US 2062850 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1366- s. M. WEAVER ET AL 2,062,850
TURBINE SEWER CLEANER Filed Aug. 9, 1933 4 2 sheets-sheet -1 h "h k y L ATTORNEYIS 1935- s. M. WEAVER ET AL 7 TURBINE SEWER CLEANER Filed Aug. 9, 1933 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 3 fi ose connect'c'a z INVENTORS I ply Water thereto.
Patented Dec. 1, 1936' TURBINE SEWER CLEANER Stuart M. Weaver and Robert E. Neis, Monroe,- Mich.
Application August 9, 1933, Serial No. 684,460
The invention relates to sewer cleaners of that type in which a rotary nozzle supplied with water from a hose and also provided with scraper blades or knives is adapted to be drawn through the sewer to clean the same. With such constructions it is desirable to hold the rotary nozzle or turbine as nearly as possible in concentric relation with the axis of the sewer so as to clean equally all walls thereof. It is, however, essential that the supporting structure for this nozzle or turbine should freely pass through .all portions of the sewer and adapt itself to variations in cross sectional area due to misalignment of the sections or from other causes. To fulfill these conditions and also to form an efficient cleaning tool We have designed .a construction having various novel and useful features, as hereinafter set forth.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a side elevation of our improved cleaning tool, partly in longitudinal section;
Fig. 2 is a sectional end elevation thereof;
Fig. 3 is a view similar to a portion of Fig. 2 illustrating the centrifugally actuated brushes and scrapers;
Fig. 4 is an elevation of a portion of one of the runners of slightly modified construction adapted for use in sewers of large diameters;
Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section through the hose connecting fitting.
Our improved tool comprises a tubular core member A which at its rear end is provided with a coupling fitting B for attachment to the water supplying hose. At the forward end of this tubular core is mounted a rotary turbine head C provided with a plurality of nozzles D, cutting knives E and brushes F. The turbine head is journaled on the end of the tubular core, preferably by providing a cap G having a threaded engagement with the end of said tubular core and having a flanged bearing portion G. A collar H is secured to the core spaced from the cap G and is also provided with a bearing portion H and outwardly extending flange H The head C has at its opposite ends the journal portions C for engaging the bearing portions G, H, and intermediate these portions are inwardly extending portions C which have a running fit upon the tubular core. The head 0 has an annular channel I therein opening between the portions C and .a series of ports J in the tubular core communicating with this channel to sup- This water is discharged through the nozzle D in a direction oblique to its axis and such as: to impart a spiral movement to the stream within the sewer.
The cutting knives E are provided with shanks E having a dovetail engagement with recesses in the head C from which the knives project 5 forwardly and have cutting edges both at their ends and one side. The brushes F are centrifugally operated to be pressed outward against the inner wall of the sewer and to this end the brush holders F are secured to the head by pivot pins F parallel to the axis of rotation and the brushes are inclined to have a trailing engagement with the wall of the sewer. The brush holders F are also provided with cutting knives F having their cutting edges projecting in the 15 direction of rotation.
To support the tool centrally within the sewer conduit and also to receive the reaction from the rotary nozzles and cutting knives, the core member A has connected thereto a carriage com- 20 prising a series of runners K. As shown, there are four of these runners arranged in pairs in transverse planes, each runner being formed of a bar of channel cross section having its opposite end portions K curved radially inward. 25 The runners are supported by links L which at their outer ends are pivotally connected within the channel and at their inner ends are pivotally connected to sleeves M slidably mounted on the core A. Each of these sleeves M has out- 30 wardly extending ears M between which the links. L are pivoted by pins M There are preferably pairs of oppositely inclined links connecting to each end of the runner and between the sleeves M of each pair there is secured to the core member A a stop collar N for limiting movement of said sleeves and outward movement of the runners. Loops or eyes N attached to these collars serve for reattachment of the drawing cable by which the tool, after passing through the sewer, may be completely drawn intoa small manhole to facilitate detachment of hose as hereinafter explained. A coil spring 0 sleeved upon the core member A between the collars M of the opposite pairs serves to resiliently press said sleeves towards the stop collars N and thereby to resiliently press the runners radially outward.
The cap G is provided at its forward end with an eye G for attachment of a drawing cable and the coupling B is provided with two loops B and B for attachment of a trailing cable and for anchorage of the hose while disconnecting the machine.
The tool being constructed as described, in use 55 it is attached by means of the coupling B to a hose member (not shown) and is then engaged with the sewer conduit, it being understood that the cable for drawing it has first been passed through the sewer and attached to the eye G and that the trailing cable has been attached to the eye B. Water is then supplied through the hose and passes through the hollow core A and ports J into the channel I from which it is distributed through the nozzle D. As these discharge tangentially, the reaction will impart rotary movement to the head C, causing the blades E and F to cut through any solid material lodged in the conduit. Also, centrifugal action will throw the brushes F outward to press the same against the wall of the conduit. The reaction from the rotary head is taken by the runners K which are in frictional contact with the outer wall of the conduit. This will also hold the core member A and turbine head in the center of the conduit so as to produce an equal cleaning action upon all sides thereof. The parts are preferably so proportioned that when the slidable sleeves M are in contact with the top collars N, the dimension between opposite runners is substantially the same as the diameter of the conduit. If, however, any obstruction is encountered, which holds one or more of said runners from advancement, the spring 0 will yield, permitting the collapsing of the runners so as to pass the obstruction.
