US 2061049 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
w. R. sPELL-MAN ROTARY COMBUSTIONIENGINE Filed March 25, 195e Patented Nov. 17, 1936 UNITED STATE ROTARY coMUs'rIoN ENGINE A William n. speuman, Wilmington, cam;
Application March 23,
d Claims. This invention is arotary, combustion engine.
An object vof the invention is to provide a ro' tary ,engine of extremely simple construction and low cost of manufacture, and which is of very 5 compact and light structure and having in view the production. of as high power eciency as is consistent with safety in the reduction of the Weight of the engine in comparison with other types of motors of the same weight.
An object is to provide a rotary, liquid-fuel engine with an operating cycle of air compression and in which the compressed air charge is enriched by a spray of liquid fuel; the fuel charged air being then ignited for the production of expansive force'pn a. vane face having a circular orbit; `there being no scavenging period in the cycle of the engine.
TheV invention consists of certain advancements in this art as set forth in the ensuing disclosure and having, with the above, additional objects and advantages as hereinafter developed, and whose construction, combination and details of means, and the manner of operation will be made manifest in the description of the herewith illustrative embodiment; it being understood that modifications, variations and adaptations may be resorted to within the scope, principle and spirit of the invention as it is more directly claimed hereinbelow.
Figure l is a vertical, trans-axial section of the engine; the rotor thereof being in side elevation.
Figure 2 is in axial section; certain parts being shown in elevation.
Figure 3 is a detail section of a portion of the rotor and one of its piston elements; the latter in end plan.
suitably xed on a power-talre-off shaft 2 there is a thick, discoidal rotor 3 having a transversely half-round or semi-circular cross-section rim or periphery [l and parallel flat side faces 6 7? in which are sunk a set of suitable packing rings 4. The rotor is here shown as having three equally, angularly spaced, radial pockets d, .i i, and i2 opening from side to side of the rotor and in these pockets are slidable radial vanes i3, Hi, and iti turning about the rotor4 axis and whose side edges are about flush with the sides of the rotor and whose outer ends are of semicircular form to correspond with the rim i of the rotor.
The inner ends of the several varies i3, it, and i5 are severally supported on expansion springs i6, sunk in the rotor, which tend to constantly thrust the pistons outward toward the semicircularly concaved inner surface i9 of a rotor shell 1936, Serial No. 70,339
(Cl. 12S-16) 20 of circular form providing a chamber for the rotor in which the maximum diameter of the circular face i9, as to the axis of the shell 2li is materially larger than that of the rotor 3 so that when the rotor shaft 2 is positioned in the shell eccentric to the center of the shell there is formed crescent-shaped space ZlFig. l, between the rotor and the Wall of the shell. At that side of the rotor 3 nearest to the wall of the shell there is preferably provided a good running clearance so as to avoid friction of contact between the rotor and the wall surface i9 (whose transverse section is semicircular, as stated above).
At or near the locale of proximity' of the rotor rim to the shell wall i9 there is provided a retractile abutment 2l slidably guided in suitable ways 22 provided in the side walls 20h of the shell 2li so as to move radially as to the center of the rotor 3 by inward pressure of a spring device 23 whose function is, further, to hold the inner, concaved end Zl of the abutment 2i firmly engaging the half-round rim of the rotor.
Means are provided for the quick retraction of the abutment 2i just as it is approached by each of the radial pistons above mentioned and for the rapid return of the abutment to its inner position of rest von the rim of the rotor. Such means here includes a cam 2t, fixed on shaft 2, engaging a roller 25 on the outer end of a lever 2t suitably pivoted on near wall portion 2th of the shell 20, and having a push-rod 2l connected to an arm 2t suitably supported for oscillating motion with and by the cam actuated push rod 2l.
The arm 2t is suitably connected as by a link 29 to the stem 2lb of the abutment 2l and the cam 2d is provided with a circular rim having spaced lift points 2li so designed-that as each vane turns t0 the left, Fig; 1, in its orbit in the shell 20, the abutment is pulled out by the arm 28, as the push rod 2l is pressed outward by its cam, just far enough to let the slightly projecting outer end of the near piston go by without interference from the abutment; the arm 28 pulling outward on the abutment to overcome the inward, seating aotionof the main spring 23. l
The arm 28 has the further purpose of forming a means for actuating an injection device 30 of any suitable type arranged in the shell wall rim just beyond the abutment in the direction of rotor rotation and by whicha liquid fuel of suitable or preferred kind may be injected into the small crevice formed between the rotor rim, the effective abutment, the wall of the Shell and the face of a vane as I3 when this is at position shown in Fig. 1, when the fuelized air charge in the crevice is ready to be fired as by a timed spark device having a spark plug 3I. As here shown the injection device includes a piston having a rod 30a operatively pressed to the arm Y 28 as by a suitable expansion Spring 30h.
Near the bottom of the shell air inlet holes 33 are provided andso arranged that air will be inducted into the chamber 2lia by the proxi- I mate, passing vane (I5) while burnt gases are being forced out of exhaust holes 34 in the shell wall by the vane (I3) moving downwardly from the ignition space X, Fig. 1; the exhaust ports or .holes 34 being uncovered first by each d own- Wardly moving piston before it reaches the air vanes, as I4-I5, in the position shown in Fig. 1,
at the maximum volume of the segment of the crescent chamber 20e, will then be gradually cornpressed as these vanes move up toward the ignition space X; maximum compression being obtained when two vanes take the position of I3 and I4 as to the ignition space X.
