US 2060093 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 10, 1936.
L. MARKEL ROOF Filed July 8. 1935 4 Sheets-Shet 1 L. L.MARKEL Nov. 10, 1936.
Filed Jilly 8, 1935 4 Sheetssheaf 2 L. L. MARKEL Nov. 10, 1936.
Filed July 8, 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 L. L. MARKEL Nov. 10, 1936.
Filed July 8; 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Patented Nov. 10, 1936 v I UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ROOF Lawrence L. Markel, Warren, hio, assignor to Chicago-Cleveland Car Roofing 00., Chicago, Ill.,'a corporation of Delaware Application July 8, 1935, Serial No. 30,361
9 Claims. (01.108 13) My invention relates to roofs and it has for-tits of the upp o ridge ge of one of the sheets principal object to provide a weather-tight metal adjacent a corner thereof. v I roof capable 0f-use 'with or without a roof deck Figure 12 is a disassembled view showing two and the component parts of which are so related of the trough members of the roof and one of the that they will not be affected, due to temperature cap supports.
changes, by contraction or expansion of the roof Figure 13is an enlarged vertical sectional view or the building to which it is applied. taken on e o Figu e Another object of the invention is to provide a' Figure 14 is a detail sectional view of the roof metal roof which can be easily and quickly apadjacent anew/8S edge reof.
plied to a building from the outside thereof with- Figure 15 is a enlarged sectional view-taken on 10 out erecting scaffolding within the building. e 5- 5 o u e I Another object of the invention isto provide igure 16 s a V ew Similar to F gure 15 illusa metal roof of such construction that it may be trailing a modified form of the invention, readily applied to and removed from a building Referring more particularly to the drawings, a
- 15 without damage or destruction of its various typ cal till-SS is Shown in ure 2 on which is 15 parts, so that, afterbeing once assembled, it may mounted a plurality of purlins l of su s a y thereafter be disassembled and reapplied to an- Channel-Shape, each including pp and owe other building. flanges 2 and 3, respectively, and a connecting Another object of the invention is to provide a Web Il; w l be Obvious 8- t e Specification 20 metal roof which will not be subjected to strains proceeds that the roof is not limited in its pp i 20 and stresses resulting from vibrations or other cation purlins 0f the form Chosen for p p s movements of the building to which it is applied. of illustration and that, y p e modifications Other objects and the various features of the Which Will become evident, the roof may b l invention residing in advantageous forms, complied to a IOOf deck without affecting the principal binations and relations of parts will hereinafter parts of the 1 25 appear and be particularly pointed out in the The roof includes trough members 5 which claims. extend from the ridge to the eaves of the roof n the drawings and, together with the purlins I, afford supports Figure l is a fragmentary plan view of the roof for tlfle moi sheets E of the trollgh 0 and some of frame members adjacent the hers is preferably a pressed metal section and 1s ridge formed with substantially vertical side walls 1 Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view taken on whlch are connected at Phelr lower edges by a line of Figure L web 8. The central portion of the web of each Figure 3 is an nlarged sectional view taken on of the troughs 1S raised j mdlca'ted 2ft to form line of Figure 1. two separate water carrying grooves or channels 35 Hi and the upper edges of the side walls 7. are curved and respectively terminate in down-turned flanges which, as indicated in the principal figures of the drawings at I i, may be disposed inwardly of the side walls or as indicated in Figure 16 at H, may be disposedoutwardly of the side walls. By forming the webs of the trough members with the raised central portions 9, a section of adequate stiffness and rigidity is ob- Figure i is a sectional view taken on line 33 of Figure 3; V
Figure 5 is a perspective view of one of the brackets employed for connecting the roof to the roof frame. i
Figure 6 is an enlarged detail sectional View taken on line 66of Figure 1.
Figure 7 is an enlarged detail sectional view taken on line 'l--'l of Figure 1.
v 4 tained for supporting the side edges of the sheets F1gure81s av1ewsnnilartol 1gure Gillustrating and the dowmtumed flanges serve to mm.
a mfidified form the mYentlontionally strengthen the trough members.
