US 2064503 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
DEC. 15, 1936. R TEMPLE. JR 2,064,503
CARTRIDGE v Filed Jan. 26, 1935 ROBE 12 T TEMPLE JR.
Patented Dec. 15, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CARTRIDGE Robert Temple, Jr., Brooklyn, N. Y. Application January 26, 1935, Serial No. 3,553
9 Claims. (Cl. 102-12) This invention relates to cartridges, cartridge casings and the like, and relates more particularly to an improved projectile unit designed primarily for use in penetrating solids such as metals or other substances.
In two earlier patents granted to my father, Robert Temple, Sr., Nos. 1,365,869 and 1,365,870, there are disclosed and described two embodiments of an explosively actuated penetrating and affixing device, the former patent being directed more particularly to a device for use under water. In each of these patents there is illustrated and described a cartridge structure comprising a detonator block, a hollow cup or piston, the open end of which engages the forward end of the detonator block, and a projectile mounted on the forward end of the cup. A threaded stud is secured at one of its ends within an aperture in the detonator block, and at the opposite end within an aperture in the projectile, this stud passing through the cup as well. The cup is filled with a quantity of explosive material which is adapted to be ignited by means provided in the detonator block.
The projectile and the cup are thus firmly secured to the detonator block, and no movement of the projectile and the cup can take place after the detonation until the explosive gases have built up a sufficiently high degree of pressure to break the stud. In order to make the results more certain in each instance, the stud is provided with an annular recess or reduced portion which is termed the break point. After the det-' onation has taken place and the explosive gases have built up their pressures to a point sufficiently high to shear the stud, the projectile and the cup which is secured thereto at the forward end of the stud, move forward at an exceedingly high velocity towards the muzzle of the barrel.
It is an essential feature of this invention to provide a firm seal between the cup and the detonator block, in order to seal the explosive gases Within the cup prior to the breaking of the stud. It is also an important feature to form the cup with such an external diameter as to closely fit the bore of the barrel, since this cup or piston, which is the sole support of the projectile or pin, is moved forward by the explosive charge acting thereagainst. By thus confining the explosive charges and retarding the initial movement of the piston, the projectile develops a sufliciently high velocity to penetrate one inch or more of steel with great ease.
In order to prevent recoil in the gun, means are provided for confining the pressures within the barrel even after the projectile has penetrated its object. This is done in the following manner: The hollow piston which, as previously stated, closely fits the bore of the barrel, is provided with a relatively thin side wall, and when the detonation takes place the explosive gases exert a tremendous lateral pressure on the side walls of said hollow piston against the bore of the barrel, thus forming a substantially perfect seal therebetween. This seal, which is eifected before the initial movement of the piston occurs, is maintained as the piston moves forward in the barrel to its final resting place at the muzzle where its movement is stayed by means of an arresting block having an aperture therein of sufficient size to permit the passage of the projectile therethrough but not the piston. The explosive ases which are confined within the barrel condense within a few seconds, leaving only a small quantity of moisture therein.
In view of the enormous velocities which are achieved by employing this retarding and pressure confining method, the device has a variety of uses. It has been employed successfully for securing two or more plates together, for ailixing studs to plates, for the bonding of wires by penetrating a sleeve which carries the wires, for afiixing rail bond terminals to rails and for many other uses.
In a co-pending application, Ser. No. 668,371, I described an improved cartridge wherein the detonator block is formed with circular recess at its forward end, and the open or rear end of the piston or cup is positioned within this recess when the unit is assembled. In this structure a firmer seal is effected between the cup and the detonator block than by employing a gasket between these elements.
It will be obvious, however, that a cartridge unit of the type previously described, including a detonator block, a hollow piston, a threaded stud with a. reduced portion, and a projectile, all of which had to be assembled by hand, is a rather expensive structure.
The present invention is directed to an improved cartridge unit which can be produced at a far less cost than the type of cartridge just described.
