US 2062389 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 1; 1936. E. BLEIBLER APIFAIL'S'IUS FOR COATING FIBERS Filed May- 21, 1932 2 Sheets-sheaf 1 Ernst smbwr Dec. 1, 1936. E. BLEIBLER APPARATUS FOR COATING FIBERS Filed May 21, 1952 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Ernst Emma Patented 1, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE] r 2,062,389 arr-macros non COATING mans Ernst Bleibler, Gent, Belgium 4 Claims.
form of single or double threads, ribbons or thelike, valuable properties. I
In particular, it is by means of the improved 10 method, possible to impart to the fibers properties-which they do not possess in their natural state and, on the other hand, to exploit their valuable natural properties. Thus fibers, which owing to their appearance are not adaptable for 16 the manufacture of clothing, but possess great strength, maybe made available for the purpose mentioned by imparting to them by the improved method, all those properties which they are short of and which are valuable for the purll pose in question, such as luster, dyeing capacity,
waterproofness and so on.;
The method of treating the fibers, according to the invention, thus opensup new fields of applications for those natural raw materials,
85 and, for instance, materials which due to their properties were up to now unsuitable for covering walls, floors and so on may now be made useful for the purpose. On the other hand the qualities of the cellulose products are consider- 80 ably improved by the treatment, in so far as the -strength and durability of the natural textile materials may be imparted to them which they do not'possess as a general rule. Thus spheres of utilization are opened up for cellulose products 85 which were closed to them before.
According to this invention spreading, smoothing, stroking and the like appliances are used for distributing the cellulose in its liquid raw state around the fiber, which at the point of contact 40 are movable transversely to the fiber or are stationary and the fiber movable transversly to them.
By the apparatus according to the invention it is possible to coat natural threads with a uni- 45 form layer of liquid cellulose, such as viscose, and tocoagulate the thus obtained intermediate product without change of shape. The improved method only renders it at all possible to coat natural fibers. Natural fibers have an irregular 50 cross-section and contain thicker and thinner portions, knots and the like, so that it is impossible to make use of the usual spinning nozzles, as their mouth is rigid and incapable of givingway, so that the fibers or threads break 55 when thick sections pass through the nozzle and Application May 21, 1932, Serial No. sic-.814
. In Germany May 21, 1931 (01. 91-370 then chokethe bore. If, however, the crosssection of the passage through the nomle or other coating device is made variable inaccordance with the present invention, the resilient or elastic portions of the coatingdevice are able j to give way when forced aside by the irregularities of the fibers or threads, so that no inadmissible stresses develop in the fiber or the thread and it is at the same time possible to adapt the coating, as regards the thickness, for instance,
to the variable-cross-section of the thread or rigid material for contacting the filament passing therebetween, the filament engaging portions of each of said members being so formed that the surface thereof converges gradually to-- wards and into contact with the filament in the direction of movement of the filament. At least one of said strickling members comprises a pivoted lever which lever is arranged for movement in a path removing each point of its contacting surface away from the path of travel of the filament as soon as any thickening of the filament passes the contact point. Resilient preferably regulable means are provided for urging the lever to cause the portions which engage the filament to lightly touch the filament, and to cause them to constantly follow any unevenness of the moving filament.
In a preferred embodiment of the invention the point of contact of the pivoted lever with the filament is arranged so remote from the normal line drawn from the pivot to the path of movement or the filament, so that each point of the contacting lever surface is moved away from-the path of travel of the filament.
Any of the well-known cellulose derivatives in liquid condition, such as viscose, will serve as a coating which then as soonas the fiber is satu- According to a further feature of the invention this passage throug the coagulation bath is efi'ected in such a wa that the coagulation has taken place at least superficially prior to the fiber touching another solid body, such as ui rollers, thread guides or the like. In a preferred embodiment of the invention the coagulation liquid or solution is applied. tangentially tothe direction of travel behind the free or floating length of the fiber, as will be described in greater detail further on.
In the drawings afllxed hereto and forming part of the specification the invention is illustrated as embodied in a number of constructions, partly by perspective views, partly by diagrams. It will be readily understood, however, that my invention is by no means limited to these constructions and that the scope of my invention and the ambit of my appended claims extends to any construction incorporating the broad principle underlying my invention.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 shows in vertical section and in diagrammatic fashion, a receptacle containing a cellulosic solution in conjunction with a coating, strickling or stroking device.
Fig. 2 illustrates a sectional elevation, a nozzle constructed according to this invention.
Figs. 3 and 4. show in side elevation and in plan another modification of a strickling device.
Figs. 5 and 6 show in side elevation and in plan respectively, another form of the invention.
Figs. '7 and 8 show in side elevation and in plan respectively, still a further form of the invention.
Figs. 9 and 10 are a side elevation and plan respectively of another form of the invention.
Figs. 11 and 12 show two examples of an arrangement of a primary bath vessel, a coagulating bath vessel and means for passing the threadto be treated from one bath to the other without touching any rigid part other than the stricklingdevice.
