of the belt and is provided with ionizing points iii which extend toward the surface of the belt. Fitted to slide longitudinally on rod H8 is a shield member lilfl provided with a metallic shield portion 823 which surrounds and shields points iii, It will be evident that by sliding this shield member bacl; and forth along rod lid more or less of points 25 are enclosed within shield portion r123, and are thus shielded and prevented from having any ionizing or charging action. Accordingly, when the shield is entirely removed, charging of the belt is at a maximum; when the shield covers all of the points, there is no charging action at all produced by the points; while by regulating the position of the shield between these extremes any degree of charging of the belt within the limits of the machine may be achieved.

Fig. 3 shows the application of the method of shielding the ionizing electrode to the blast type generator. The wire electrode 54 of that figure is mounted at its rear end in a cylindrical mounting member 83ml, which in turn is mounted in the rear end of a supporting tube ltl which extends through and is supported by the curved rearward end oi dielectric tube 4t and extends concentrically within the straight portion of said tube 8 to a point substantially even with the rearwardedge of inductor electrode 58. ,An electrode shielding tube it is mounted to slide longitudinally within tube i 3|, and is provided with a central bore I35 adapted freely to pass ionizing electrode wire 54. This tube or shield HE is mov able longitudinally within tube |3l by means oi? an operating rod l3? attached to its rearward end and extending through a bore 138 in mounting member I30. Rod i3! is freelymovable within bore 138, but is provided with a gas tight Ilt therein. A handle 840 on the rearward end of operating rod 53? may be grasped and pulled rearwardly to retract shielding tube H4 and ca pose electrode wire for the total extent of its length opposite inductor 58. In this position of the parts the field intensity adjacent the ionizing electrode is at its maximum value, and gaseous ionization and the rate of electric charge transportation along the tube is therefore at its highest value. On the other hand, when oper sting-rod liil is moved in a forward direction to cause shielding tube 534 to surround the entire length of the ionizing electrode wire 5i which is opposite inductor 53, the electrostatic field then exists between the surface of tube M d and inductor so; and in this instance, as will be well understood by those skilled in the art, the field intensity adjacent tube we will be much weaker in intensity than was the held adjacent electrode wire 5 (for the same conditions of potential dif ference) when shielding tube 53% was withdrawn within tube it'll. Shielding tube B34, is made of such diameter that when it is in the last de scribed position, that is, entirely surrounding the extent of the electrode wire within inductor 58, the field intensity at the surface of tube $34 will not be sufficient to produce gaseous ionization, and the generator is in inoperative position. For intermediate positions between the extremes mentioned, such as in the position illustrated in Fig. 3,

there is an active portion of the ionizing electrode wire 54 which produces gaseous ionization and results in effecting a charge of the gas current which is moving at all times along the tube, and the extent of such action of course is de termined by the active length or" the ionizing wire, and consequently upon the position of shield ing tube iii. Gonsequently, the rate of charge transportation up the tube by the gas current is adjustable to any value desired within the range of the machine by moving shielding tube list forwardly or rearwardly on the ionizing electrode 53.

It will be evident that the shielding method now described in its application to the belt type (Figs. 8 and 9) and also to the blast type (Fig. 3) generators function in. their final effect to regulate the rate of electric charge input to the collector or terminal electrodes; and the method of operation in both instances is again first adjust the charging action of the carrier, by unshielding the ionizing electrode, until the col lector or terminal electrodes charge up to the desired terminal voltage, and then to regulate the charging of the carrier, by shielding the proper extent of the ionizing electrode, until the of charge input, or electric current input, to the collector terminals balances the load. current plus leakage losses drawn therefrom.

The previously described methods and means all involve regulation of the amount of charge given to, or transported by, the carrier medium. methods now to be described involve regulation of the amount of charge input to the collector terminals by regulation of the amount of charge per second appropriated from the carrier. This variation is here shown for illustrative purposes in connection only with the belt type of generasurface of the belt, is shown as mounted to move towards and from the belt in a guide way l5!) which extends perpendicularly in the belt in an electrode mounting member I5l. Since the charge appropriated by electrode 36 depends up on its proximity to the bolt, the capability for movement of comb 36 provides means for regulation of the rate of charge input to the collector terminal.

Fig. 4a shows a means for regulation of the quantity of charge appropriated by the belt by lateral shift of the collector comb. In this instance the collector comb i55 is mounted to slide transversely of the belt in a way I56 pro vided in a mounting member I51. It will be evi-- dent that the width of belt from which charge will be collected will depend upon the position of comb I55 with reference to the belt, and that the rate of charge input to the collector accordingly depends upon the position of the shiftablc comb.

Fig. 8 illustrates how regulation of charge collectcd from the belt may be effected by shielding. The collecting comb i6!) is in this instance made in the same form the ionizing electrode I20, IZI shown at the bottom of Fig. 8, and a transversely slidable shield lGl is provided which is adapted to shield more or less of the active points of the comb. It will be evident that the rate at which charge is collected from the belt will depend. upon the position of shield IBI.

In all of the last three instances, the method of regulation is to allow the collector to charge up until the desired potential is reached, and then to regulate the rate at which charge is: appropriated from the belt to balance the output and losses from the collector.