F u 9 is a p v f the lower edge Although the trough members which are lattion of t uppermvst 1130f $119611 illustrated in .erally spaced from each other may each be formed Figure 8. as a single member extending continuously from 50 Fi 9 is cumllflsite View illustrating in P the ridge to the eaves of the roof, it is preferred spective a top view of the upper 01 ridge ed e of to form each trough in a plurality of sections, one roof sheet and an under side- View of the especially in cases of large roofs, so that the seclower or eaves edge of an adjacent roof sheet. tions may be easily handled and thus applied 5 [A Figure 11 is an enlarged detail perspective view with greater facility. When formed in sections,
spaced a greater distance from the upwardly ex-,
the eaves end of each section, that is the end nearest the eaves, is formed (see Figure 12) so as to extend within the ridge end, that is the end nearest the ridge, of the adjoining section. To enable the eaves ends of the trough sections to fit within the ridge ends of the sections, the side walls of the former are offset inwardly, as indicated at II, the sides of the central raised portions thereof are offset outwardly, as indicated at if. and the side walls I are also reduced in height and the down-turned flanges omitted from adjacent the oflsets If. The adjoining ends of the trough sections are formed with aligned apertures ll in the raised central portions thereof to receive means to be hereinafter described for not only connecting the sections together but also for connecting them and other parts of the roof to the roof frame.
A plurality of the roof sheets 6 are interposed betweenthe trough members in end to end relation with their adjoining edges disposed in overlapping relation. The roof sheets are preferably of such size that, where they overlap each other, they will be supported by the purlins or supporting members I. Along their side edges, the
sheets are formed with upwardly extending portending portions ii of the roof sheets than the down-turned flanges II or II of the trough are spaced from the side walls I of the trough, so that the sheets may move sidewise with respect to the troughs and thus be unaffected by expansion or contraction of the roof or building frame or to any movements of the frame. The ridge edge of each roof sheet, with the exception of the sheet nearest the ridge of the roof, is provided with an upwardly spaced return flange l1 and the eaves edge of each roof sheet, with the exception of the 1 sheet nearest the eaves of the roof, overlaps the return flange of the adjacent roof sheet and terminates in a downwardly offset portion ll engaging the mainbody portion of that sheet. Secured to the under side of the offset portions."
oi each of'the sheets and extending toward the ridge edge thereof are a plurality of finger-like The forward ends of each of the flnger memhers is preferably formed so as to have wedging engagement with the under sides of the return flanges l'i'to therebyinsure a tightlallpinl of the sheets. this wedging cooperation between the fingers and return flanges "may be easily ef-- fected by merely forming the fingers with upwardly offset portions. as indicated at 2|. These portions are preferably disposed slightly inwardly .oi' the extreme forward ends of the fingers so that the fingers may be readily inserted beneath the By forming the cooperating eaves and ridge eilgesofthesheetsinthemannerdescribed,it
willbepereeiv'edthattheshe'etsare flrmlyinterlocked and that wate is effectively prevented from passing between them into the building by the return flan es ll. However, as theflngerlike members is are narrow and are spaced from each other, condensation collecting on the under sides of the roof sheets will not be entrapped upon flowing down to the eaves edges of the sheets, but will seep out between the sheets to the exterior of the roof.
Instead of disposing the finger members within the corrugations of the sheets, they may be secured to the underside of the sheets between the corrugations and be formed in the manner illustrated in Figures 8 and 9. In the form of the invention illustrated in these figures, the finger members 2| are formed adjacent their inner edges with centrally disposed drain openlugs 22 and they are also formed adjacent their forward edges with offset wedging portions 23 similar to the offset portions of the fingers II. The drain openings 22 enable condensation collecting above the fingers to pass to the upper side of the ridge edge of the adjoining sheet so as to seep out between the sheets.
A series of ductile tabs or clips 24 are secured, preferably by spot welding, to the under side of the sheets along their ridge edges, whereby, upon simply bending the tabs around the under side of the upper flange 2 of the cooperating purlin, as indicated in Figure 6, the upper ends of the sheets may be easily and firmly attached to the roof frame. Upward lift of the ridge edges of the sheets by wind pressure within or without the building is thus effectively prevented by the ductilegtabs and upward lift of the eaves edges of the sheets is similarly prevented by the fingerlike members I! or 2| and the cooperating return flanges II on the ridge ends of the sheets.
Enclosing each of the trough members I and the cooperating side edges of the sheets is a cap member 25 which, like the trough member, may, if desired, be formed in a plurality of sections. Each of the cap members is of substantially channel-shape having a web 26 and downwardly extending sides 21 which respectively terminate in laterally projecting flanges 28 adapted to over la'ppingiy engage portions of the roof sheets adiacent the upwardly extending portions I! thereof. when the cap members are formed in sections, they are adapted to interflt with one another in substantially the same manner as the trough sections, as illustrated in Figure 4, and
the webs of the interfltting portions of the cap sections are provided with registrable apertures for receiving the same fastening means the apertures of the trough sections are adapted to receive.
These fssteningmeans each include a ductile .bracket 20 which is formed so as to embrace the cooperating purlin I. Each bracket 2| may be conveniently" formed from a single sheet of metal and, befocebeingapplied to the purlin, it is bent so as to provide upper and lower walls II and Ii.