Referring to Fig. 1 of the drawings ll indicates a receptacle containing the cellulose in its liquid primary state, for instance in the form of viscose. The thread l3 to be coated is unwound from a reel l4, passed over a guide roller l5 through the bath l2 and issues from the bath at a strickling coating, applying or spreading device lG. Some designs of this device are, by way of example, illustrated in Figs. 2 to 15 of the drawings.
Fig. 2 of the drawings illustrates in sectional elevation a nozzle the mouth portion 20 of which consists of a plurality of movable sections 2| These sections may be formed by incisions or slits 22, so that, provided the nozzle is constructed of an elastic material, the sections can be bent back and give way; the sections 2i may, however, be
pivotally mounted or .hinged at their bases as indicated at 25. The sections of the mouthpiece are then drawn together or forced against the thread by a helical spring in form of a ring 23, but are able to give way when encountering irregularities in the thread.
In the embodiments shown in side elevation in Figs. 3 and 5 and in plan in Figs. 4 and 6, the spreading or stroking device consists of members 30, 3| and 32, 33 respectively having the tendency to approach each other and provided with rounded faces as in Fig. 3, or oblique faces, as
in Fig. 5 and thus gradually converge into a slit 35 or 36 forming a tapering outlet opening. One of these members, for instance 32 in Figs. 5 and 6, or both bodies 30, 3|, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4,
are adapted to rock around pivot pins 40, and are forced against the thread l3, by means of a sliding weight 4| as in the example of construction shown in Figs. 3 and 4, or by an adjusting spring 42, 43 as illustrated in Figs. 5 and 6, but are able to swing or to approach and recede under the action of irregularities in the cross-section of the thread. These members are preferably so arranged, that under normal conditions they are in stable equilibrium under the action of the retrieving forces, i. e. the weights 4|, spring 42, and that their deflecting motion under the influence of irregularities of the'thread' starts in the direction of travel of the thread or the like.
The operative faces of the strickling or coating device are preferably so designed that they gradually converge into a slit. The slit may be uniform across the entire width of the coating device, but it may also, as shown in Fig. 6, be provided with recesses 46 at the point of exit of the fiber or thread. By varying the position of the sliding weight or the tension of the spring it is thus possible to adapt the mode of operation of the coating device closely to the conditions prevailing, the nature of the material, the strength of the fiber or the thread, the viscosity of the cellulose in its primary state, and to control the device accordingly.
The Figs. 7 and 8 illustrate a further con struction of the coating device. In this embodiment of the inventionthe bodies tapering into nozzles consist of two parts 50, 5| of rectangular cross-section. One part comprises a mouthpiece 52 adapted to rock around a hinge pin 53, which under the action of the.spring 54 is pressed against the fiber or thread l3 by means of a system of lever 55, 56 and adapts its position to the irregularities of the cross-section of the thread. In view of the viscosity of the liquid or solution used for coating, a lateral confinement is unnecessary in these coating devices; .the liquid will first surround the thread with a flattened crosssection which, however, withregard to the free length of thread located behind the point of issue from the coating device, contracts into a uniformly roundcross-section. This uniform application of the cellulose solution around the fiber or threads may be adjusted by suitably setting the working speed, controlling the viscosity of the celluloid solution, the pressure applied to the point of exit from the coating device and so on.-
It will be understood that rods, rollers, drums and the like over which the fiber is guided along a sinuous path may also serve as a spreading or stroking device.
In Figs. 9 and 10 the rollers 88, 33 are held in jaw-like structures 90, 9| and 92, 93 respectively by pivotally mounted members 94, 95, one of which is adapted to rock around the hinge pin 96 fixed in the members 94. The pressure may be adjusted or regulated by means of springs, or as shown in the drawings by means of the sliding weights 99.
The coating devices according to the invention .are preferably constructed of an acidand base-proof material, such as a ceramic material, porcelain, glass or the like, or of a precious metal, for instance nickel or its alloys or of a core or foundation body covered or coated with a ceramic material or corrosion-proof metal. In all cases the coating devices will be so constructed that they do not change the direction of travel of the fibers or the thread at all or only an inconsiderable extent; In this way it is avoided that the cellulose solution is entirely or partly stripped aocaseo or wiped off the thread on the deflected side and the equalization of thecellulose solution around the periphery of the thread affected thereby.
In Figs. 11 and 12 ofthe drawings two examples are shown which illustrate how the fiber, thread or tape passes from the primary bath of viscose, for instance, and the coating device into the further treatment baths. To start with a free or floating length of thread is provided hehind the coating device or betweenthe coating devices at H0, in order to enable the primary liquid to distribute itself uniformly around the thread. To avoid injury of the thus formed and uniformly distributed coating on the thread, the coating is according toa further feature of the invention immediately behind the free length throughout or superficially coagulated before the fiber, the thread or band comes in contact with another solid body, for instance a guide roller or thread guide or the like. For carrying out this feature of the invention the coagulation -liquid is applied to the fiber or the like tangentially in the direction of travel.