Another variational method of regulati iin or potential is by controlling the distance between inductor and ionizer, on the one hand, and the collector electrode or comb, on the other. Fig. 7 shows this scheme applied to the gas blast type of machine. In this instance the collector elec trode 9B is movable longitudinally in tube 9!. Since the distance which the charged gas must be transported up the tube determines the final potential of the collector, the position of electrode 98 controls the potential of the generator. The method of operation is first to charge up the collector to the desired potential, and then to regulate the position of 98 to hold the poten tial constant with the rate of charge input equal to load plus losses.

Figs. 4, 5 and 6 show a belt type machine in which the ionizer l5 and inductor 14 are movable in a direction parallel to the belt for the purpose of regulating the potential of the collector. As shown, the ionizer and inductor are mounted on an insulation slide member I10 which slides vertically, parallel to the belt, in ways I'll. A screw I13 operating on slide member I10 is shown as a means for accomplishing vertical movement of member I10. The method of control is to allow the collector to charge up to the desired potential, and then to adjust the position of the movable ionizer and inductor unit in such a manner as to hold the potential constant with the rate of charge input to the collector equal to load plus losses. It will be evident that the effect with this control arrangement, as well as with that described in the preceding paragraph, the effect is to control the final potential of the collector for a given rate of transportation of charge to the collector, since the effect is to vary the work done carrying 1: charge per second to the Figs. 10 to 15, inclusive, .ow various syst for automatic regulation and "intenancc oi potential. Fig. 10 one typical and pre-- 5 iorred electrostatic pick-up in, ..is, which is adapted to be moved under the control or the potential of the high voltage sphere. In this instance the picloup consists of a hollow sphere 200, preferably of very thin sheet metal, ro- 1o vlded with a short cylindrical collar 2M and suspended over the high potential sphere 204 of the electrostatic generator by means of a wire 205 connected to the end of a pivoted lever 205. The short collar 201i is loosely received within a 15 vertical cylinder Zil'l, which serves the double purpose of preventing the globe 2nd from swinging and also prevents the formation of corona on wire 205. The globe 200 is so placed its subject to the electric attraction of the or collector 204 of the generator, Sphere 204 is shown p! vided with a comb 204a adapted. to r cello charge from erator belt 353i.

Lever 2% is pivo'o: a spring Mil which count... globe 7200. The end l with a short vertical contact rod there i o at't i force on the clon 1 an insulated lower electrical co cl:

i fhen globe Mill is attracted downwardly with sufficient force, this contact rodv m lacs contact with an upper insulated co provided vviil tion 2M attached toa bin the rearward e "'ivcn quantity or collector.

id by rung to f2, circuits Elli, fill an .rl, 2H

iil'l provided, with a ground connection (21 a, so that the through wire mil. lever Qlll connection 2 14, lead 212, and ground connection ilo. Under these conditions, due to the inductive effect of 5: the highly charged terminal 2M, a charge of opposite sign to that on the terminal flows into the globe 200, resulting in an attractive force being exerted by terminal 121M on globe till). This attractive force will be directly proportional to the 60 voltage of the terminal 204.

The spring 209 is so chosen and adjusted that the contact 2H1 will leave contact Hi just before the electric force on globe Zllil reaches a value corresponding to the final voltage desired, and 65 such that exactly the voltage desired will cause the lever to take an equilibrium position with gontact 2H) midway between contacts 2H and Leads 2l6, 2H and H8 are indicated in Fig. 11 as going to an automatic control unit C. As shown in detail in Fig. 11, wires Zll and N8 are connected to one winding 222 of an electrical re lay 223 of unit C, and wires 2H; and 211 are connected to the other winding 224 of said relay, 8.

are open. is

battery and a switch S being included in lead 31?. The relay armature 226, which is arranged to be pulled over in one direction or the other as windings 222 or 226 are energized, operates a double-pole double throw reversing switch 221.

The two movable arms 220 of switch 227 are connected by leads across the electric supply line 230. Also connected across line 230 are leads 223i which are connected to the field winding 232 of a motor The pair of relay contacts 234 and that are closed when relay winding 222 is energized are connected one by a wire 235 to the stationary contact 23"! of a switch 238, and one by a' Wire 2339 to the armature 240 of motor The pair of relay contacts 242 and 243 closed when relay winding 22:3 is energized are connected one by a wire 2% with the stationary contact 205 of a second limit switch 246, and one by wire 230 to motor armature M0. The movable contacts 24? and of limit switches 238 and are connected to a wire 240 lead- =1: armature of motor 233.

be evident that, limit switches 238 and being assumed closed, movement of reure toone side or the other as it is altcrna c y attracted by energization of relay w "idings 222 and 220 will operate reversing switch to connect line wires 229 to the motor armatore first with one polarity then the other. Since the polarity of the field current is not correspondingly reversed, motor 233 accordingly runs in one direction or the other depending upon which way the switch is thrown by the relay.