For the purpose of reducing back pressure on the vane (I4) coming up to the ignition space just as the charge is fired at X to create driving pressure on the near vane (I3), there is provideda by-pass 39 having an inlet port near the abutment 2l and an outlet port 40 at such a position to the right, Fig. 1, that as the vane (I3) at the ignition space X starts its power stroke the vane (I4) to the right will run past the port 40 and the compressed air in front of the vane (I4) will be released from further compression against the effective or inwardly seated abutment 2I and. will be permitted to flow from port 40 into the space between the upcoming, adjacent vanes (I4 and I5). This transfer of air from in front of the vane (I4) by way of the by-pass 38 is in effect a two-stage compression in the engine since the transferred air is added to that between the vanes (I4 and I5) in a position below and coming up to the port 40.
'I'he abutment 2| is retracted by cam action just as a vane approaches it and at which time the air between the two uppermost vanes at position of I3 and I4 is at about maximum pressure in the small segment of space in the shell at M. Just as the vane clears the retracted abutment the latter is released by the relative cam part 24 and thrust inward by its spring'23 and the injector 30 forces liquid fuel into thecompressed air between the abutment and the vane I3 at position X, that is, the' ignition space, and the expansive effort of the gas between the effective abutment and the near vane I3 drives this to the left; the area of the face of the vane I3 increasing to the pressure as the vane moves toward the exhaust ports 34. As a vane sweeps pest the air inlet ports 33 a fresh charge of air is inducted and its compression starts as soon as the near vane passes beyond the inlets and up toward ,the compression space M.
Each vane, as I3, s provided with suitable packing 38 along its sides and around its outer convex end so as to make a tight seal on the near surface of the shell wall. Each vane is also provided with a guide device such as ribs or beads 39 working in respective grooves 4I) therefor in the'near face of the pocket, as I0, Fig. 3, in which the vane reciprocates as its outer end follows the shell surface I9, which is relatively eccentric to the rotor.
The abutment 2l works in a shell recess 4I closed by a cap 42 with a packing gland 43 through which the stemI 2Ib slides.
The cam 24 acts to relieve the push rod and arm 28 just as a vane clears the retracted abutment 2| so that the main spring 23 can at once press the abutment inward to close o. the ignition space X, and as this takes place the fuelized charge is fired by the spark plug 3l.
What is claimed is: A
l. In a rotary gas engine, a rotor disc having a-circular rim of semi-circular cross-section, a shell in which the rotor is eccentrically mounted in close, but clearing contiguity at a portion of its rim; said shell having an inner circular wall surface transversely concaved complementary to the rim of the rotor, the latter forming a crescent space within said shell, and a plurality of transverse vanes freely outwardly radially slidable in the rotor and dividing said space into equilength sections whose volumes change as the rotor turns the vanes in an orbit along said space; the outer ends of the vanes being curved to match the transverse concavity of the shell wall surface, and an abutment radially slidable in the shell adjacent to the position of closest relation of the rotor rim to the shell wall and having its inner end concaved to transversely t and bear von the rotor rim and lap on the side faces of the rotor whereby to divide the space between two adjacent vanes on opposite sides of the abutment into an air compressing pocket and a combustion chamber, means pressing the abutment yieldably inwardly against the rotor rim, and a cam device operative to retract the abutment as each vane registers therewith in position, and to effect transfer of compressed air to the combustion chamber, means to supply fuel to the said chamber, and means for igniting the fuelized air in said chamber following return of the abutment to the rotor rim.
2. A rotary Agas yengine including a disc-like shell having an inner, continuously circular, rim wall surface and parallel side walls, a rotor disc with a circular rim of less diameter than said rim wall surface and mounted eccentrically in the shell vfor rotation and forming a crescent chamber in the shell and in clearing contiguity at a portion of its rim with the shell rim wall, a plurality of equispaced, radially slidable vane .forming blades in the rotor, spring means to urge the vanes outward for constant contact with said wall surface of the shell, air inlet means arranged in the shell wall near the widest y part of the crescent chamber to admit air between adjacent vanes in a position on opposite sides of the air inlet; said vanes coacting to compress the entrapped air after they have both passed the air inlet and are moved by the rotor to a converging portion of the cresent chamber, a radially movable abutment, at the location of said clearing contiguity, in the shell and engaging the rim of the rotor thereat, the said abutment forming on one side and with a vane moving toward, and being nearest to it, an air aoeaeaa compression 'section in said chamber, and form ing with the near vane on the opposite side of the abutment a combustion space, injecting means contiguous to said abutment to introduce a fuel charge into said combustion space, means arranged at said combustion space to ignite the charge for expansion against the said near vane,
' exhaust ports arranged in the shell between the oi compressed air to the combustion space on.,
the opposite side of the abutment.
3. In a rotary gas engine, a rotor having a plurality of transverse spring projected vanes bodily radially moving in and projecting from the rim thereof, a circular shell in which the rotor is eccentrically mountedin clearing contiguity at a portion thereof, a rotative shaft mounted in the shell and xed centrically to the rotor, an abutment radially mounted, as to the rotor, in the shell for radial reciprocation at the point of nearest relation of the rotor to the shell to form on oneside an Aair compression space in front of an approaching vane and on the other sidea combustion space, and means controlling the radial motion oi the abutment and including a cam iixed on said shaft and a device actuated thereby anol acting on the abutment to lift it to clear a passing vane and admit compressed air from the compression space and then relieve it so as to engage the rotor While the passing piston is relatively close tothe abutment, means to inject fuel into said combustion space, and means to ignite the fuel charge; said controlling means including a spring device thrusting the abutment against the rim of the rotor when relieved by the cam. y
4. An engine as set forth in claim 3, and in which there is an unrestricted, air by-pass leading from a point near one side ci said abutment to the space between the next approaching pair of vanes to step up air pressure therein and re duce it between the abutment and the adjacent, approaching vane ci the said pair and following transfer ci compressed air to the combustion chamber.
" R. SPELLMAN.