Search Images Maps Play YouTube News Gmail Drive More »
Sign in
Screen reader users: click this link for accessible mode. Accessible mode has the same essential features but works better with your reader.

Patents

  1. Advanced Patent Search
Publication numberUS2062149 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateNov 24, 1936
Filing dateDec 5, 1934
Priority dateDec 5, 1934
Publication numberUS 2062149 A, US 2062149A, US-A-2062149, US2062149 A, US2062149A
InventorsMain James Avery, Gerald R Stark
Original AssigneePatent & Licensing Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Composition roofing
US 2062149 A
Images(2)
Previous page
Next page
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

NOV. 24, 1936. STARK ET AL 2,062,149

COMPOS ITION ROOFING Filed Dec. 5, 1954 2 Sheets-Shed; 1

ATTORNEY Nov. 24, 1936.

G. R. STARK ET AL.

COMPOSITION ROOFING Filed Dec. 5, 1934 Q'Sheets-Sheet 2 Tmzyi INVENTOR era/0 165/0/1 James A. Ma/lf TTORNEY Patented Nov. 24, 1936 14 Claims.

This invention relates to composition material for covering roofs and side walls or the like and has as its principal object, the provision of a form of roofing or siding element designed to overcome certain shortcomings in commercial forms of composition roofing.

The usual or customary form of composition roofing consists of a. base of felted fibrous material, saturated or impregnated with asphalt or similar water-resistant material, and coated on the exposed, and generally also the unexposed, surfaces with a layer of weathering material such as asphalt or the like. The external coating is generally provided with a layer of mineral surfacing such as crushed slate or the like. Material of this nature has for many years been employed as roofing and siding, particularly in the form of shingles or shingle strips laid in partially overlapping courses. These shingle strips are generally provided with cut-outs or other formations so designed as to present the appearance of individual shingles when laid.

One of the chief drawbacks to composition material of this general type has been its thinness in comparison to Wood shingles or slate" shingles and in many instances this drawback has been suflicient to militate against the use of this type of material when, from an architectural point of view, substantial thickness was required. This material being made as above stated from a base consisting of felted fibrous material and the raw felt base being produced on paper making machinery, there is a limit to the thickness of the felt base which can be produced under economical operation of the felt making machine The usual grades of felt that are employed are of a thickness calipering approximately 0.050-inch while the heaviest grades employed generally do not caliper over 0.075 inch thickness. This thickness of the felt base is of course somewhat increased when the saturated base is coated with the asphaltic coating material and surfaced with mineral grit. In general,

however, the finished thickness, even with the ,5 heaviest grades of felt does not exceed 0.125 inch, which from an architectural standpoint is far removed from the thickness of slate or wood shingles.

Efforts have heretofore been made to obtain increased thickness in composition roofing material by superimposing upon those portions which constitute the butts or exposed areas of the finished element, an additional layer of coating and mineral surfacing but even with such expedient it has not been practical in commercial opera- UNITED STATES COMPOSITION ROOFING Gerald R. Stark, Old Greenwich, C'onn., and James Avery Main, New York, N. Y., assignors to The Patent and Licensing Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of Massachusetts Application December 5, 1934, Serial No. 756,010

PATENT OFFICE tion to attain a finished thickness at the butts comparable to the thickness of the base of wood or slate shingles.

One of the principal objects of our invention is to provide a shingle or shingle strip which 5 will present a thickness at the butt edge approximating the thickness of the butts of wood or slate shingles. As will be more fully hereinafter explained, we accomplish this object by utilizing a sheet of the usual form of asphalt 10 coated and mineral surfaced felt which, as already stated, is itself of limited thickness and forming a lip or depending portion along the edge of the unit to be exposed, this lip being of a transverse width corresponding to the thickness which it is desired that the finished unit shall present. In order to preserve the lip in its angular relation to the face of the unit, and] for other purposes, we secure a narrow lath of a thickness corresponding substantially to the width of the lip, in the reentrant angle between the lip and the mainbody of the unit.