It sometimes happens that due either to exceptional misalignment or some other cause, it will be impossible to pass the tool forward through this obstructed portion. In that event it is necessary to draw the tool backward to remove it from the sewer. Therefore an important feature of our improvement is the construction through which the tool will collapse with equal facility to pass obstructions when drawn in either direction. The construction which permits of functioning in this manner comprises essentially the oppositely inclined links attached to sleeves which are on opposite sides of the stop collar, such construction being duplicated at opposite ends of the runners. Thus as the draft is transmitted from the core member A through the stop collars to the sleeve Which is in advance of said collar in the direction of movement of the tool, it is obvious that any obstruction which prevents one or more of the runners from advancing will at once cause a collapsing of all of the runners. It is also obvious that the same effect will be produced when the tool is drawn rearward, as well as when it is advanced in a forward direction. The spring 0 is of such tension as to hold the runners from collapsing in the normal movement of the tool, so that the turbine will be held centrally of the conduit excepting where there is some abnormal obstruction. If, however, the open area of the conduit is restricted by some impediment which can not be dislodged, then the tool will automatically collapse to a diameter which will pass through the open area, still maintaining it central with respect to this area.
As has been stated, the tool is preferably so proportioned as to contact the runners with the wall of the conduit when in full expanded position, with the sleeve M in contact with the stop collars N. To adapt the tool for conduits which are larger, the runners K may be removed and replaced by other runners K provided with inwardly extending portions K to which the links L are pivoted. This will enlarge the dimension between the outer faces of opposite runners. A
similar effect could be produced by exchanging the toggle links L or by substituting stop collars N of. greater or lesser width.
A turbine head C is preferably provided for each size of conduit to be cleaned. This permits of placing the nozzles D at a minimum workable clearance from the conduit wall where it is most effective in overcoming the resistance to rotation offered by the knives E, brushes F and knives F The location of the nozzles D at a minimum clearance from the conduit wall also affords a means of directing the emerging water jet at close range, without spreading or loss of force, spirally helically along the conduit wall in a most effective manner for scouring. In Fig. 2 one size of head is shown in full lines and another size indicated in dotted lines.
The spiral or helical wash so produced is most effective in carrying forward and ejecting from the sewer all materials removed by the action of the tool. As debris accumulates ahead of the tool and heavier objects lodge at the bottom of the conduit the spiral or helical wash impinges on the heavy objects and causes them to roll or slide upward along the curved conduit wall and over the top of the accumulation of debris. A wash parallel to the axis of the conduit on the other hand tends only to imbed the heavy objects deeper into the debris with the result that they become resistant to wash and eventually completely block the sewer in advance of the machine and render the operation of the machine ineffective.
The centrifugally actuated brushes F, in addition to brushing the interior of the sewer free of all small objects passing the knives E, also insure that the turbine head C will at no time attain a peripheral speed equal to the velocity of the water as it emerges from the nozzle D, which would result in the water being projected axially along the sewer. These brushes F retard the speed of rotation of the turbine head C such that the water emerging from the nozzles D has a circular velocity with respect to the conduit wall opposite to the rotation of the turbine head C which velocity combines with the axial velocity produced by the forwardly directed nozzles D causing the wash to assume a spiral rotation at all times even should the knives E encounter no resistance. This inter-relationship of the brushes F and the spiral wash is very essential to the successful operation of the machine.
The knives F are placed with relationship to the brushes F and the pivot F such that, regardless of extent of brush wear, the knives F contact only material clinging to the sewer wall assisting the brushing action. Furthermore the knives F do not contact the sewer wall at such time as the turbine head C is passing a tap or Y opening into the sewer. The brush is then unrestrained by the opening in the sewer wall and free to rotate to a radial position. Upon rotation to the far side of the tap or Y the brush F, standing in a radial position, encounters the wall of the Y and is thrown back into its normal trailing position without the knife F encountering any part of the sewer wall which would result in rupture of the latter. This combination of knives F and brush F is very efiective in the removal of mats of fine roots adhering closely to the sewer wall.
As the turbine head C must be free to revolve about the core A, and as the water discharged by the nozzles passes through the ports J into the channel I, some portion of this water will leak through the crevice between the revolving and non-revolving parts. To lessen this loss and to avoid washing away the lubricant from the bearing surface, we have designed the head so as to form a break joint around which the leakage must pass. Thus as shown in Fig. 1, the inwardly extending portions C of the head C come into close proximity to the outer surface of the core member A while the portions C constituting the journals bear against the surface H of the collar H and correspondingly against the bearing G of the cap G. Ports P are connected with the crevice or annular groove between the revolving and non-revolving members which permit the escape of any leakage before it reaches the lubricated bearings H and G. Thus water which leaks from the channel I between the portions C and the core member A, first meets the obstruction of the collar H or bearing G, compelling a change in direction, while the ports P provide an escape before the water is forced between the lubricated surfaces.
