|Publication number||US2060842 A|
|Publication date||Nov 17, 1936|
|Filing date||Jan 21, 1932|
|Priority date||Jan 21, 1932|
|Publication number||US 2060842 A, US 2060842A, US-A-2060842, US2060842 A, US2060842A|
|Inventors||Constantin P Yaglou|
|Original Assignee||Herman Seid|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (16), Classifications (16)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 17, 1936.
c. P. YAGLOU 2,060,842 METHOD AND MEANS FOR CONTROLLING IONIC CONTENT OF AIR Filed Jan. 21, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet l IN V EN TOR. CONSTANT/N P )QxsL ou A TTORNEY c. P. YAGLOU 2,060,842
METHOD AND MEANS FOR CONTROLLING IONIC CONTENT OF AIR Nov. 17, 1936.
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Colvsrmvrnv P YAGL ou ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 17, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT GFFlCE METHOD AND MEANS FOR CONTROLLING IONIC CONTENT OF AIR York, N. Y.
Application January 21, 1932, Serial No. 587,960
This invention relates to the conditioning of air, and more particularly to the control of the ionic content of a given atmosphere.
The invention is primarily directed to the production of ions of desired electrical character and mass and in prescribed quantities numerically.
The general object of the invention is to impart an electrical characteristic to the atmosphere of a given enclosure by causing the molecules of air within the enclosure to acquire positive or negative charges, as may be desired, the charges being varied in number, as well as in sign and type, to promote optimum atmospheric conditions not achieved solely by factors of temperature and humidity.
Present air conditioning practice has as its basis the control of temperatures and humidities by governing such factors as wet and dry bulb 9 temperatures, relative humidities, dewpoints, air
motion, etc. Despite the control of these factors, it is known that artificially governed atmospheric conditions often lack those stimulating qualities found, for example, at the seashore or in open country, i. e., the conditioned air, at times, seems dead or deficient in freshness. This may happen regardless of the quantity of outdoor air supplied to the air conditioning system, because outdoor air, too, often seems dead and lacking 30 in stimulating quality. Furthermore, while the air in a room may seem fresh and stimulating when unoccupied, the congregation of individuals within the room or its occupation by people and materials causes the atmosphere progressively to 35 lose its freshness and vitalizing character.
Research seems to indicate that this stimulating or vitalizing quality of the air depends largely upon its ionic content. Thus, artificially ionized air appears to feel fresher than ordinary 40 air with a lower ionic content. Air, of course, like all gases, contains positively and negatively charged carriers of electricity. The atoms, molecules or molecular groups carrying such charges are called ions. Because of the electrical charge impressed upon them, ions move under the influence of an electrical field, and their direction of motion depends upon the sign of their respective charges.
In general, two classes of ions are recognized; and in the ionization of atmospheres, it is importtant to differentiate between the small or molecular size, and the large or Langevin ions. I have found by experiment that the small ions appear to be physiologically and biochemically the more important of the two. Owing to the difference in size between the two classes of ions, the speed attained by them in an electrical field differs enormously. Thus, the mobility of small ions is much greater than that of large ions; and it is well known that, as a general rule, the mobility of negative ions is higher than that of positive ions.
Small ions are produced in the atmosphere by natural forces, such as by solar radiation, by cosmic rays and by radioactive changes in the soils of the earth, etc. Although the formation of ions by these forces is continuously carried on, other natural processes tend to destroy or neutralize ionic formations. Examples of processes tending to destroy or neutralize ions are found in the combining of ions of opposite charge to form neutral ions, in the agglomeration of ions with dust and condensation nuclei to form large ions, in the diffusion and adsorption of ions which is carried on by solid and liquid conductors, and by the utilization of ions in the carrying on of animal and vegetable life.
The number of small ions per unit volume of air, therefore, varies not only because of the different factors creating, destroying and neutralizing ions, but perhaps more so because of changes in seasons, climatic and geographic conditions. For example, on clear, pleasant days, in the vicinity of Boston, a cubic centimeter of air will contain a maximum of 700 small positive ions and 500 small negative ions, whereas, on dusty, rainy or foggy winter days, in the same vicinity, a cubic centimeter of air is found to contain as little as 30 ions. The difference, obviously, is
Furthermore, in cities, where the air is polluted, as, for example, with products of combustion from chimneys and automobile exhausts, small ions are reduced in number to a very large degree. Thus, the small ions, by agglomeration with condensation nuclei, such as dust, fumes, smoke, or drops of water, form large ions, and, under certain conditions of humidity, intermediate ions. Under such conditions, the number of small ions is at a minimum.