In the embodiment illustrated in Fig. 11 the fiber or thread to be treated enters an annular nozzle Ill designed as mouthpiece of a vessel H2. The, vessel H2 contains, for instance in an annularly shapedextension directed jdown-' wards from the vessel, for example, a store of liquid, which is fed to the nozzle under pressure through the pipe 4, a suitable pumping device 5, and pipe ill. The nozzle sprays or squirts the coagulation liquid around the thread. The coating coagulates at first only superficially, so that it becomes indifferent'to contact with further solid bodies, such as guide rollers and the like. From'thenozzle the coagulation liquid returns through the intermediate member ll6 into the vessel i l2, so that the coagulation liquid describes a closed cycle. The treated thread 0 is in the vessel 8 i2 subjected to further. treatment of the coagulation liquid and then passes, in a manner not shown in the drawings, into further finishing baths, identical with those customary in the manufacture of cellulose products. The thread is then wound on to the reel or bobbin 120.
In the modification illustrated in Fig. 12 the coagulation liquid is behind the free length or floating portion H0 applied to the fiber or thread or band in the form of a. free jet.
The vessel containing the cellulose in its liquid primary state is designated I30; towards the exit side of the thread, in the direction of the coating device, the wall l3| of the vessel is inclined or oblique, so that contact with the thread issuing from the bath is avoided. The coagulation liquid i-33 is contained in the vessel lSLwhich is fitted with a mouthpiece from which thecoagulation liquid issues in a free jet I 36. The coagulation liquid flowing out of the vessel is caught in a container its and through pipe M0, the pumping device lti and the delivery pipe I42 pumped back into the vessel I34, sothat it moves in a complete cycle. The thread is at ldiintrodiiced into the free jet without coming in contact with any solid body, and passed through the jet for such a length of time, or the'length of the jet, the dimensions of the vesseL'theworking speed of the thread and the coagulation. liquid and the composition of the latter so proportioned, that the thread passes over the guide rollers M8, M9
then only when it is throughout or at least on the surface sufiiciently coagulated, so that the risk of an injury to the coating no longer arises.
From the coagulation bath the thread through further treatment baths, drying apparatus and the like, which correspond with the customary equ pment in the manufacture of cellulose products, in particular in the artificial silk or rayon industry. The treatment baths may like the primary bath be supplied to the thread tangentially to the direction of travel, in the manner described above, for instance by means of a ring-shaped nozzle or as free jet, should this be found suitable or advantageous.
For the subsequent treatment the fiber, thread orribbon may, as in the known process, be
passed from bath to -'bath, or to the successive pended claims should be construed in the light.
of prior knowledge.
I claim as my invention: i. In a device for coating filaments ofnatural fibersv with liquid cellulose derivatives, a 'plurality of members formed of rigid material and having an edge-like strickling surface adapted to i make contact with the fiber to be coated, said members comprising resiliently supported movable levers arranged in a circle around the thread under treatment.
2. In a device for coating filaments ofnatural fibers with liquid cellulose derivatives, a strickling device comprising at least two members of rigid material for contacting a filament passing therebetween, the filament engaging portionsof each of said members being so formed that the surface thereof converges gradually toward and into contact with the filament in the direction of movement of the filament, at least one of said members comprising a pivoted lever, the point of contact with the filament beingv beyond the pivot axis of the lever in the direction of. movement of the filament, whereby said lever is movable for removing each point of its contacting surface from the path of the filament upon any thickening of the filament passing the contact point, and
regulable resilient means for urging said lever to cause filament engaging portions to lightly touch thefilament and for causing them to constantly follow unevenness of the moving filament.
3. In a device for coating filaments of natural fibers with liquid cellulose derivatives, a strickling. device comprising at least two individual members of rigid material and resilient means for urging said members against said filament under a light touch, at least one of said members being arranged for movement relative to the other ina path removing each point of its filament contacting surface from the path of the filament upon any thickening of the filament passing the contact point, whereby the, filament contacting surfaces of the members are adapted to constantly follow unevenness of the moving filament with a substantially constant contact touch, a bath of liquid coating material disposed at a distance below said strickling device, a bath of liq uid coagulating material disposed at a distance above said strickling device, means associated with said coagulating device .for freely introducing the filament into the coagulating bath from below, there being no rigid parts in the path of filament between the upper level of the coating bath and the lower level of the coagulating bath,
' said strickling device excepted.
4. In a device for coating filaments of natural fibers with liquid cellulose derivatives, a strickling device comprising at least two members of rigid material for contacting a filament passing therebetween, the filament engaging portions oi each of said members being so formed that the surface thereof converges gradually toward and into contact with the filament in the direction cause filament engaging portions to lightly touch 10 the filament and for causing them to constantly follow unevenness of the moving filament.
. ERNST BLEIIBLER.