The shaft of motor 233 is shown provided with a drive pinion 260 driving a gear 26! on a rotatable 3 ad screw shaft 262 journaled in frame memand is cut with a screw thread 265, and working thereon is a follower carriage 266. As here shown, carriage 266 slides on a guide rod 26'! mounted parallel to lead screw 262 between supports 2'63 and 26 5. In one form of theinvention, is provided with an operating rod hi8 which is also parallel to lead screw 262 and reciprocates through support 264 as carriage 266 is worked back and forth by means of screw 262. The two previously mentioned limit switches 238 and 2%, which are so constructed as to stand normally closed, are opened by lugs 210 and 2', respectively, mounted on traveling carriage 266. Motor 233 is so arranged and connected that lead screw 262 is rotated in a direction to move carriage 266 toward the right (as viewed in Fig. 11) when relay winding 222 is energized and switch 22! is moved over to the right, and is rotated in a reverse direction to move the carriage toward the left when relay winding 224 is energized and switch 22'! is moved over to the left. Upon reaching positions at the desired end limits of such movements, carriage 266 brings its lugs 210 or 27! into engagement with the movable contacts of limit switches 238 or 246, as the case may be, opening the limit switch and so opening the circuit which is at that time energizing the motor armature. Driving motor 233 accordingly stops and can only be restarted by causing switch 221 to throw over in the reverse direction, which will energize the armature Winding with reverse polarity and so operate the motor to move the carriage in the reverse direction. The carriage is accordingly limited in movement in both directions, and can be caused to reciprocate between these limiting positions, or between any positions within this limiting range, by alternate energization of relay windings 222 and 224.

In the operation of the system, relay winding 222 is energized and carriage 266 caused to travel toward the right when the globe 200 of Fig. is strongly enough attracted by the charge on sphere 204 to overcome the force of spring 209, the resulting downward movement of the globe causing contact 2| 0 to lift into engagement with contact 2l2, thereby closing circuit 2, 218 leading to relay winding 222. .And relay winding 224 is energized whenever the charge on sphere 204 is sufficiently weak that globe 200 is permitted to rise sufficiently, under the influence of spring 209, that contact 2l0 comes against lower contact 2 l l resulting in closing of circuit 2l6, 2|! leading to relay winding 224. In the neutral position, with the forces between sphere 204 and globe 200 so balanced that contact'2l0 takes a position midway between contacts 2H and 242, circuits 2l6, 2i! and 2H, 2l0 are both open, and both windings of the relay are deenergized. The relay armature then takes a central normal position, such as indicated in Fig. 11, with switch 22'! open both ways. Such a normal central position for the relay armature may be established in any usual manner, for instance, by use of a center ing spring, not shown.

It will thus be evident that motor driven carriage 266 will be moved toward the right when pick-up globe 200 is attracted by sphere 204 and is moved downwardly between contacts 210 and 2l2, and will be moved toward the left when the globe is lifted, with weaker field between 200 and 204, and contact is established between contacts H0 and 2| I. In

an intermediate position, with contact 2|0 tween but out of contact with contacts 2!! 2l2, the carriage will be stationary.

The described reverse movements of carriage 265 with rise and fall of field strength between spheres 200 and 204 may be utilized in several manners to control the rate of charging of sphere 204. One such manner is indicated in Fig. 12.

In Fig. 12 there is shown at 300 and .-l0l the lower wheel and belt of the electrostatic generator indicated partially in Fig. 10. The usual grounded inductor electrode is indicated at 302, mounted adjacent the rising side of the belt, and the pointed ionizing electrode 303 is mounted opposite thereto on the other side of the belt. In the instance here shown, the ionizing electrode is mounted in guide means 305 for reciprocation towards and from the belt (similarly to the machine of Fig. 1), and connected to said electrode is a wire 306 having a source of electricity 307, the other side of source 301 being grounded. Operatively connected to ionizing electrode 305 is the previously mentioned operating rod 266, which is moved by the carriage 266 and motor 233 of control unit C (Fig. 11). This operating rod 268 is preferably of insulation material.

To set the system of Figs. 10, 11 and 12 in operation, the electrostatic generator is started up and belt wheel 300 driven at constant speed: Since at the start the terminal voltage of collector 204 is zero, pick-up globe 200 is in its uppermost position and contacts M0 and 2 are and until contact is established together, with circuit 2l6, 2| 1 closed and relay winding 224 energized. Control motor 233 is accordingly driven to move carriage 266 and the operating rod 268 and ionizing electrode 303 toward the left, as viewed in Figs. 11 and 12. The tip of the ionizing electrode thus surface of the belt, coming to a position which is determined by the position of limit switch 246. It should here be noted that both limit switches 233 and 246 may be adjustable in position, so that the limiting positions of the carriage and the ionizing electrode may be set as desired. The ionizing electrode 303 thus being brought to its position of closest proximity with the belt, a maximum electric field exists between ionizer 333 and inductor 332, and the rate at which electric charge is given to the rising belt and transported toward the high potential collector electrode 204 is accordingly at a maximum.

The corresponding current inflow to the collector electrode 204 is previously determined to be considerably in excess of the current drained from the collector by the load connected thereto. Under these conditions the collector electrode charges up and its voltage increases.