A feature of the invention resides in the provision of means for the production of small ions having desired negative or positive charges. The concentration of ions of desired character not only affects the quality of freshness of an atmosphere, but also exerts definite physiologic and bacteriologic influences on the human body. The efiects, physiologically, not only depend upon the degree of concentration of ions in an atmosphere, but also upon their type and sign. In
general, the effect of positive ions on the human body is in most instances opposite to that produced by negative ions. Thus, in concentrations of 1,800 to 12,000 ions per cubic centimeter of air, small positive ions were found to increase the general metabolism and blood pressure of persons subjected to the atmosphere, and slightly decrease the pulse rate. This concentration of positive ions also increased the red blood count and more particularly the white blood count. Small negative ions, on the other hand, at corresponding concentrations, decreased the metabolism and blood pressure.
It is, therefore, obvious that the promotion of atmospheric'conditions best suited for the health and comfort of difierent groups of people depends not only upon factors of temperature and humidity, but upon the degree and character of ionization of the air, depending upon the physiologic and bacteriologic requirements of those exposed to the atmosphere. While, in general, the requirements of most people will be best suited by the provision of certain ionic content of small ions having desired electrical charges, yet, in pathologic and clinical cases, atmospheric ionization, as to concentration, sign and size of ions, must be varied to meet different needs.
A further feature of the invention, therefore, resides in the provision of an ionizing apparatus for producing small positive or small negative ions, or both, without at the same time producing an appreciable amount of ozone. Not only is the apparatus adapted to produce negative and positive ions without producing ozone in noticeable quantities, but the mobilities of the ions produced vary from the maximum mobility possible, down to a mobility of .2 centimeter per second per volt per centimeter.
Features of operation and control, making for advantages in efficiency and economy in carrying out the invention, will be more apparent from the following description to be read in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 represents an illustrative electrical circuit arrangement adapted to carry out the invention, and
Fig. 2 shows an air conditioning system to which the invention may be applied.
Considering the drawings, similar designations referring to similar parts, and first referring to Fig. 1, numeral 3 designates a step-up transformerhaving a primary winding 4 and a sec-.
ondary winding 5. A source of AC current is suitably connected to leads 6 and I, and variable inductive reactance 8 functions in the usual manner to control the primary current serving winding 4. Arm 9 may make suitable contact with any one of several terminals I for shunting or cutting in, as may be desired, any portion of inductive reactance 8. A suitable high voltage, preferably 2500 volts, is induced in secondary winding of the transformer which charges the condensers ll until the potential across the condensers is sufiiciently built up to enable the condensers to discharge the energy therefrom across the spark gaps l2. The condensers are preferably of .25 microfarad capacity each and their discharge is of an oscillatory character. The frequency is of the order of 100,000 .to 1,000,000 cycles per second and may be controlled, as will be pointed out. Contact arm I 3 serves to cut in either or both condensers I4 and I5 through the contact terminals indicated, condenser IS, if desired, being arranged continuously to remain in the circuit. Although three conand the other head densers and two spark gaps are shown, it is obvious that the number may be varied to suit desired requirements.
Oscillation transformer I! has a primary winding I8 in series with spark gaps l2 and a secondary winding l9 leading to ionizing head 20. The primary and secondary windings of the oscillation transformer have a common terminal 2| and terminal 22 serves as a binding post which may be grounded, if desired. Binding post 23 may serve as a terminal of secondary winding l9 and a Well insulated lead may then convey the current to the ionizing head. The ionizing head preferably comprises a brass ball or the like about three-quarters to one and a half inches in diameter. Some twelve to twenty sharp projections, similar to phonograph needles, are tapped uniformly within a hemisphere of this ball. When the ionizing head is connected to the high tension, high frequency Winding of the oscillation transformer, the charge at the needle points becomes so great that a powerful oscillating electrical field is created at the ionizing head. By proper regulation of the apparatus, as will be pointed out, the oscillating field at the ionizing head is adapted to ionize air passing the head or in the vicinity of the head, either positively, negatively, or both. The theory of actionis obscure, but the results attained, confirmed by exhaustive experiments, prove definitely that desired and controlled ionization is thereby carried out to bring about prescribed atmospheric conditions. Thus, if the ionizing head is placed within an air duct 24, for example, with the needles preferably pointing in the direction of flow of air through the duct, it has been found that the following regulation of the electrical arrangement will produce an overwhelming preponderance of small negative ions in the air:
7 1. A single spark gap adjusted to a minimum gap length of approximately .0005 to .0025 inch.
