|Publication number||US2062615 A|
|Publication date||Dec 1, 1936|
|Filing date||Apr 3, 1935|
|Priority date||Apr 3, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2062615 A, US 2062615A, US-A-2062615, US2062615 A, US2062615A|
|Inventors||Jr Edward W Scripture|
|Original Assignee||Master Builders Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (4), Classifications (5)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
1936- E. w. SCRIPTURE'JR 2,062,615
PROCESS OF HARDENING THE SURFACE OF MASTTC STRUCTURES Filed April 3, 1955 cement and 7 ran concrc Z6 Patented Dec. .1, 1 936 PATENIV' OFFICE PROCESS OF HARDENING THE SURFACE OF MASTIC STRUCTURES Edward W.v Scripture, In, Cleveland, Ohio, as-
Master Bllfl signer to The ders Company,
Cleveland, Ohio, a corporation of Ohio Application April 3, 1935, Serial No. 14,526
This invention relates to mastic and masticsurfaced structures, such as, floors, driveways, walks, walls, ceilings, roofs and the like; and particularly to such structures as are subject to 5 heavy wear, like floors, walks and roadways, or to structures which are exposed to water, oils and chemicals, in which percolation of the aforesaid materials is undesirable by reason of disintegration, contamination or mechanical weakening of lo the-mastic material of the structure.
It is a well-known fact that ordinary mastic structures by reason of their mechanically weak, relatively soft, crumbly character, are not particularly well adapted for wearing surfaces although they have been used to aconslderable extent for this purpose, largely by reason of the inexpensiveness of the materials employed or the ease with which they may be laid, both upon new and existent structures formed from various materials, as for example, stone, brick, concrete and wood. In addition to the items of ease of application and low material cost, mastic facings or surfaces are also employed by reason of their sound-deadening properties, their resiliency and their low coeflicient of heat transmission, which make them particularly well adapted for the floors of buildings.
Another objection to the use of mastic surfaces is the difliculty in coloring such surfaces as paints with an oil vehicle soften and dissolve the asphalt binder of mastic structure and the color is dulled, stained or obliterated by reason of the paint mixing with the asphalt which it dissolves. If the mastic material is to be integrally colored, as for example, by mixing dry pigments therewith prior to the laying of the material, the high percentage of pigments necessary to be employed operates to weaken the structure, and even under the best j conditions, it is next to impossible to obtain sharp, 40 clear colors or to completely hide the asphalt base so that the colors that are obtained are of a dull and non-descript character.
The object of the present invention is the provision of a process for imparting the requisite hardness, impenetrability and wearing qualities to a structure of this nature, with the employment of a minimum amount of material; the provision of a method for hardening or indurating the surface layer of such a structure so as to render it-resistant to the action of many chemicals and chemical solutions; the provision with the use of a small quantity of pulverized metal,
. of a mastic structure which shall be resistant to abrasion or disintegration; the provision of a 66 method whereby all of the material may be employed without waste; the provision of a mastic structure whose surface shall be smooth, lasting and attractive; the provision of a. mastic structure having an integrally colored s'urface or a surface which may be colored as desired by 5' painting; the provision of a structure of the character described, having a hardened surface which may be polished or otherwise treated to give it a smooth, glossy surface; and the process of treating the surface of an old structure with a comparatively thin surface coating of material which may be readily bonded to the old structure and which has an integrally formed hard, compact, dense surface which is highly resistant to moisture, chemicals and wear, such surface being of a wholly different character from that of the body of the coating or surfacing material; the provision of a method for integrally uniting two structures of dissimilar character which normally are non-adherent, with respect to each other} the provision of an integrally formed structure having a relatively soft, resilient base and a relatively hard surface of a com-- position which normally will not adhere to the composition forming the base; while further objects and advantages of the invention will become apparent in the course of the following description and claims.
The drawing accompanying and forming a part of this application illustrates the method of surfacing an existent structure, as for example, concrete by the [use of the method described in this application. The drawing illustrates a portion of a built-up sectional structure having a concrete base I with a bonding coat 2 of one or more coats of asphalt primer, a mastic facing 3 and a hard surface 4 of cement and iron particles which are thoroughly worked into the mastic material so as to form an integral part thereof, and to provide a hard, dense, wear resistant surface for the mastic facing. Particles of other metals, as for example, copper, nickel and their ferrous alloys, are useful for this purpose; iron being preferred by reason of its relatively low cost.
This invention is primarily concerned with the treatment of the exposed or wearing surfaces of a mastic structure. Structures of this sort ordinarily are supported, though not necessarily so, by a base or foundation wall of some sort and in the ensuing description, reference is made to such base largely because it must be taken into consideration .in the procedure most commonly encountered.
In practicing the invention, the surface of the 55 Ill floated and then floated structure to be treated may be formed from a variety of materials, as for example, stone, brick, concrete and wood. To such a surface after first being cleaned, a bond in the form of one or more coats of asphalt primer is first applied and over this is laid an emulsified asphalt mix comprising, for example, two parts by volume of emulsified asphalt which may include a slight amount of clay, one part by volume of hydraulic cement, eight parts by volume of graded aggregate which may be formed from two parts by volume of sand and six parts by volume of aggregate ranging in size between three-eights of an inch and fiveeighths of an inch in diameter. Just enough water is added to the mix to allow it to be readily worked.