When the collector sphere 204 has attained the desired voltage for which the control device is set, the pick-up sphere 200 is pulled downwardly, breaking contact 2l0 from contact 2 and closing contact 2lll with contact 2l2, thereby causing deenergization of relay winding 224 and energization of relay winding 222. The relay armature is accordingly pulled over to the other side and acts through switch 221 to cause motor 233 to be driven in a reverse direction. Ionizer electrode 303 is accordingly withdrawn in such di rection as to decrease the current flowing onto the belt and collected by electrode 204. This proceeds until a point of balance is reached where the current carried by the belt and collected by electrode 204 is just sufficient to balance the outflow from 204 to the load. At this point pick-up sphere 200 may take a position with contact 210 between and out of contact with contact members 2 and 212, both windings of relay 223 accordingly being deenergized. .Relay armature 226 may accordingly take a neutral central position with switch 221 open and the field oi. motor 223 deenergized. With any fluctuation in the strength of the field between spheres 200 and 204, sphere 200 will move either up or down and produce automatically the movement of ionizing electrode 333 required to reestablish the normal field between said spheres.

Accordingly, any change in the potential of high voltage electrode 204 will produce such an actuation of the automatic mechanism as may be necessary to restore the current balance and predetermined voltage of the high potential sphere.

I have here illustrated the automatic mechanism as applied to a physically movable member which controls the current input to the high voltage collector sphere by way of a specific showing of a form in which the ionizer electrode is movable toward and from the belt. It will be understood, however, that the automatic device may be applied as well to any of my other forms of voltage control means which involve a physically movable control member, or to any other control means of that general type not herein specifically illustrated.

In Fig. 13 I show how the automatic regulator system of Figs. 10 and 11 may be applied to control of the voltage which is impressed between the ionizer and inductor electrodes of the generator. In this instance the motor manipulated control rod 238 of Fig. 11 is operatively connected to a rack gear 323 which meshes with a pinion gear 32l on the rotatable control shaft 322 of an induction regulator 323 of conventional type. The primary 324 of regulator 323 is connected across supply line 325, and the secondary 323 of the regulator is connected in series with one side of the supply line. The induction regulator here indicated is of well known type and will require no detailed explanation beyond merely to note that it constitutes a means for regulating the voltage of a supply line and is controllable by a rotatable shaft such as indicated at 322.

Line 325, the voltage of which is thus controllable by means of regulator 323, is connected to the primary winding of a transformer 333. The secondary winding of transformer 333 is included in the plate circuit 33i of kenotron 332. As indicated in Fig. 13, the circuit 33l is connected between the kenotron 332 and the inductor electrode 334 of electrostatic generator 335, the generator being again illustrated as of the conventional traveling belt type, having upper and lower rollers 336 and 331, respectively,

.charge carrying belt 338, and high voltage col- 0 The electrostatic pick-up lector sphere 339. sphere and automatic unit are omitted from Fig. 13. The ionizer electrode 34! is mounted as usual on the side of the belt opposite the inductor 334, and is connected by means of wire 342 to the filament of kenotron 332.

It will readily be understood that the voltage between ionizer 3M and inductor 334, and therefore the current flow carried by the belt toward the collector electrode (not shown), will depend upon the voltage impressed upon the primary winding of transformer 330, and therefore upon the setting of induction regulator 323 which controls said voltage. The induction regulator 323 is in turn controlled by the operating rod 263 which is manipulated by the automatically operated control motor 233.

In operation, the electrostatic generator is started up and lower belt wheel 336 driven at constant speed. Since the voltage of the high potential collector sphere is initially zero, the pick-up sphere 200 is initially at its uppermost position, and contacts 2 Ill and 2H closed. Switch S being closed, motor 233 is accordingly energized, in the manner previously described, to drive carriage 2G6 toward the left, causing rack 320 to turn gear 32l and shaft 322 to manipulate induction regulator 323 in such a manner as to raise the voltage applied across the input or transformer 333. The limit of this increase of voltage is of course again set by limit switch 245,

which finally opens the motor circuit and stops the induction regulator in a position with a certain predetermined high voltage applied across transformer 330. Under these conditions a high current flows onto the belt from ionizer 34i This current is previously determined, in the design of the electrostatic generator, to be considerably in excess of the current drained from the col lector by the high voltage load which is to be applied thereto. Accordingly, the high potential collector electrode charges unand its voltage increases.

When the collector has attained the desired voltage for which the automatic device is set, control sphere 200 moves downwardly and causes contact to be made between contact 2H) and upper contact 2|2, thereby causing control motor 233 to move operating rod 253 and rack 32!) in a reverse direction, and so manipulating the induction regulator as to decrease the voltage impressed across transformer 330. The electric current flowing from ionizer 3 onto the belt is therefore decreased, until a point is reached where the current flowing from ionizer 34! onto bill accuses the belt and picked up by the high potential electrode is just sufilcient to balance that flowing to the load from the high potential electrode.

When the current flow into the collector electrode falls slightly below this value, the potential of the collector will fall slightly, sufficiently tar to reestablish contact between contacts 2M and 21 i, in which event the system will operate to increase the potential 01 the ionizer and thus increase the current flow up the belt to raise the potential of collector 2M. Sphere 200 will finally come to an equilibrium position with contact 25G midway between contacts 2 and Zn. At this time both relay windings are deenergized, and the motor 233 controlling the induction regulator is stationary.