2. Maximum frequency and hence, minimum condenser capacity. In this case, condenser I 6 only would be included in the circuit.
3. Two ionizing heads will preferably be placed in the air duct, or otherwise subjected to the atmosphere desired to be treated. The needles will preferably point in the direction of air flow. One of the heads will be connected to binding post 23 which is the terminal of the high tension, high frequency winding of the oscillation transformer, will be connected to the binding post 22.
On the other hand, for the production of an overwhelming preponderance of positive ions, the following conditions should preferably be observed:
1. Two or more spark gaps l2 should be employedin series and adjusted to provide a gap length aggregating .004 to .01 inch, depending on the number of gaps employed.
2. Minimum frequency and hence, maximum condenser capacity. In this case, condensers l4 and I5 may be used in addition to condenser l6.
3. A single ionizing head 20 will be connected to the binding post 23. The binding post 22 will be grounded. In the absence of a good ground, this terminal may be left blind.
Conditions intermediate those prescribed for the production of negative or positive ions will result in the production of both positive and negative ions substantially equal in number.
In general, it is, therefore, found that high frequency and light spark at the gap will produce negative ions, whereas,
low frequency and heavy spark will cause the production of positive ions; intermediate frequency and intermediate spark producing both positive and negative ions.
In order to avoid producing ozone, it has been found that the voltage should be kept, desirably, below 50,000 volts.
In applying the invention to an air conditioning system, as illustrated, for example, in Fig. 2, the ionizing head 20 may be placed in a discharge duct 24 leading to the enclosure. If, as under certain conditions, the relative humidity of the discharged air is such that agglomeration of ions will take place, or the ionic character of the discharged air otherwise affected, a separate duct bearing an independent air stream may be utilized to carrythe artificially, produced ions into the enclosure, designated by numeral 25.
In the air conditioning system illustrated in Fig. 2, conditioner 26 is equipped with sprays 21 fed at desired low temperatures from refrigerating equipment generally designated 28, having a pump 29, three-way valve 30 and auxiliary apparatus of desired character for maintaining a predetermined dewpolnt in the conditioner. Control 3| may function responsive to varying water temperatures in the conditioner to control the temperature of the spray water and hence, regulate the dewpoint and also control dampers 33 and 34. Eliminators 32 at the discharge end of the conditioner remove entrained moisture in the usual manner.
Outdoor air through intake damper 33 and return air from the enclosure through damper 34 enter the conditioner in desired proportions, and after conditioning, may be augmented by a volume of recirculated air from the enclosure entering mixing chamber 35 through damper 36. The outdoor and return air will be dehumidified under summer operating conditions to a desired degree, but upon leaving the conditioner will meet the volume of recirculated air admitted through damper 30, which serves to reheat the conditioned air, as well as reduce the relative humidity of the conditioned air. As a result, an augmented volume of air is discharged by fan 31 to the enclosure, whose dry bulb temperature is higher than that of the conditioned air leaving the conditioner and whose relative himidity islower. Control 38 in the return duct 39 regulates damper 36 for proportioning return air to the conditioner and bypassing the conditioner under summer conditions, and controls reheater II under winter conditions.
Preheaters 40 and 13116813613 4| may be used under winter operating conditions in the usual manner.
A circuit arrangement such as that shown in Fig. 1 is suitably associated with ionizing head 20, so that a proper degree of ionization is imparted to the air to compensate for conditions in the room. In ionizing the air, it will first be necessary to determine the ionic conditions of the air in the room, so that complementary quantitles of ions to be delivered may be accurately determined. An ion counter of desired character may be employed to ascertain the ionic content of air in the enclosure, and the degree and character of occupancy will be the primary factor in determining the operation of the electrical circuit and the character of ionization to be produced. Experiments have shown that the ionic content of an enclosure decreases rapidy after occupants assemble therein, regardless of ventilation of the enclosure by natural or mechanical means. For comfort and health, it seems desirable to have about 700 small positive ions and 500 small negative ions per cubic centimeter of room air. This condition approximates the natural ionic state of clean outdoor air ona pleasant summer day. For the treatment of disease, however, positive or negative ions from 2,000 to 12,000, or more, per cubic centimeter of air may be necessary. The continued supply of ions may be kept constant or may be varied, depending upon the consumption of them in the enclosure by the occupants or by the processes carried on therein.
By adjusting the current voltage, spark gap or gaps, capacity, and frequency of the high tension, high frequency current supplied to the ionizing head or heads, the desired character and concentration of ions will be obtained. The concentration may be varied manually or automatically by varying the output of the ionizer, or by varying the volume of air passing adjacent the ionizer or coming within the influence of the electrical field created in the vicinity of the ionizing head or heads.