The usual forms of slate surfaced composition shingles, laid as stated in overlapping courses, are required to overlap the shingles of the preceding course by at least, and generally by considerably more than one-half the depth of the shingles, in order to insure adequate coverage and protection against the entrance of rain and moisture through-the joints between shingles or otherwise. Thus, the usual forms of shingles or shingle strips require anywhere from 190 to as much as 300 square feet of the finished material to cover a square, 1. e., 100 square feet of roof surface. As already indicated and as is well known in the art, the felt base of which composition roofing material is ordinarily made constitutes the most expensive portion of the finished material and hence this expense becomes a substantial factor in the cost of roofing laid with shingles or shingle strips in overlapping courses where the overlap, as is usually necessary, amounts to one-half or more of the depth of the shingles.

Another object of our invention is to provide a shingle construction which, in addition to presenting an appearance of substantial thickness, approximating th thickness of wood or slate shingles, has the further advantage that it can be laid in overlapping courses with relatively little overlap between the successive courses.

Still another object of the invention is to provide a shingle of the character set forth, so constructed that each shingle will assist in holding down the butt or exposed end of the adjacent shingles in the next overlying course.

Still other objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent to those skilled in the art from the more detailed description hereinafter given and from the accompanying drawings.

In the drawings: i

Figure 1 is a perspective view of a shingle element constructed in accordance with our invention;

Fig. 2 is a plan view showing a section of a roof or other surface covered with shingle elements as shown in Fig. 1, laid in several courses;

Fig. 3 is a cross sectional view taken on line 33 of Fi 2;

Fig. 3a is a detail of certain parts of a preferred form of shingle embodying our invention;

Fig. 4 is a view similar to Fig. 1 showing a modified form of shingle element constructed in accordance with our invention;

Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 2 showing the shingles of Fig. 4 laid in several courses;

Fig. 6 is a cross section taken along line 6-6 of Fig. 5;

Fig. 7 is a transverse cross section through a pair of shingle elements as shown in Fig. 4 as they would be arranged in packages for shipment with other similarly arranged pairs. Y

As best shown in Fig. 1 in which the upper or exposed face of the finished element as constructed in accordance with our invention is exposed to view, this shingle element comprises a more or less elongated sheet or strip of composition roofing material of the usual variety made from a base of felted fibrous material impregnated with asphalt, tar, or like water resistant material. This strip is indicated by the numeral I0, and as is customary, is provided on the upper or exposed surface thereof with a layer of asphaltic or similar weather protecting coating,'the

coating layer having partially embedded therein a surfacing layer of crushed granular material. This granular material or surfacing can be of any desired color or mixture of colors applied to the coated sheet while the coating is in a more or less plastic or adhesive condition. As will be understood, the granular material in selected colors may be deposited in any desired fashion to produce the desired color effects, when the strips are cut from the sheets and applied in the finished construction on a roof or side wall. Preferably, and particularly so where the strip I is of considerable length and it is desired that the finished construction give the appearance of individual shingles when laid, the mineral surfacing applied to the sheet during the course of its manufacture may include narrow lanes orribbons II of black or dark mineral grit to-serve as indicia of the boundaries or spaces between adjacent shingles simulated in the finished construction.. If desired, other means may beemployed to serve as the individual shingle-simulating indicia, such for example as leaving narrow lanes or ribbons of the coating material unsurfaced or applying to the surfaced sheet narrow ribbons or lines of a suitable dark-colored paint or weather-proof coating.

In order to provide in the finished element a thickness approximating that of slate or wood shingles the forward edgeof the sheet is bent down substantially. at right angles to provide a lip I2. It will be observed that, depending upon the transverse distance from the edge I3 of the strip to the line I4 along which the bend is made, the butt or forwardly facing edge of the finished element can be made to give an appearance of greater or less thickness. will usually be suflicient for the lip I2 to have a transverse dimension of approximately one-half inch, which is about the usual thickness of wood or slate shingles.