Any change in load current will then cause a change in the electrostatic field between spheres 200 and 29%, causing sphere 209 to move up or down and thereby to cause automatic operation oi control motor 233 to adjust the induction regulator in the proper direction and by the proper amount to restore the current balance at the original potential level.

It will he understood, of course, that while the potential regulator constitutes a very suitable and convenient instrumentality for variation 01.

the voltage emailed to the kenotron-transiormer,

system, any other suitable voltage control dece may be substituted, if desired. It will. be understood also that gear Zti of control unit C could be mounted directly on the shaft 322 of the induction regulator 323 (Fig. lie) or motor 233 could be coupled to shaft 322 through the medium of any suitable speed reducer. in such a case suitable provision may be made for the limit switches, designated in Fig. lie at 238a and to, by mounting on the shaft an arm 4% with. projecting lugs tot til-operate the limit switch.

Fig. l'lshows another manner by which. the automatic control system of Figs. ill and ll may be applied to control of the voltage impressed between the ionizer and inductor electrodes 01 the electrostatic generator. In this instance the traveling carriage 2% which is manipulated by lead screw 262 is provided with a movable elec trical contact 355 which rides on a potentiometer winding 358 mounted between supports 263 and 255% (see Fig. ii). A suitable source 352 of high potential electricity is connected across the enrls'oi. potentiometer winding 3M, as indicated in Fig. 1%, and a suitable electrical connection is made to moving contact b. Such a connection is indicated at 353 in Fig. 14, and-may be embodied in any form found convenient. For instance, assuming carriage tilt to he of conductive material, the electrical connection may be con sidered as made through lead screw 25? to support fit. Support 26$ is electrically grounded, thus grounding movable contact 350, as indicated in the diagram of Fig. 14. To one side oi winding to! is connected a lead 390 which goes to the ionizer electrode 3H of the generator, designated diagrammatically at 362 in Fig. 1%. The electrostatic pick-up. and automatic unit are omitted from Fig. la. The inductor electrode 303 is shown in Fig. i l to be electrically grounded. It will be evident that with carriage 2% moved over to the left as viewed in Fig. 11, the voltage applied between ionizer Ni and inductor 363 will be at a maximum, and with the car riage moved over to the right, the voltage will be at a minimum.

The system of Fig. it operates in a manner generally similar to that of Fig. 13, the only difference being that a potentiometer voltage control is substituted for the induction regulator and kenotron-transformer system of Fig. 13. It will accordingly not be necessary to give a detailed description of operation in connection with Fig. 14.

Fig. 15 shows an additional method of voltage control. In this instance the electric current input to the high voltage collector electrode is controlled by varying the speed of the charge car= rier belt. In Fig. 15 there is shown at 380 the lower portion of an electrostatic generator, including lower belt wheel 38L belt 382 and belt wheel driving motor 383. Motor 883 is a variable speed motor, and may be a shunt motor having a variable resistance in its shunt field circuit. The line 385 is indicated as connected across the armature oi the motor, and as having branch leads 386 and 38": which are to be understood as connected across the potentiometer winding 35! of the same control unit 0, shown in Fig. 11. Only the potentiometer winding 35i oi unit (3 appears in Fig. 15. The movable contact 350 is connected by wire 38! to one side of motor field winding 389, and one end of the potentiometer is connected by lead 3% to the other side of field winding 389.

It will be understood that movement oil con trol motor 232 of the control unit C, which is under the control of pick-up sphere 200 and the automatic relay, will cause variation oi. the vari able resistance 1351 in the motor field winding, and will consequently cause variation in the speed of motor 383 and of generator belt $82. The motor is at first operated by the system at high speed, to charge the high voltage electrode of the generator up to the desired high voltage, after which the pick-up sphere is pulled downwardly, as in the other forms, and causes the automatic system to drive the control motor 233 to so move the movable contact of potentiometer 35s as to cause decrease in the speed 01' generator driving motor 383, the system finally coming to an equilibrium condition with belt 382 running at a speed to maintain the current inflow to the high voltage electrode at lust such value to balance the outflow therefrom, at the desired om tential level of said electrode.

1 claim:

1. The method of operating at substantially constant terminal voltage an electrostatic acn orator having an electric charge carrier and a terminal electrode which collects electric charge from the carrier, that comprises causing the charge carrier to transport electric charge to the high voltage terminal at a rate in excess of charge outflow from said terminal until the ter minal reaches the desired voltage, then regulating the quantity of charge carried per second by the carrier to the high voltage terminal to balance the quantity of charge per second leaving said terminal.

2. The method oi operating at substantially constant terminal voltage an electrmtatic generator having an electric charge carrier and a terminal electrode which collects electric charge (iii from the carrier, that comprises causing the 3. The method of operating at substantially constant terminal voltage an electrostatic generator having an electric charge carrier and a terminal electrode which collects electric charge from the carrier, that comprises charging the carrier by subjecting it to the influence of an electrostatic field, regulating the strength of said field in such manner that the carrier initially transports electric charge to the high voltage terminal at a rate in excess or charge outflow from said terminal, and then, when the desired terminal voltage is reached, adjusting the strength of the electrostatic charging field until the charge carried per second by the carrier to the high voltage terminal just balances the quantity of charge per second leaving said terminal.