.After the mix has been spread upon the surface to be covered, it is tamped, screeded and then mechanically floated. Immediately after the floating operation, a dry shake comprising two parts by weight of metallic aggregate and one part by weight of fresh hydraulic cement is applied to the surface which is again mechanically again. The surface is then gone over with a steel trowel, after which it is allowed to set partially and then troweled again to burnish the surface.
After the burnishing operation, the surface is cured by covering it with some material, as for example, paper, sand or straw to prevent the too rapid evaporation of the water from the structure which may cause fracture or crazing of the surface of the structure. After the structure has set, it will be found that the mastic structure has an integrally formed, hard, wear resistant, dense, impermeable surface. The surface so formed may be treated with wax, varnish, paint or other protective or decorative coatings.
The mastic structure so formed has the fol-. lowing advantages over an ordinary mastic structure; its surface is highly resistant to wear; it will support heavy objects. without deformation or marring of its surface. The application of the mixtureof cement and iron particles to the surface ofthe structure absorbs water and de-' creases the tendency of the mastic material to shrinkage; it retards drying of the mastic struc-. ture and thus improves curing and minimizing cracking; it eliminates the operation of rolling the mastic structure, which operation is usually performed just after the structure has set; the elimination of the rolling operation preserves the structure of the cement which is used in theasphalt mix, thus increasing the mechanical strength of the structure.
The surface so formed, protects the underlying asphalt from disintegration by oils, water and chemical solutions. The surface of the structure may be integrally colored by use of colored metallic aggregates. The surface may be readily treated with wax, paint or protective coatings which ordinarily could not be applied to the mastic structure.
The proportions of the asphalt mix may be varied within certain limits asis well understood by those skilled in the art of handling mastic materials. The shake which is applied to the surface of the mastic structure also may be varied over rather wide limits, as for example, from one to three parts by'weight of metallic aggregate may be used with one part by weight of cement. The metallic aggregate is preferably formed from clean angular iron particles which will pass through a twenty mesh screen. A small amount of fine powder may be added to the metallic par- .sodium sulphate, etc., may be metallic particles may be colored or uncolored.
When mixed with cement and used in the manner described, the iron particles are covered with a thin coating of cement which prevents their oxidation.
It has-been found in practice that it is diiiicult use a metallicaggregate as a dry shake and to properly work it into the surface without the use of excess water which causes crazing, checking and shrinkage. The use of a plasticizing agent as suggested, obviates the need of additional or excess water and greatly facilitates and reduces the labor of working the dry shake into the mastic structure.
No novelty is claimed for the mastic composition perse, disclosed herein nor for the process involving its use prior to the step of adding cement and metallic particles to the surface of a structure formed from such materials. The prior art shows compositions of matter comprising cement and fine metallic iron particles for use in finishing the surface of concrete structures, as for example, U. S. Patent No. 1,113,555 issued October 13, 1914, to F. M. Haldeman for The prior art also shows processes for using such material in hardening or case-hardening the surface of concrete structures, as for example, U. 8. Patent No. 1,113,112 issu S. W. Flesheim for Process for hardening concrete structures.
My invention resides in the new and unexpected discovery that such compositions and such processes are applicable to'the treatment of mastic structures and that a technique well understood as regards concrete structures and previously never considered in connection with mastic structures, due perhaps because of the normally nonadherent character of. mastic and cement structures, may be appliedto mastic structures to the great improvement of the finished structure by imparting new, useful, unexpected and previously unknown-qualities to such mastic structures.
It should be noted that in carrying out the method of treatment of mastic structures proposed herein, substantially all of the desirable qualities of the mastic structure are retained, as for example, low cost, low heat and sound transmission, resiiiency, etc., and the finished structure is especially vwell adapted for floors, being comfortableand apparently warm underfoot.
The quality of both the mastic structure and the cement surface thereof, may be improved by treatingthe same prior to setting --with a colored or uncolored emulsion of wax in water, such as disclosed in my U. S. Patent No. 1,958,397 issued May 8, 1934. This treatment improves the curing of both the mastic structure and its cement surface while at the same time preventing staining of such surface because of'its being impregnated with a coating of wax which may be readily cleaned and polished.
Fm'thermorait is to be understood that the particular compositions and processes shown and described, and the particular procedure set forth are presented for purposes of illustration and ex- Planation and that various modifications of said ed October 6, 1924, t0-
Aggregate for concrete.
aoeaeis compositions, processes and procedure may be made without departure from the invention as defined in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention what I claim is:
i. The ,process of hardening the-surface of a structure formed from a mastic composition emulsified in an aqueous medium which consists in applying to the damp surface of such structure prior to its setting a dry mixture of hydraulic cement and small irregularly shaped metallic particles, working the same into the surface of said structure, and finally troweling the same to a smooth compact surface.