It will be understood by those skilled in the art,

that the fiexible nature of the ordinary commercial variety of felt base roofing, of which the strip I0 is preferably made, is such that it would not be possible for the lip l2 to maintain its angular position with reference to the main portion of the strip III for any length of time. In order to maintain the angular position of the lip I2, and for other purposes which will presently appear, a narrow strip or lath I is secured to the underside of the strip III in the angle formed between the lip I2 and the main body of the strip. The thickness of the lath I5 is substantially equal to the transverse dimension of the lip I2 or in other words, to approximately the thickness which it is desired that the finished element shall present at its butt edge. This lath may be approximately 1 to- 1 /2 inches wide and of a length slightly less than that of the strip III. The lath is preferably of a bituminous nature, being composed of as phalt, fiber and mineral filler. In practice the lath may be made by masticating waste or scrap roofing to produce a homogeneous plastic mass which can be extruded under pressure in the desired cross section. If desired, this lath may con sist of a strip made from celotex or Masonite which may be saturated and/or coated with asphalt or it may even consist of wood strips. The

supporting lath may be of uniform thickness or be slightly tapered rearwardly.

The lath may be secured to the strip III in any desired fashion as by applying asphalt or similar adhesive to the confronting faces and edges of the strip and the lath, and/or by staples driven along the butt edge of the element, as shown at I6 from the outer face of the strip III or from the exterior of the lip I2 and into the lath I5. In this way the inner face of the lip I2 is positioned in abutting and adhering relation to the forwardly facing edge I! of the lath so that the latter forms a support for the lip I2 and also rigidifies the butt of the finished element.

' The rear edge I8 of the lath is preferably beveled, the bevel being in such direction that this edge faces toward the underside of the strip, as shown. In the preferred construction a companion lath 20, made of material similar to the lath I5, is secured to the upper face of the element along the upper marginal edge thereof, the

upper edge 2| of the lath 20 preferably coinciding with the upper edge 22 of the strip Ill. The lower edge 23 of the lath 20 is beveled in a direction opposite to the beveled edge I8 of the lath I5,

1. e., the beveled edge 23 faces toward the upper 1 side of the strip III. The lath 20 may also be of slightly tapering cross section or thickness, and, with advantage, this taper should run in the same direction and prolong the taper of the lath I5. The lath 20, like the lath I5, is of a length less than that of the strip III, and is preferably of about the same width as lath I5.

When the laths are made of composition material which can be extruded in the desired shape, the extruded-mass may be in the form of a bar In actual practice it which, in transverse cross-section, takes the combined shape of the laths I0 and I 5. Either before or after the extruded bar has been cut to desired length, it may be slit longitudinally along a di- 5 agonal line as best shown in Fig. 3a, thus producing the companion laths of desired cross-section with the edges thereof beveled in the proper direction. Lath l5, secured in the angular bend of the lip l2, extends from one of the lateral edges 25 of the strip to a'point short or inwardly of the opposite lateral edge 26 of the strip; while the lath 20, secured to the upper face of the strip, extends from the lateral edge 26 to an equal distance inwardly of the lateral edge 25 of the strip.

Referring now to the method of laying the finished strip, as best shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the shingles are applied as a first course along the eaves of the roof deck, usinga starter strip of roofing or metal, if desired, underneath the first course. A nail 30 may be driven through each of the shingles, which are laterally overlapped as clearly shown in Fig. 2, the marginal edge of the strip adjacent the edge 26 covering the nail 30 and the end edge of the lath IS on one strip being preferably brought into abutting relation to the opposite end edge of the lath strip on the adjacent strip in the course. Nails 32 are then driven through the upper face of the lath 20 at suitably spaced points so as to secure the strips to the roof or sheathing boards. The shingles of the next course are then applied, and as these shingles are brought into position they are pulled upwardly until the beveled edge of the laths l5 are in firm facial contact with the oppositely directed beveled edges of the laths 2|] on the shingles of the first course. The joints between adjacent shingles of the second course are preferably staggered in relation to those of the preceding course. The shingles of the second course may then likewise be hailed as at 30.nea-r one end thereof and then these shingles are likewise secured by nails 32 passing through the laths 20 and through the strip 10 along the upper edge thereof and into the roof boards. Succeeding courses are then applied in a similar manner until the entire desired area is covered.