When the tool is drawn into a manhole of small dimensions the cable attached to the eye G on the cap G may contact with the pulling jack before the whole length of tool is clear from the sewer. If this is the case the cable can be detached from the eye G and attached to the loops or eyes N on the collar N, which will permit of pulling the tool to clear. The function of the second loop B on the fitting B is to engage said fitting with an anchorage in the manhole to prevent the tool from being drawn back into the sewer by the resiliency of the hose before the latter is detached, and also to prevent it from rotating during the unscrewing of the tool from the fitting. Thus a bar or other means may be inserted through the loop B and will serve the purpose of such an anchorage.
An important feature of the construction is that jet nozzles are arranged at the periphery of the head so as to direct the jets tangentially of the inner wall of the sewer close to the surface thereof. Also these jets are slightly inclined to the axis of the head so as'to impart to the water stream a spiral movement. Such construction has the advantages, first, that the jet being at the end of a long radius arm will impart a greater torque to the head than a jet arranged nearer the center of rotation, thereby increasing the efliciency of the cutting knives; second, the spiral direction of the stream of water discharged in advance of the tool will carry with it the loosened debris as would not be possible with a stream directed longitudinally of the conduit. This is for the reason that the spiral movement tends to lift the heavy particles along one side of the conduit and then drop the same into the stream to be propelled forward.
Another important feature of the turbine head construction is that the hydraulic pressure is substantially balanced, inasmuch as the area on the front and rear side of the annular channel are equal. There is a slight backward reaction due to the inclination of the jet to the axis of the tool, but this is not sufiicient to be objectionable. Still another feature is that the construction is one which offers the least resistance to the flow of water to the jets. The rotation of the head and the water in the channel thereof, together with its tangential discharge, forms in effect an ejector and even if the propelled water pressure were to cease, the continued rotation of the head under streamlined so as to offer the least resistance to its movement.
To adapt the tool for cleaning sewers of different diameters, while retaining high eificiency in operation, the construction is such as to permit of readily removing and exchanging, not only the runners but also the turbine head. Thus by merely unscrewing the cap G the turbine may be removed and a larger or smaller one substituted therefor, according to the size of the sewer to be cleaned. The runners may also be exchanged as previously described.
The frame or carriage which is mounted on the hollow core has a floating connection therewith due to the fact that the sleeves Mare free to either revolve or slide thereon. This is advantageous as it relieves the links L from any lateral strain and also permits the tool to adjust itself to conditions within the conduit. The stop collars which engage the sleeves limit the outward expansion of the frame so that in case the tool passes an opening in the side of the sewer the runners will not expand and catch in said opening. This also prevents excessive friction against the walls of the sewer as would be the case if the runners were resiliently pressed thereagainst. Due to the floating mounting of the carriage, either end of the runners may collapse independently of the. other end. Thus when passing an obstruction the uncollapsed end will still serve as a guide while the other end is collapsed to avoid said obstruction.
What we claim as our invention is:
1. In a sewer cleaning tool, the combination with a hollow core member having ports therein and a water supply conduit connected thereto, of a turbine revolubly mounted on said hollow core member and provided with an inwardly opening channel communicating with said ports in said core member, and a break joint journal bearing on said core member for said revoluble turbine provided with vent means connecting with the break in the joint for escape of leakage water.
2. In a sewer cleaning tool, a carriage for the cleaning means comprising a core member, a plurality of runners extending longitudinally and on opposite sides thereof, a pair of sleeves slidably mounted on said core member, a stop connected to said core member arranged between said sleeves, links inclining oppositely for connecting the sleeves on opposite sides of said stop with each of said runners and resilient means for yieldably pressing one of said sleeves against said stop.
3. In a sewer cleaning tool, a carriage for the cleaning means comprising a core member, a plurality of runners extending longitudinally and on opposite sides of said core member, a plurality of sleeves slidably mounted on said core member and arranged in pairs, a stop connected to said hollow core member between each pair of sleeves, links inclining oppositely connecting the sleeves on opposite sides of said stop to each of said runners, and a coil spring sleeved on said core member abutting against one sleeve of each pair to resiliently and yieldably press said sleeves in contact with their respective stops.
4. In a sewer cleaning tool, the combination with a hollow core member having ports therein and a water supply conduit connected thereto, of a turbine revolubly mounted on said hollow core member and provided with an inwardly opening channel communicating with said ports in said core member, a break joint journal bearing on said core member, the outer portion of which is her, the links at opposite end portions being oppositely inclined and in an axial plane, resilient means actuating said slidable links to bias the runners outwardly, and stop means on said core to limit the travel of the slidable links and the outward movement of the runners.
STUART M. WEAVER. ROBERT E. NEIS.