One of the principal objects of the present invention is the provision of an improved cartridge structure which may, if desired, be loaded in the field just prior to the use thereof, a conventional blank cartridge being employed for the powder carrying means in place of the com- .rear.
plicated and rather expensive cup structure previously employed.
Yet another object of the invention is the provision of an improved cartridge structure wherein the user will not readily make an error as to the size of the charge employed by virtue of the fact that blank cartridges of different lengths may be employed for charges of varying forces.
Still another object of the invention is the provision of a cartridge unit wherein the piston or cup will be formed integrally with the main body of the cartridge, the projectile or stud being mounted at the forward end of said piston, thereby providing an inexpensive and compact cartridge structure.
To this end the invention comprises a generally cylindrical casing having at its rear end an enlarged portion which is seated in the breech portion of the gun. The casing is further formed with a longitudinal aperture extending from its rear end inwardly the greater part of its length,
' said aperture receiving the blank cartridge which,
as previously stated, is desirably made in varying lengths to indicate the different powder charges. I
The forward end of the cartridge is preferably flat and is provided with an integrally formed annular flange, the inner diameter of which is of such size as to closely flt the rear end of a tapered projectile which is mounted therein and crlmped. The diameter of the projectile will vary in accordance with the type of work to be accomplished, but it is generally of substantially one-half the diameter of the diameter of the casing.
At a point substantially midway between the ends of the casing, an external annular groove or recess is formed, the depth of said recess being dependent upon the degree of retardation desired.
In operation the casing carrying the projectile is inserted within the barrel of thev gun which it closely fits, and the blank cartridge then inserted within the longitudinal aperture from the The breech element is then inserted in place and the cartridge detonated.
The space between the forward end of the cartridge and. the forward end of the aperture serves as the explosion chamber, and when the blank cartridge is detonated, no movement of the forward end of the casingand the projectile can occur until the explosive gases have built up a sufficiently high pressure to sever the forward portion of the casing, which serves as the piston, from the rear end at the break point or recessed portion. When this occurs, the piston travels toward the muzzle of the barrel at an exceedingly high velocity where its movement is stopped by the arresting block. The projectile, however,
continues its movement and penetrates the object.
A further object of the invention resides in the provision of an improved cartridge for long distance work, the invention in this regard relating to both shotgun shells and rifle shells, said shells having retarding means to give the projectile a far greater velocity than has heretofore been achieved.
Fig. 1 is a longitudinal vertical section taken substantially through the center of the embodiment in its preferred form.
Fig. 2 is a longitudinal broken section taken through the center of one type of explosively actuated penetrating device in connection with which the present improved cartridge is employed, this view showing one of the improved cartridge structures in position in the barrel.
Fig. 3 is a. longitudinal vertical section taken through one of the improved structures wherein the projectile element is integrally formed with the casing.
Fig. 4 illustrates an additional method for securing the projectile to the piston element.
,Fig. 5 is a longitudinal section taken through another embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 6 is a broken side elevation, partially in section, of a cartridge structure having a. hollow projectile.
The improved cartridge structure in its presently preferred form includes a cylindrical casing Ill having an enlarged breech portion II which is seated in the breech end of the barrel of a gun or the like. The casing is formed with a longitudinal aperture i2 extending inwardly from its breech end, the greater part of its length. Within this aperture, 9. conventional blank cartridge I3 is snugly fitted, the rim M of the cartridge residing in a seat l5 at the opening of the aperture. It is desirable that this blank cartridge be made in a plurality of lengths, depending upon the amount of powder contained therein, in order that the operator will make no error in selecting the proper blank cartridge for the work which he is to do. The external surface of the casing is formed with an external or internal annular recess l6 which is positioned substantially midway between the ends thereof, the portion of the casing between said recess and forward end serving as the piston I! which travels towards the muzzle of the barrel.
The forward face l8 of the casing is provided with an integrally formed annular extension portion or flange l9, and a tapered or other projectile or stud. 20 is secured to this face by means of crimping the flange inwardly.