It will be observed that there is thus produced a roof covering in which the successive courses are defined by butt edges exhibiting the surfacing material of the flexible strip l over a depth, depending upon the thickness of the laths IE or the transverse dimension of the lip I2, which may readily be made to approximate the thickness of wood or slate shingles. Moreover, where indicia as indicated at H are employed, they also extend transversely through the lip l2, as shown, and thereby serve to simulate the spaces between butt edges of adjacent shingles.

It will be further observed that the oppositely beveled edges of the laths l and 20 of adjacent overlying shingles serve to hold down firmly the butt edge of the shingles when the edge l8 of laths l5 are brought up into facial contact with the beveled edge 23 of the laths 20 by virtue of the wedging action which thus takes place. When these laths are made of asphaltic composition the heat of the sun will cause a softening of the asphalt suflicient to bring about adhesion of the contacting beveled faces of the laths, thus sealing the joints between successive overlying courses of shingles.

can normally be employed in conjunction with the ordinary forms of flexible material. Thus, for example, whereas flexible material in the usual forms of strip shingles requires from approximately 190 to as much as 300 square feet to cover an area of 100 square feet, shingles constructed according to our invention can be dimensioned and laid so as to require as little as 140 square feet of flexible material constituting the strips Hi, to cover the same area.

Also, with such relatively larger exposures in each course or, in other words, small lap between successive courses, the number of units to be handled in covering a given area of surface will be smaller and consequently the cost of application will be lower.

In Figs. 4, 5 and 6 there is shown a modified form of shingle embodying our invention, adapted particularly to be laid with larger exposures than is the case with the shingle proportioned as shown in Figs. 1 to 3. In Figs. 4 to 6 the same numerals have been used to designate the parts of the shingles like those shown in Figs. 1 to 3.

As will be noted particularly from Fig. 6, where the exposure is relatively large, the portions of the flexible strip l0 between the uppermost edge of the lath 20 of the preceding course and the butt edge of the next overlying course would tend to sag or bow inwardly and thus detract from an otherwise smooth finished appearance in a roof. In order to avoid this tendency, a reinforcing member or filler piece, indicated at 40 may be secured to the. underface of the flexible strip Hi. This reinforcing member may be constituted of the same material as are the laths l5 and 20 and it may likewise be secured to the strip, as by any suitable adhesive. This reinforcing member may likewise be tapered in the same general direction as the lath I5, the taper preferably being a prolongation of the taper formed by the laths I5 and 20 of adjacent overlying strips. As shown more clearly in Figs. 4 and 6, the reinforcing member 40 is secured with its lowermost edge 4| spaced from the inner extremity of the lath IS a distance slightly greater than the width of the lath 20, so as to provide ample clearance for the lath 20 when the strips are laid in position on a roof. Also, it will be noted that the reinforcing member 40 extends from the lateral edge of the strip to a point spaced from the opposite lateral edge 26 thereof, the edge 42 of the reinforcement extending in the same transverse line as the corresponding end of the lath l5, so as to bring the opposite edges of the re1nforcing members on adjacent shingles in abutting relation when the lateral margin 26 is lapped over the opposite marginal portion of an adjacent shingle in the same course. The procedure for assembling shingles such as shown in Figs. 4 to 6 on a roof or other surface will be generally the same as with the shingles shown in Figs. 1 to 3, and as more fully described in connection therewith. It may be stated, however, that with the form shown in Figs. 4 to 6, the shingles of succeeding courses will be applied so that the lath 20 of the preceding course occupies the space between the beveled edge of the lath l5 and the lower edge of the reinforcing member 40 of the next overlying shingle, the beveled edge of the lath l5 thereof being brought into firm facial contact with the beveled edge 20 of the lath on the subjacent shingle. In the assembly, as more clearly shown in Fig. 6, the filler pieces 40 support In Fig. 7 there is illustrated a mode of arranging the form of shingles such as shown in Figs. 4 to 6, in packages for shipment. As will be noted, the adjacent shingles in the bundle are arranged so that alternate ones are in reverse relation, 1. e., one shingle having its lath I 5 at one edge of the bundle and the adjacent shingle in the bundle having its lath ii at the opposite edge of the bundle, with the mineral surfaced side of the strip l of the latter lying next to the obverse face of the first said shingle. It will be seen that, when a pair of shingles are so arranged, the opposite faces of the superimposed shingles will lie in parallel planes. By thus arranging succeeding shingles alternately in the same way as the first pair, any desired number of shingles may be made up into a bundle or package of convenient form for shipment.

