|Publication number||US2059640 A|
|Publication date||Nov 3, 1936|
|Filing date||Jan 8, 1936|
|Priority date||Jan 8, 1936|
|Publication number||US 2059640 A, US 2059640A, US-A-2059640, US2059640 A, US2059640A|
|Inventors||Hood Harrison Porter|
|Original Assignee||Corning Glass Works|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Sagan teen. 3, 1936 I UNITED. STATES PATENT oF IcE numnous iificzlaan nun" Harrisonlorter Hood, Corning, N. Y., assignor to Corning Glass Works, Corning, N. Y., a cor-:-
poration of New York Application January 's, 1936, Serial No. ssszs is Claims. (01. 170-122) ricationof luminous. discharge tubes containing mercury and/or rare gases. It has been proposed to introduce into the material of such tubes fluorescing material to utilize the energy of the short waveradiations emitted by such tubes. In such tubes opalescence increasesthe amount of visible light emitted becauseunder normal conditions; that is, to say, when the tube is of clear fluorescent glass, some of the light emitted by the fluorescent materials which are incorporated therein is reflected internally from the outer surface of the tube and may sufler repeated reflections in thetube, whereas, when the glass is opalescent, the opal nuclei-become the seat of the emitted light.
so Prior-opal glasses are not suitable for the fabrication of such luminous tubes because their opacity changes when reheated locally and it is necessary in the fabrication of such tubesto reheat locally for. purposes of making bends.
Since the luminosity of such tubes is in part due -to the combination of opacity and fluorescence, any change in the density of opacity therefore results in greater non-uniformity of illumination than when the fluorescence is absent.
I have discoveredthat opal glasses, whose density will not change when the fabricated glass 'is -reheated and cooled, may be produced by introducing into the batches therefor fluorspar and cryolite in certain critical proportions. The proportions, which I have foundwill cause the density or color saturation of an opal glass examples of opal glasses embodying my invention:
sss'aei assasfi enesis par Cryolim The above compositions when; melted in closed pots at about 1350" C. will yield opal glasses the color of which will not change when the glasses are reheated locally to temperatures in the neighborhood of their softening points and subsequently cooled. Since the identity of the fluorine containing materials is lost when the batch ismelted into glass, my improved glasses can be defined only in terms of the batches from which they are made.
The color density of the glasses may be intensifledby increasing the total amount of fluorine compounds and vice -versa, the unchangeability on subsequent heating and cooling being maintained by maintaining the above mentioned ratios between the fluorspar and the other fluorine compound.
In order to make myopal glasses fluoresce to a very high degree when irradiated with light of short wave length and particularly when irradiated'with light from amercury arc, I add tb the batchestherefor an element or elements which will cause such fluorescence many of which to remain constant on reheating, lie substantially between the ratios 1 part of fluorspar tol part of cryolite and 3 parts of fluorspar to 1- part of cryolite. In other words, an opal glass made from a batch containing fluorspar and cryolite in ratios of 1 to 1 and 3 to 1 respectively has the valuable property that reheating or .warmingin has no eifect on such a glass. In such a glass the density of opacity will increase only as the total amount of fluorspar and cryolite is increased and vice versa.
I have further found that when sodium silicaare known to the m. Somsuitable fluorescing substances are copper, uranium, tin, indium, antimony, manganese, tungsten, 'etc. Preferably I introduce into the glass about .3% of a stannous compound by adding to the batch either a stannous compound such as stannous chloride or a stannic compound and a reducing agent such as stannic oxide and sugar;
In order further to insure that wees made from my glasses will fluoresce in the highest posfluoride or potassium fluoride or aluminum fluorsible-degree, I have found it necessary to make them highly transmissive of ultra violet light by decreasing their iron content to a maximum .of .02% FezOa. This is done by the proper selection oflow iron batch materials and by melting the batches in refractories of low iron content.
In fabricating luminous discharge lamps from my glass the tubes are softenedby heating and The shaped tubes are then provided with electrodes are fllled with a suitable gas mixture such as a mixture 01f mercury and neon under reduced pressure in the manner which is well known in the art.
Luminous discharge tubesmade from my fluo rescent opal glasses emit more visible, light, for a given input of energy than prior fluorescent discharge devices made 01 clear glass even though the latter were etched or frosted to increase the diflusibility. My glasses possess the advantage over prior opal glasses in that mine do not change in color during fabrication of the lamp and hence lamps made of my glasses possess auniformly high illumination throughout their length. Y
1. An envelope for a luminous discharge lamp composed of an unchangeable opal glass resulting from melting a batch containing iiuorsliar. and a fluorine compound of the group consisting of cryolite, sodium silico fluoride, "potassium fluoride and aluminum fluoride, the fluorspar and] fluorine compmmd-heing-between the ratios 1 to '1 and'3 to 1 respectively, the glass havinga maximum iron content of 92% FezO: and rendered fluorescent by the incorporation therein or an bytheinoorporatlonthereinotanele'mentwhlch electric discharge is passed through between the electrodes. 5'. An envelope for a luminous a,oe9,e4o' V will fluoresce when exposed to light of short wave length. l
3. An envelope for a luminous discharge'lamp" composed of an unchangeabl'e opal, glass resulting from melting a batch containing fluorspar and cryolite between the ratios- 1 to 1 and 3 1:01
respectively, the glass havinga maximum iron content ,0! .02%-F82 Os, and containing stannous tin. f
4. A luminous discharge lamp which comprises a sealed opal glass tube having electrodes,.the
glass being, madefrom a batch containing fluorspar and a fluorine compound or the group comprising cryolite,- sodium silico fluoride, potassium fluoride and aluminum fluoride, the fluorspar and the fluorine compound being between the ratios 1 to l and 3 to 1 respectively, the glass having a maximumiron contentof .02% F6103 and rena gas-which will emit ultraviolet light when. an
the 1 tube discharge lamp composed otan opal glass containing fluorine, or constant opacity after being reheated and a maximum i'err ic oxide content of .02% I and an element causing fluorescence when exposed to light of short wave length.
6. An envelopeii'or a-luminous discharge lam of 'ancontaining fluorine, of constant opacity 'atterbeingreheated and having a maximum ierrle oxide content of '.02%van oontainlngstannou'stimf. 1
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|US6510264||Jun 5, 2001||Jan 21, 2003||Corning Incorporated||Bulk internal bragg gratings and optical devices|
|US6632759||Jun 5, 2001||Oct 14, 2003||Corning Incorporated||UV photosensitive melted germano-silicate glasses|
|US6731839||Oct 3, 2002||May 4, 2004||Corning Incorporated||Bulk internal Bragg gratings and optical devices|
|US6828262||Jun 28, 2002||Dec 7, 2004||Corning Incorporated||UV photosensitive melted glasses|
|U.S. Classification||313/486, 313/636, 501/32, 252/301.40R, 501/59, 501/31, 313/116, 313/112|
|International Classification||H01J61/42, C03C4/12|
|Cooperative Classification||H01J61/42, C03C4/12|
|European Classification||C03C4/12, H01J61/42|