The explosive charge 2| contained within the blank cartridge I3 is detonated by striking the detonation cap 22 in any suitable manner. The explosive gases move forward into the explosion chamber which is designated as 23, wherein they are confined for a slight fraction of a second until they have built up a sufliciently high pressure to sever the piston from the main body of the easing at the recess or break point IS.
The essential features of one type of gun for employing the improved cartridge structure is illustrated in Fig. 2, and includes a substantially cylindrical barrel 26 having an enlarged portion 21 at the breech end thereof. The bore 28 of the barrel is of such size as to permit the main body of the cartridge to closely ilt thereinto, said bore likewise having an enlarged portion 29 to provide a seat 30 for the breech portion of the cartridge. The rear end of this enlarged portion of the bore is threaded as at 3|, to receive a breech block 32 having a firing mechanism 33 adapted to be actuated by means of a small hammer (not shown), the forward end of said firing pin engaging the detonating cap 22 of the cartridge.
The forward end of the barrel is provided with a removable muzzle cap 34 which is secured thereto by means of threads 35. Within the muzzle cap 34 an arresting block 36 is positioned, said arresting block and the front face of the muzzle cap having aligned apertures 31 and 38 respectively. These apertures are of sufficient size to permit the projectile or stud 20 to pass therethrough, the arresting block staying the movement of the piston when the latter engages the former. After the projectile has penerated the work, the muzzle cap is removed, thereby allowing the piston to drop out of the barrel. When it is desired to again actuate the device, the muzzle cap is returned to its place and a new cartridge insertedin the barrel.
This type of muzzle structure is adapted for most types of penetrating work wherein the gun is manually held against the work to be penetrated. In many instances, however, such as in rail bonding work and the like, the gun includes a clamping structure which is adapted to rigidly secure the muzzle of the barrel adjacent to the work to be penetrated. In such instances, the arresting blockis omitted, and the movement of the piston is arrested when it engages said work.
In Fig. 3 a modified form of the cartridge structure is shown. This structure is adapted more particularly for use in cases wherein the projectile is caused to penetrate the work for expansion purposes and is immediately thereafter removed from said work. This structure includes the cylindrical casing 40, the forward end or piston portion 4| thereof being provided with an integrally formed projectile element 42 which may be made in any desired shape, the essential feature being that the taper shall not be so great as to prevent easy removal from the material penetrated.
The casing is further provided with an enlarged breech portion 43, a longitudinal aperture 44 having a seat 45 at its breech end for receiving the rim of a blank cartridge (not shown). In this instance, the annular recess 46 which serves as the break point is internally formed rather than externally, as in the first embodiment. This type'of structure may also be employed for long distance work.
The structure shown in Fig. 4 illustrates additional means for securing the projectile designated as 48 to the piston portion 49 of the easing. The rear end of the projectile is formed with a reduced threaded portion 50 which resides in a threaded aperture 5| in the forward face of the piston portion.
A further modification of the invention is shown in Fig. 5, wherein the projectile element designated as 53 is formed with an enlarged headed portion 54 adjacent to its rear end. A studded portion 55 of substantially the same diameter as the main body of the projectile is frictionally engaged within an aperture 56 in the forward face of the piston element 51 of the casing 58. As in the embodiment shown in Fig. 3, the casing is formed with an enlarged breech portion 59, a longitudinal aperture 60, and an internally disposed annular recess 6l. Whereas in the preferred embodiment a blank cartridge is positioned within the longitudinal aperture in the casing just prior to firing, in the present embodiment the powder designated as 62 is previously inserted within the aperture and is sealed therein by means of a shell head 63 having a detonating cap 64.
A headed projectile of the type shown in Fig. 5 may also be employed for aflixing wood to metal plates.
As previously stated, the projectile element may be made in any desired size or shape, depending upon the type of work to be accomplished. For instance, the projectile may be internally threaded for use in cases wherein it is desired to affix a member to the work penetrated by means of a nut. Likewise, in Fig. 6, the projectile element 66 is formed with a longitudinal bore 61, the projectile being frictionally held in an aperture 68 within the piston portion 69 of the casing. This type of projectile is employed for tapping pipe lines, boilers, tanks and the like.