While in the foregoing description we have stated that the laths 20, as well as the filler members 40 in the modified construction of Figs. 4 to 6, may be secured to the strip III at the factory to produce the completed unit, it should be understood that these parts need not necessarily be affixed to the strip ID at the factory, but may be placed in their proper position during the course of laying the units. In such case the lath 20 of Figs. 1 and 4, as well as the reinforcing member or filler piece 40 of Fig. 4 would be separately made and shipped as separate parts to the job. Then, in laying the units, the strips I0 with their afllxed laths I5 would be laid in proper position in each course and before the shingles of the next overlying course are laid a lath corresponding to the lath 20 may be nailed to the upper edge of the strip i0, which nails will extend into the supporting roof boards. The lath 20 may, in such case, be of any desired length instead of predetermined length, so as to extend over a number of the units. Likewise, in the modified form of Figs. 4 to 6, the reinforcing or filler members 40 may be placed and secured in position at the same time as are the laths 20 and before the overlying strip I0 is laid, the several parts being secured as by means of adhesive in the assembled relation shown in Figs. 5 and 6.

We claim as our invention:

1. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip and having one of its ends co-terminous with an end edge of said strip.

2. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip, said lath being of a greater thickness than that of said strip.

3. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip and having one of its ends co-terminous with. an end edge of said strip, said lath being formed of asphaltic composition.

4. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit 4 comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip, said lath being transversely tapered in thickness.

5. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured tothe underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip, and a companion lath secured to the upper face of said strip along the upper marginal edge thereof.

6. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip and a companion lath secured to the upper face of said strip along the upper marginal edge thereof, the opposed edges of said laths being beveled in opposite directions.

7. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip and a companion lath secured to the upper face of said strip along the upper marginal edge thereof said first named lath extending from one lateral edge of the strip to a point short of the opposite lateral edge of the strip, the second named lath extending from said opposite lateral edge to a point short of the first named lateral edge.

8. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip and having one of its ends co-terminous with an end edge of said strip, said strip having shingle-simulating indicia thereon, the said indicia extending transversely across said lip.

9. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip, a companion lath secured to the upper face of said strip along the upper marginal edge thereof, and a substantially rigid reinforcing member secured to the underface of said strip in.

the area intermediate said laths.

10. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip, a companion lath secured to the upper face of said strip along the upper marginal edge thereof, and a substantially rigid reinforcing member secured to the underface of said strip in spaced relation to said first named lath.

11. As an article of manufacture, a shingle unit comprising a strip of flexible waterproof felt base material having one of its longitudinal edges bent to form a lip and a substantially rigid lath secured to the underside of said strip in the angle formed by said lip, a companion lath secured to the upper face of said strip along the upper marginal edge thereof and a substantially rigid reinforcing member secured to the underface of said strip, said laths and said reinforcing member being of tapering thickness.