2. The process of treating the surface of a structure formed from a mastic composition emulsified in an aqueous medium which consists in applying to the damp surface of such structure prior to its setting a dry mixture of hydraulic cement and small irregularly shaped metallic particles, working the same into the surface of said structure, troweling the same to a smooth compact surface, and finally coating the same with an emulsion of wax in water.
3. The process of hardening the surface of a structure formed from a mastic composition emulsified in an aqueous medium which consists in applying to the damp surface of such structure prior to its setting a dry mixture comprising hydraulic cement, small irregularly shaped metallic particles and a small quantity ,of an organic plasticizing agent, working the same into the surface of said structure, and finally troweling the same to a smoothly finished surface.
4. The process of hardening the surface of a structure formed from a mastic composition emulsified in an aqueous medium which consists in first applying to the surface of said structure prior to its setting a layer of hydraulic cement containing fine, irregularly shaped grains of metal, next thoroughly rubbing the same into contact with said structure, then troweling said surface to a smooth finish, and lastly maintaining said surface in aunoist condition until said mastic structure and its surface has hardened and set. 9
5. The process of hardening the surface of a structure formed from a mastic compositionemulsified in an aqueous medium which co ists in applying to the surface of said structure prior to its setting a layer of dry hydraulic cement containing finely comminuted metallic particles and afterward rubbing and troweling the same into contact with said mastic structure until said layer has become thoroughly wetted by the moisture from the mastic structure and the iron particles have become interlocked with said structure and incased fivith cement paste.
6. The process of hardening and rendering impervious, wear-proof and impenetrable the surface 'of a structure formed from a mastic composition emulsified in an aqueous medium which consists in applying to the surface of saidstructure prior to its setting a dry layer of hydraulic cement and finely divided metallic particles in proportions by weight of approximately one part of cement to two parts of iron, and thoroughly troweling such layer upon the surface of said structure whereby said layer and said structure may become merged with each other and said iron particles firmly interlocked together.
'7. The process of surfacing a structure which consists in applying to the surface of said structure a bonding coat of asphalt primer, next applying to the asphalt coating an emulsified asphalt mix, tamping, leveling and floating such mix, and then applying to the surface of such mix prior to its setting a dry mixture of hydraulic cement and finely comminuted metallic particles, and afterward rubbing and troweling the same into contact with said asphalt mix.
8. The process of surfacing a concrete structure which consists in applying to the surface of the concrete a bonding coat of asphalt primer, next applying to the asphalt coating an emulsified asphalt mix, tamping, leveling and floating such mix, and then applying to the surface of such mix prior to its setting a dry mixture of hydraulic cement and finely comminuted metallicparticles, and afterward rubbing and troweling the same into contact with said asphalt mix.
9. The process of integrally forming a structure having a hard, dense, -.wear resistant surface with a bodyformed from a relatively soft material of low mechanical strength which comprises forming the body of the structure from a mixture including emulsified asphalt as a binder and surfacing such mixture prior to its setting with a mixture of dry hydraulic cement and finely divided particles of metal and working such par.- ticles into the surface of the structure so as to provide a hard, dense, smoothlyfinished surface thereon.
10. An integrally formed structure comprising a body of relatively soft material having a relatively hard surface formed from a material which normally will not adhere to such soft material, and means including small particles of matter the dimensions of which are substantially one-eighth of an inch or less partially embedded in both such materials for bonding the hard surface, to the softer body of the structure, such particles forming an integral part of said hard surface and pen- I etrating the soft material of said body.
11. Anintegrally formed structure comprising a body of relatively soft material having a relatively hard surface formed from a material which normally will not adhere to such soft material, and small metallic particles whose dimensions generally do not exceed one-eighth of an inch partially embedded in both such materials for bonding the hard surface to the softer body of the structure, such particles forming an integral part of said hard surface and penetrating the soft material of said body.
12. An integrally formed structure comprising a body of relatively soft material including an organic binder and having a relatively hard surface formed from a material including an inorganic binder which normally will not adhere .to such soft material, and means including small discrete particles of matter the dimensions of which are substantially one-eighth of an inch or less, partially embedded in both such materials for bonding the hard surface to the softer body of the structure, such particles forming an integral part of said hard surface and penetrating the soft material of said body. 7
13. An integrally formed laminated structure comprising a relatively soft base or body portion held together .by an asphalt binder having a hard outer surface held together by a hydraulic cement binder, and means including small discrete particles of matter the dimensions of which are substantially one-eighth of an inch or less for bonding said surface to said body portion.
14. An integrally formed laminated structure comprising a relatively soft base or body portion ticles whose dimensions generally do not exceed one-eighth of an inch partially embedded in the surface of said body portion and held together by a hydraulic cement binder.
15. An integrally formed structure comprising a relatively soft mastic body with a. relatively hard normally non-adherent cement suriace intimately bonded thereto by means of particles of metal some or which are embedded partly in said cement and partly in said mastic body, said particles of metal being of relatively small size the dimensions of which generally do not exceed oneeighth 01' an inch.
EDWARD W. SCRIPIURE, JR.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US20090279952 *||Mar 2, 2009||Nov 12, 2009||Friedemann Hoppe||Runway for aircraft and roadway for vehicles and method of renewing a runway or roadway|
|U.S. Classification||404/27, 404/82|