What I claim is:
1. In a combination of the class described for the purposes specified, a cylindrical casing having a longitudinal bore extending from the rear end thereof over the greater portion of its length, said casing being provided with an annular recess between the ends thereof, an outwardly extending annular flange integrally formed at the for ward end of said casing. and a tapered projectile element supported within said flange, a blank cartridge positioned within the bore of said casing and adapted upon detonation to'severthe forward end of said casing from the rear end thereof at said recessed portion.
2. In a combination of the class described for the purposes specified, a substantially cylindrical casing provided with a longitudinal bore extending inwardly from the rear end thereof, a blank cartridge positioned within said bore, an enlarged breech portion adapted to limit the inward movement of the casing into the barrel of a gun or the like, the casing being provided with an annular recess substantially midway between the ends thereof, and a projectile element carried at the forward end of said casing.
3. In combination, a hollow cylindrical piston having an integral closed head, a projectile of less diameter than the piston releasably held by the outside of the piston head in alignment with the axis of the piston, a cartridge receiving breech formed integral with the open end of the piston, and a cartridge removably positioned in and received by the breech, said piston having an endless circumferential groove extending about half way through the piston wall and positioned substantially midway of its length whereby when the cartridge is fired the piston is severed at a point between the cartridge receiving breech and the piston head.
4. In combination, a hollow cylindrical piston. a breech at one end and having an integral closed head at the other, a projectile releasably held by the outside of the piston head in alignment with the axis of the piston. and a cartridge removably positioned in and received by the breech of the piston, said piston having an endless circumferential groove in the piston wall and positioned between the piston breech and head whereby when the cartridge is fired the piston is severed at a point between the cartridge receiving breech and the piston head.
5. In combination, a hollow cylindrical piston having an integral closed head, a projectile releasably held by the outside of the piston head in alignment with the axis of the piston, and a cartridge removably positioned in and received by a breech at the open end of the piston, said pistonhaving an endless circumferential groove whereby when the cartridge is fired the piston is severed at a point between the cartridge receiving breech and the piston head.
6. In combination, a hollow cylindrical piston having a cartridge receiving breech, a projectile releasably held by the piston in alignment with the axis of the piston, and a cartridge removably positioned in and received by the piston breech, said piston having an endless circumferential groove whereby when the cartridge is fired the piston is severed at a point between head.
7. In combination, a hollow cylindrical piston, a projectile releasably held by the piston in alignment with the axis of thepiston, and a cartridge removably positioned in and received by a breech at the open end of "the piston, said piston having an endless circumferential groove whereby when the cartridge is fired the piston is severed at a point between the cartridge receiving bree h and the piston head;
ber comprising a breech portion and a projectile carrying portion, a projectile releasably secured to the projectile carrying portion of the cylindrical member, a standard blank cartridge removably received in the breech portion of the cylindrical member, the'breech portion and the projectile carrying portion of the cylindrical member being secured together by means constructed and arranged to have less strength in longitudinal tension than the breech and proing suflicient strength when the blank cartridge is detonated to resist relative movement of the breech and projectile carrying portions until substantially a maximum pressure has been built 6 up in the cylindrical member.
9. In combination, a, hollow cylindrical member'having' a closed end, a breech formed in the open end of the hollow cylindrical member, a standard blank cartridge removably received in 10 the breech, and means securing the closed end 8. In combination, a hollow cylindrical memand the breech end of the hollow cylindrical membe'r together, said means being of less strength in longitudinal tension than the remainder of the hollow cylindrical member and so conhi structedand arranged that upon detonatlng the blank cartridge the closed end of the cylindrical member breaks'away from the breech end of the cylindrical member only when substantially the maximum expansive force of the blank cartridge 20 is expended.
- ROBERT TEMPLE. Jx.