12. A shingle assembly for roofs or side walls comprising overlapping courses of shingle units, the lower extremity of each course being defined by angular lips formed on the shingles in said course, laths secured within said angles in supporting relation to said lips, the lower edges of said lips terminating in the plane of the lower face of said laths. v

13. A shingle assembly for roofs or side walls comprising overlapping courses of shingle units, the lower extremity of each course being defined by angular lips formed on the shingles in said course, laths secured within said angles in supporting relation to said lips and laths secured along the upper margin of said units and covered by the shingles of the next succeeding course,

said last named laths being positioned adjacent the first named laths of the next succeeding course.

14. A shingle assembly for roofs or side walls comprising overlapping courses of shingle units, the lower extremity of each course being defined by angular lips formed on the shingles in said course, laths secured within said angles in supporting relation to said lips and laths secured along the upper margin of said units and covered by the shingles of the next'succeeding course, said last named laths being positioned adjacent the first named laths of the next succeeding course, the upper edge of the first named laths and the lower edge of the second named laths being beveled in opposite directions.

GERALD R. STARK. JAMES AVERY MAIN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3640044 *Sep 11, 1969Feb 8, 1972Raymond W WattsPrefabricated panel of shingles
US3848384 *Jul 2, 1973Nov 19, 1974Masonite CorpComposition shingle
US4355491 *Aug 18, 1980Oct 26, 1982Otis M. MartinRoof construction and method
US4397129 *Apr 20, 1981Aug 9, 1983Otis M. MartinResurfacing construction
US4402169 *Aug 5, 1980Sep 6, 1983Otis M. MartinSurfacing for roof and siding structures of buildings
US4835929 *Jan 25, 1988Jun 6, 1989Gaf CorporationLaminated roofing hip
US4920721 *Feb 2, 1989May 1, 1990Pressutti Joseph EHigh profile fiberglass shingle
US5461839 *Dec 22, 1993Oct 31, 1995Certainteed CorporationReinforced exterior siding
US5526627 *May 31, 1995Jun 18, 1996Certainteed CorporationFinishing panel
US5839247 *May 10, 1996Nov 24, 1998Beck; David H.Reinforced exterior siding
US5987838 *Nov 20, 1998Nov 23, 1999CertainteedReinforced exterior siding
US6164032 *Oct 1, 1999Dec 26, 2000Certainteed CorporationReinforced exterior siding
US6365081Jul 17, 2000Apr 2, 2002Certainteed CorporationProcess of extruding reinforced exterior siding
US6415574Jan 10, 2001Jul 9, 2002Certainteed Corp.Reinforced exterior siding
US6948288 *Oct 19, 2000Sep 27, 2005Smith Gary ERoof tile support
US7325325Jul 13, 2004Feb 5, 2008James Hardle International Finance B.V.Surface groove system for building sheets
US7524555Feb 3, 2004Apr 28, 2009James Hardie International Finance B.V.Pre-finished and durable building material
US7600356May 19, 2004Oct 13, 2009James Hardie International Finance B.V.Building material and method of making and installing the same
US7713615Apr 3, 2002May 11, 2010James Hardie International Finance B.V.Reinforced fiber cement article and methods of making and installing the same
US7993570Oct 7, 2003Aug 9, 2011James Hardie Technology LimitedDurable medium-density fibre cement composite
US7998571Jul 11, 2005Aug 16, 2011James Hardie Technology LimitedComposite cement article incorporating a powder coating and methods of making same
US8281535Mar 8, 2007Oct 9, 2012James Hardie Technology LimitedPackaging prefinished fiber cement articles
US8297018Jul 16, 2003Oct 30, 2012James Hardie Technology LimitedPackaging prefinished fiber cement products
US8409380Jul 28, 2009Apr 2, 2013James Hardie Technology LimitedReinforced fiber cement article and methods of making and installing the same
WO1989006729A1 *Jan 12, 1989Jul 27, 1989Gaf CorpLaminated roofing hip
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/544, 52/551, 52/540, 52/530, 52/553, 52/543, 52/550, 52/552
International ClassificationE04D1/22, E04D1/12
Cooperative ClassificationE04D1/22, E04D2001/005
European ClassificationE04D1/22