Since certain changes in carrying out the above process and in the constructions set forth, which embody the invention may be made without departing from its scope, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawings shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States is:
1. A method of controlling atmospheric conditions within an enclosure suitable for human occupancy consisting in producing a concentrated electrical field in the vicinity of a pointed electrode without producing ozone in objectionable quantities and controlling the frequency of said field to produce a preponderance of positive ions in the atmosphere of the enclosure.
2. A method of controlling atmospheric conditions within an enclosure consisting in producing an electrical field by causing a non-disruptive discharge from an ionizing head without producing any appreciable quantity of ozone and controlling the frequency of said field to produce a preponderance of negative ions in the atmosphere of the enclosure.
3. A method of controlling atmospheric conditions within an enclosure consisting in producing an electrical field in the vicinity of a pointed electrode without producing any noticeable amount of ozone and varying the frequency of said field to produce both positive and negative ions in desired proportion in the atmosphere of the enclosure affected by said field.
4. The method of ionizing air in an atmosphere utilized for respiration purposes, consisting in the employment of a variable induced E. M. F. of less than 50,000 volts in a secondary circuit of variable spark gap length and capacity with an inductance having pointer terminals to produce an oscillating electrical field, varying the oscillation of said field by varying the capacity of the circuit and the spark gap length to produce a preponderance of ions of desired character in air affected by said field without producing any objectionable quantity of ozone.
5. A method of ionizing an atmosphere suitable for human occupancy, consisting in utilizing a variable induced E. M. F. of less than 50,000 volts in a circuit for the production of an oscillating electrical field, controlling said circuit by creating a spark gap therein of variable length and regulating its capacity and utilizing the circuit to produce a preponderance of positive ions without producing any appreciable amount of ozone in air affected by said field by causing a decrease in the oscillation of said field by an increase in the size of said gap and an increase in the condenser capacity of the circuit.
6. A method of ionizing air which consists in utilizing a variable induced E. M. F. of less than 50,000 volts in a secondary circuit, controlling said circuit to produce an oscillating electrical field about a plurality of ionizing heads, increasing the oscillation of said field by decreasing a spark gap in the circuit and by decreasing the condenser capacity of the circuit to produce a preponderance of negative ions in air afiected by the field without producing any noticeable quantity of ozone.
7. The method of ionizing an atmosphere without producing any objectionable amount of ozone consisting in subjecting the atmosphere to the influence of an electrical field of variable frequency to cause its ionization and varying the frequency of said field to control the character of ionization as to sign and size of ions.
8. The method of treating an atmosphere, cons st-ing in subjecting the atmosphere to the infiuence of an electrical field of variable frequency to cause ionization without producing any appreciable amount of ozone, and varying the frequency of said field to cause the production of a preponderance of ions of desired electrical character.
9. A method of controlling atmospheric conditions within an enclosure suitable for human cupancy, consisting in producing a concentrated oscillating electrical field in the vicinity of a pointed electrode predetermining the frequency of field oscillation necessary to produce a preponderance of small positive ions in the desired concentration, substantially free of ozone, in the atmosphere of the inclosure and maintaining the oscillating field at such frequency.
10. A method of controlling atmospheric conditions within an enclosure suitable for human occupancy, consisting in producing a concentrated oscillating electrical field by causing a nondisruptive electrical discharge from a pointed electrode, predetermining the frequency of field oscillation necessary to produce a preponderance of small negative ions in the desired concentration, substantially free of ozone, in the atmosphere of the inclosure and maintaining the oscillating field at such frequency.
11. A method of ionizing an atmosphere in which people are accommodated, without producing any appreciable amount of ozone, consisting in causing an electrical circuit to produce a concentrated oscillating electrical field in the vicinity of a pointed electrode, reducing the capacity of the circuit and increasing the frequency of the field to produce a preponderance of small negative ions in the atmosphere and increasing the capacity of the circuit and reducing the frequency of the field to produce a preponderance of small positive ions in the atmosphere.
CONSTANTIN P. YAGLOU.
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|US4069665 *||Nov 24, 1975||Jan 24, 1978||Scientific Enterprises, Inc.||Gas ionizing apparatus for improving the operation of an internal combustion engine|
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|U.S. Classification||361/231, 128/202.25, 219/75, 261/140.1, 55/385.2, 422/906, 261/136, 250/432.00R, 315/177|
|International Classification||F24F3/16, A61L9/22|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S422/906, F24F3/166, A61L9/22|
|European Classification||A61L9/22, F24F3/16C|