. respectively, adapted to overlappingly engage the "outer sides of the upper and lower flanges 2 and 3 of the purlin.- The top wall of each bracket is provided with an upwardly oflset substantially channel-shape portion 32,- the web it of which is slotted, as at N, to receive a bolt ll having a headflofgreaterwidththantheslot. Before the bracket is applied to the purlin, the bolt is insertsdwithintheslotwith itsheadfldisposed within the channel 32 and,afterthe bracket has been positionedpn the purlin by being slid transversely thereof, the outer ends "and 38 of 'the top and bottom walls, respectively, of the bracket are bent around the flanges of the purlin into the position shown in l 'igure 4. when the brackat is thusasssmblstthe head II of the bolt will bolt will be maintained in an upright position.
In Figure 5, the bracket 29 is shown separate from the purlin and the outer end of the bottom wall 38 is shown in the position it occupies after the bracket has been assembled with the purlin, while the outer end 31 of the top wall of the bracket is shown as having been partially bent into a substantially vertical position.
Each of the securing bolts 35 extend upwardly through the registering apertures in the adjacent trough and cap sections and its upper end is threaded to receive a nut 39. Interposed between each of thenuts 39 and the outer side of the adjacent cap section is an upwardly embossed washer 40 and, to prevent water which might seep between the washer and cap section from leaking into the building through the bolt receiving apertures of the cap and trough sections, the eaves end of each cap section is embossed upwardly, as at 4|, around the aperture.
The other end of the cap section and the ridge and eaves ends of the trough section may be flanged upwardly around the bcflt receiving apertures thereof to serve as an additional safeguard for excluding water. Interposed'between the caps and troughs are supports 42, each of which may advantageously be of substantially channelshape having lateral flanges 43 adapted to rest upon the raised central portion 9 of the associated trough member and a web 44 having an .whichserve as spacers preventing collapse" of the webs 26 of the cap members, may be rigidified by being formed with substantially vertical side flanges 46 which are paced laterally a suflicient distance to extend downwardly on opposite sides of the raised central portions of the trough members.
The laterally projecting flanges of the cap 28 are preferably inclined downwardly and are so proportioned and formed that they will engage adjacent portions of the roof sheets prior to engagement of the web 26 of the cap with the cooperating support 42. When the nut 39 on bolt 35 is tightened, the outer edges of the flanges 28 will, therefore, tightly engage the roof sheets.
However, if, for some reason, such as accidental distortion or bending of the caps before they are applied to the roof, the flanges of the caps do not make close contact with ,the roof sheets, the
weather tightness of the roof will not be materially affected, since water blown between the caps and the .roof sheets and over the upwardly.
extending portions l of the latter will'drop' into the longitudinal grooves H) of the trough portions defined by the raised central'portions thereof and be conducted tothe eaves of the roof.
The edges of the sheets adjoining the ridge ofthe roof are formed withlapping corrugations 41 to form a rigid seam along the roofs ridge. The spaces between the side edges of theroof at the ridge thereof are closed by ridge caps 48 which are formed to fit the contour of the caps 25 and the ridge corrugations 41 of the roof sheets. Each of the ridge caps is preferably. anchored to the roof frame by a bolt 49 which is carried by a transversely extending bracket 50. The cap members 25 may, if desired, be conveniently connected to the bolts 49 by providing their web portions with extensions 5|, the outer ends of which lap each other and areformed with apertures for receiving the bolts.
The transversely extending bracket 50 of each of the ridge cap securing devices may be of channel-shape having a web 52 and legs 53 and r are disposed adjacent to and on opposite sides of the ridge of the roof. The web 52 of each bracket is formed at its central portion with an elongated slot 55 for receiving the headed bolt 49 which is maintained in assembled relation with the bracket by a U-shaped keeper or the like 56 which may' be conveniently secured to the under side of the web by spot welding. Fastened to the bracket, as by spot welding, inwardly of its downwardly inclined ends 54 are ductile straps or the like 51 whichare adapted to be bent around the adjacent purlins l to hold the bracket in place prior to the erection of other roof parts. After the ridge caps have been assembled in their proper relation to other parts of the roof and the nuts 58 with'which the bolts 49 are provided at their outer endsare tightened, the ductile straps become functionless and portions of the roof intervening between the ridge caps and brackets 50 are firmly clampedonto the purlins.
It will, of course, be appreciated that the eaves of the roof may be secured to the roof framing in any suitable manner and the framing at the eaves has, therefore, been only diagrammatically illustrated in Figure 14. However, I have discovered that it is particularly desirable to reenforce the extreme eaves edges of the roof and this may be'conveniently accomplished by securing to the under side of the sheets at the eaves an angularly-shaped reenforcing member 59.