4. The method of operating at substantially constant terminal voltage an electrostatic generator having an electric charge carrier and a terminal electrode which collects electric charge from the carrier, that comprises charging the carrier by subjecting it to the influence of an electrostatic field energized by a source of electricity having a variable potential, regulating the potential of said source of electricity in such manner that the carrier initially transports electric charge to the high voltage terminal at a rate in excess of charge outflow therefrom, and then, when the desired terminal voltage is reached, adjusting the potential of the source of electricity until the charge carried per second by the carrier to the high voltage terminal just balances the quantity of charge per second leaving said terminal.

5. The method of operating at substantially constant terminal voltage an electrostatic generator having an electric charge carrier and a terminal electrode which collects electric charge from the carrier, that comprises causing the charge carrier to transport electric charge to the high voltage terminal at a rate in excess of charge outflow from said terminal until the terminal reaches the desired voltage, and then regulating the rate 01 collection of charge from the carrier by the high voltage terminal to balance the rate or charge outflow from said terminal.

6. The method oi operating at substantially constant terminal voltage an electrostatic generator having an electric charge carrier and a terminal electrode which collects electric charge from the carrier, that comprises charging up the high voltage terminal of the generator until said terminal is at the desired voltage, and then regulating the distance the electric charges are carried by the carrier toward the terminal electrode to hold the terminal voltage constant with the rate of charge input to the terminal equal to the rate of charge outflow therefrom.

'7. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: means for controllably regulating the quantity of charge per second collected by the high voltage terminal from the carrier to effect a balance between the rate oi charge input to the high voltage terminal and the rate of charge outflow therefrom and to hold the terminal voltage at constant value.

8. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, ionizing and inductor charging electrodes adapted to have a difference of potential impressed between them and arranged to cause charging of the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: electrode guiding and moving means such that at least one of the charging electrodes is shiitable in position to cause variation in charging effect on the carrier.

9. Charging means for the traveling carrier of an electrostatic generator, comprising an inductor electrode and an ionizing electrode arranged to cause charging of the carrier, said ionizing electrode being controllably movable with reference to the carrier to vary the degree of charging effect on the carrier.

10. Charging means for the traveling carrier of an electrostatic generator, comprising an inductor electrode and an ionizing electrode arranged to cause charging of the carrier, and adjustable shielding means for the ionizing electrode adapted to be controllably moved to regulate the effective extent of the ionizing electrode and thereby regulate the degree of charging effect produced on the carrier.

11. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: a charge collecting electrode positioned adjacent the carrier near the high voltage terminal and electrically connected to the terminal, said charge collecting electrode being movable with reference to the carrier to regulate the rate of charge collection by the high voltage terminal.

12. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: a charge collecting electrode positioned adjacent the carrier near the high voltage terminal and electrically connected to the terminal, and a movable shield for said charge collecting electrode, said shield adapted to be moved to adjust the eiiective charge collecting surface extent of the collector electrode.

13. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: means for regulating the quantity of charge per second transported by the carrier to the high voltage terminal, and automatic means responsive to changes of potential 01' the high voltage terminal for controlling the means to hold the terminal voltage constant with varying rate of charge outflow from the high voltage terminal.

14. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: means for regulating the quantity of charge per second transported by the carrier to the high voltage terminal, and automatic means respon sive to the electrostatic fleld of the high voltage terminal for controlling the last mentioned means to hold the terminal voltage constant with varying rate of charge outflow from the high voltage terminal.

15. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: automatic means for controlling the terminal voltage of the generator, said automatic means comprising a movable electrode placed in the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal and adapted to be moved with changes in the strength oi said electrostatic field, and means last mentioned under the control of said movable electrode adapted to regulate the quantity of charge per second transported by the carrier to the high voltage terminal.

16. Inan electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: automatic means for holding the terminal voltage of the generator at a constant value, said automatic means comprising a pick-up electrode placed in the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal and adapted to be attracted thereby, means supporting said electrode for movement between limits toward and from the high voltage terminal, yielding means yieldingly resisting the attraction of the pick-up electrode by the high voltage terminal, means for regulating the quantity of charge per second transported by the carrier to the high voltage terminal, and means under the control of movement of said pick-up electrode and arranged to cause the last mentioned means to increase the rate of charge transportation by the carrier when the pick-up 'electrode is in its position most remote from the ,high voltage terminal of the generator and to decrease the rate of charge transportation of the carrier when the pick-up electrode is moved against said yielding means to its position nearest said high voitage terminal of the generator.

1'7. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for variably charging the carrier comprising inductor, and ionizing electrodes mounted in association with the carrier and a source of electricity of variable potential impressed thereacross, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: automatic means for holding the terminal voltage of the generator at a constant value, said automatic means comprising a pick-up electrode placed in the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal and adapted to be attracted thereby, means supporting said electrode for movement between limits toward and from the high voltage terminal, yielding means resisting the attraction of the pick-up electrode by the high voltage terminal, and

means under the control of movement of said lee pick-up electrode and arranged to increase the potential of said source of electricity when the pick-up electrode is in itsposition most remote from the high voltage terminal of the generator, and to decrease the rate of charge transportation by the carrier when the pick-up electrode is moved against said yielding means to its position nearest said high voltage terminal.