From the foregoing, it will be readily appreciated that the various parts of the roof are of simple and sturdy construction and that they may be easily and quickly applied to a building sheets are so formed and connected with each other and to adjoining parts of the roof that they are free to expand and contract and that they will, ,therefore, not be subjected to injurious stresses or strains resulting from vibratory or other movements of the roof framing. Moreover,
the various parts of the roof are of such design and construction that they need not be made with extreme precision and that ample provision is made to compensate for inaccuracies of manufacture without detracting from the weather tightness of the roof.
What I claim is: l. A roof trough members carriedby the supports, each of said trough members being provided with side walls and a web connecting the lower'e'nds of the side walls having a raised central portion defining two longitudinally extending grooves, a plurality of roof sheets interposed between the trough members and arranged in end to end relation with their. adjoining edges inlnterlocking engagement, the interlocking edges of the sheets being supported by said supports and the side edges of the sheets being hooked over the side walls. of the trough members andsupported thereby, capmembers enclosing said trough members and the cooperating edges of the roof including longitudinal supports,
sheets, and means for securing the cap and trough members to, said supports.
2. A roof including longitudinal supports,
' trough members carried by the supports, a pluralend relation between the trough members, the upper edge of one of said sheets being provided with an upwardly spaced return flange and the lower edge of the sheet overlapping said upper edge of the flrst named sheet being provided on its under side with a finger-like member projecting beneath said return flange, the side edges of said sheets being supported by the trough members, cap members enclosing said trough members and the cooperating edges of the roof sheets, and
ported by said trough members, cap members enclosing said trough members and the cooperating edges of the roof sheets, and means for securing the cap and trough members to said supports, said means including a ductile bracket bent to embrace one of the supports and having an upwardly oflset inverted'channel portion the web of whicltis provided with an elongated slot, and a bolt movably disposed within the slot and extending upwardly therefrom through said trough and cap members.
4. A roof including two longitudinal frame members disposed adjacent to and on opposite sides of the ridge of the roof, a plurality of trans- .verse members extending downwardly from each side of the ridge, a plurality of roof sheets interposed between said transverse members and arranged in end to end relation with their adjoining edges overlapping each other, cap members enclosing said transverse members and the adjacent edges of the roof sheets, aridge cap overlapping portions of said cap members and adjoining portions of the sheets adjacent the ridge, means connecting said ridge cap to said frame members, said means including a bracket extending transversely of the ridge and under-lapping portions of the frame members, ductile means secured to the bracket adapted to be bent around said frame members for temporarily supporting ity of inclined roof sheets arranged in end to terlocking means preventing water from passing between the sheets into the building and permitting condensation collecting on the under side of the sheet nearest the ridge to pass between the sheets to the exterior of the building, said interlocking means including an upwardly spaced return flange .on said ridge edge and at least one finger-like member on the under side of said eaves edge adapted to extend beneath said return flange.
6. A roof involving a plurality of inclined v sheets arranged in end to end relation with their adjoining edges overlapping each other, the upper edge of one of said sheets being provided with an upwardly spaced return flange and the lower edge of another of the sheets being provided with a downwardly oilset portion engageable with the first named sheet in advance of said flange and being also provided on its under side with a finger-like member projecting beneath said flange, said finger-like member having a portion engageable with the under side of said flange.
'7. A roof including a plurality of inclined roof sheets arranged in end to end relation with their adjoining edges overlapping each other, each of said sheets having a plurality of corrugations extending transversely of the roof, the upper edge of one of said sheets being provided with an upwardly spaced return flange and the lower edge of another of the sheets being provided on itsunder side with a finger-like member disposed in one of the corrugations thereof and projecting beneath said return flange.
8. A 'roof involving a plurality of inclined sheets arrangedin end to end relation with their adjoining edges overlapping each other, the upper edge of one of said sheets being provided with an upwardly spaced return flange and being also provided with downwardly extending ductile tabs adapted to secure the sheet to a frame member of the roof and the lower edge of another of said sheets'being provided on its under side with a finger-like member projecting beneath said return flange.
.9. A roof involving a plurality of inclined sheets arranged in end to end relation with their adjoining edges overlapping each other, the upper edge of one of said sheets being provided with an upwardly spaced return flange and the lower edge of another of the sheets being provided on its under side with a finger-like member having wedging engagement with the under side of said return flange, and means connected to one of said sheets adapted to secure the sheets to a frame member of the roof.
LAWRENCE L. MARKEL.