18., In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for variably charging the carrier comprising inductor and ionizing electrodes mounted in association with the carrier and adapted to have a source of an electrical potential impressed between them,

one of said electrodes being movable to vary the strength of the electrostatic field between the electrodes and thereby to regulate the rate of charging of the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: automatic means for holding the terminal voltage of the generator at a constant value, said automatic means comprising a pick-up electrode placed in the electrostatic held of the high voltage terminal and adapted to be attracted thereby, means supporting said electrode for movement between limits toward and from the high voltage terminal, yielding means yieldingly resisting the attraction of the pick-up electrode by the high voltage terminal, and means under the control of movement of said pick-up electrode and arranged to move said movable electrode in a direction to increase the rate of charging of the carrier when the pick-up electrode is in its position most remote from the high voltage terminal of the generator and to move said movable electrode in a reverse direction to decrease the rate of charging of the carrier when the pick-up electrode is moved against said yielding means to its position nearest said high voltage terminal.

19. In an electrostatic generator, the combination of a traveling carrier, a variable speed prime mover for driving said carrier, means for charging the carrier, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal for increasing the speed of the carrier driving prime mover when said electrostatic field is below a predetermined strength and for decreasing the speed of the prime mover when said electrostatic field is above said predetermined strength.

20. Charging means for the traveling carrier of an electrostatic generator, comprising an inductor electrode and an ionizing electrode arranged to cause charging of the carrier, said ionizing and inductor electrodes being controllably relatively movable with reference to one another to vary the degree of charging eflect on the carrier.

21. Charging means for the traveling belt carrier of an electrostatic generator, comprising an inductor electrode and an ionizing electrode ar-- ranged to cause charging of the carrier, said ionizing electrode being controllably movable in a direction transverse to the belt, so as to vary the active width of the belt charged by the ionizing electrode.

22. In an electrostatic generator, a traveling carrier for electric charges, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier,

'means for charging the carrier, means for collecting charge from the carrier and conveying it to the high voltage terminal, and means for controllably regulating the distance between the charging means for the carrier and the means for collecting charge from the carrier.

23. In an electrostatic generator, a traveling carrier for electric charges, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, means Ior'charging the carrier, means for controlling the rate of charge of the carrier, means for collecting charge from the carrier and conveying it to the high voltage terminal, and means for controllably regulating the distance between the charging means for the carrier and the means for collecting charge from the carrier.

24. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: means for regulating the rate of charge input to the high voltage terminal, and automat c means responsive to the potential of the high voltage terminal ior automatically controlling operation 0! the last mentioned means. a

25. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for ch arging the carrier, and a high voltage term nal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: means for regulating the quantity of charge per second transported by the carrier to the high voltage terminal, and automatic means responsive to the potential of the high voltage terminal for automatically controlling operation of the last mentioned means.

26. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier ior electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: means for regulating the rate of charge input to the high voltage terminal, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal for automatically controlling operation of the last mentioned means.

27. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: automatic means for controlling the terminal voltage of the generator, said automatic means comprising a movable electrode placed in the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal and adapted to be moved with changes in the strength of said electrostatic field, and means under the control of said movable electrode adapted to regulate the rate at which the high voltage terminal is charged.

28. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, and a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier: automatic means for holding the terminal voltage of the generator at a constant value, said automatic means comprising a pick-up electrode placed in the electrostatic field of the high, voltage terminal and adapted to be moved in reverse directions by virtue of increase and decrease in strength of said electrostatic field, means for regulating the rate of charge input to the high voltage ter-' minal, and means under the control of movement of said pick-up electrode for causing the last mentioned means to increase the rate of charge input to the high voltage terminal by virtue of movement of said pick-up electrode with decrease of the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal below a given value, and to decrease the rate of charge input to the high voltage electrode by virtue of movement of said pick-up electrode with increase of the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal above a given value.

29. In an electrostatic generator, the combination oi. a traveling carrier, means for variably charging the carrier embodying a source of electric energy and a voltage control means, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal for increasing the voltage of the carrier charging means when said electrostatic field is below a predetermined strength and for decreasing the voltage 01' the carrier charging means when said electrostatic field is above a predetermined strength.

30. In an electrostatic generator, the combination of a traveling carrier, means for variably charging the carrier embodying a source of electric energy and a voltage control means, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal for increasing the voltage of the carrier charging means when said electrostatic field is below a predetermined strength and for maintaining the voltage of the carrier charging means at a value such as to hold the voltage of the high voltage terminal substantially constant when said electrostatic field has increased to a predetermined strength.

31. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for variably charging the carrier comprising inductor and ionizing electrodes mounted in association with the carrier and adapted to have a source of an electrical potential impressed between them, one of said electrodes being movable to vary the strength of the electrostatic field between the electrodes and thereby to regulate the rate of charging of the carrier, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal arranged to move said movable electrode in a direction to increase the rate of charging of the carrier when the field of the high voltage terminal is below a given value, and to move said movable electrode in a direction to decrease the rate of charging of the carrier when the field of the high voltage terminal exceeds a given value.

ill

32. In an electrostatic generator, the combination of a traveling carrier for electric charges,

means for variably charging the carrier including a variable potential electrical energizing circuit and a source of electrical energy connected thereto, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal arranged to increase the potential of said charging means when the field of the high voltage terminal is below a given value, and to decrease the potential of said charging means when the field of the high voltage terminal exceeds a given value.

33. In an electrostatic generator, the combination of a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for variably charging the carrier including a variable potential electrical energizing circuit and a source of electrical energy connected thereto, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal arranged to increase the potential of said charging means when the field of the high voltage terminal is below a given value, and to decrease the potential 01' said charging means when the field oi the high voltage terminal exceeds a given value, said automatic means including an induction regulator operated in accordance with variations in the field o! the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal and arranged to control the potential of the energizing circuit of the carrier charging means.

34. In an electrostatic generator, the combination of a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for variably charging the carrier including a kenotron energizing circuit, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means responsive to the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal arranged to increase the potential of said charging means when the field oi the high voltage terminal is below a given value, and to decrease the potential of said charging means when the field 01' the high voltage terminal exceeds a given value, said'automatic means including an induc tion regulator operated in accordance with variations in the field oi the high voltage terminal and controllably coupled to said kenotron circuit.

35. An electrostatic generator embodying a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for automatic means operable in response to variations in strength of the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal for controlling the charge of the high voltage terminal.

36. An electrostatic generator embodying a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and automatic means operable in response to variations in strength of the electrostatic field of the high voltage terminal for controlling the rate of charge of the high voltage terminal.

37. An electrostatic generator embodying a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and

automatic means operable in response to variations in voltage of the high voltage terminal for controlling the charge of the high voltage terminal.

38. An electrostatic generator embodying a traveling carrier for electric charges, means for charging the carrier, -a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from the carrier, and

automatic means operable in response to variations in voltage of the high voltage terminal for controlling the rate of charge of the high voltage terminal.

39. In an electrostatic generator having a traveling carrier for electric charges, a high voltage terminal adapted to receive charge from said carrier, and regulating means for varying the rate of charge input to the high voltage terminal: automatic means for operating said regulating means, comprising a pick-up electrode placed in the held of the high voltage terminal and adapted to be moved by said held between given limiting positions, said pick-up electrode normally taking and being yieldingly restrained in a position at one of its limiting positions, and being moved from said position toward the other limiting position by virtue of increase in strength of said electrostatic field, a pair of electrical circuits selectively closed by virtue of occupation by pickup electrode of one of said limiting positions or the other, said circuits standing open when the pick-up electrode .is in intermediate position between said limiting positions, a reversible electric motor, energizing circuiting for said electric motor relay-controlled by said pair of circuits in a manner to cause the motor to operate in reverse directions by alternate closure of said pair of circuits, and to remain stationary when both control circuits are open and control means for said regulating means operated by said motor in a manner to increase the rate of charge when the motor operates in one direction due to occupation of its normal limiting position by the pickup electrode, and to decrease the rate of charge when the motor operates in the other direction due to occupation or the other limiting position by the pick-up electrode.-

ALFRED W. SIMON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2545354 *Mar 16, 1950Mar 13, 1951Gen ElectricElectrostatic generator
US2588613 *Oct 18, 1949Mar 11, 1952High Voltage Engineering CorpSystem or apparatus for stabilizing the voltage of electrostatic generators
US2684901 *Dec 19, 1950Jul 27, 1954Haloid CoImage transfer device
US2777957 *Apr 6, 1950Jan 15, 1957Haloid CoCorona discharge device
US2781460 *Mar 7, 1955Feb 12, 1957Noel FeliciElectrostatic machine with conveyor of insulating material
US2792546 *Nov 28, 1955May 14, 1957Vickers Electrical Co LtdElectrostatic generators
US2967258 *Aug 19, 1957Jan 3, 1961High Voltage Engineering CorpPulsing system for electrostatic accelerator
US3473056 *Aug 9, 1967Oct 14, 1969Nat Electrostatics CorpPower transmission system for high voltage accelerators
US3915676 *Nov 24, 1972Oct 28, 1975American Precision IndElectrostatic dust collector
US4760303 *Jun 11, 1986Jul 26, 1988Japan Physitec Instrument Co., Ltd.Electrostatic high-voltage generator
US5585683 *Nov 14, 1994Dec 17, 1996Fujitsu LimitedElectrostatic actuators of various configuration with belt-like electrodes to induce an image charge on a resistance member and cause relative motion
EP0229843A1 *Jun 11, 1986Jul 29, 1987Tokyo Seimitsu Co.,Ltd.Electrostatic high-voltage generator
Classifications
U.S. Classification307/78, 322/44, 55/DIG.380, 322/54, 322/2.00A, 310/308
International ClassificationH02N1/12
Cooperative ClassificationY10S55/38, H02N1/12
European ClassificationH02N1/12