US 2064910 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 22, 1936. 3 HARPER 2,064,910
REENFORCED MONOLITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 20, 1933 SSheets-Sheet 1 m VENTOR 624/9506: 67 49a? ATTORNEY Dec. 22, 1936. c 5 HARPER 2,064,910
REENFORCED MONOLITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Sept. 20, 1933 a 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Srmentor 4 BB M (Ittorneg 22, 1936 c. s. HARPER 'REENFORCED"MONOLITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 3 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed Sept. 20, 1953 (Ittorneg Patented Dec. 22, 1936 RTE II STAS AENT OFFICE REENFORCED MONOLITH BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 4 Claims.
My invention .relates to reenforced monolith building construction, and the objects of my invention are:
First, to provide a particularly simple and economically arranged building construction which is inherently fire-proof;
Second, to provide a building construction in which the various frame members or structural members are utilized as molds or forms into which and around which plastic material is applied,
thereby eliminating the need of forms or the like, and insuring adequate reenforcing in all parts of the structure;
Third, to provide a building construction in which the various structural members or frame members may be readily and quickly assembled, and varied in their relation to meet the designs of the architect and incorporating means whereby the various structural members may be temporarily attached to each other so that a considerable portion of the frame work may be positioned before applying plastic materials;
. Fourth, to provide a building construction wherein various structural members'are particularly well interlocked with the concrete or other plastic materials so that the quantity of plastic material will be reduced to a minimum, the structural members carrying a considerable portion of the load;
Fifth, to provide a building construction which is particularly *suited for construction with the aid of pneumatic or otherwise supplied plastic material adapted to be delivered through a hose or other flexible conduit;
Sixth, to provide a building construction whereinthe various structural members are provided with partially punched out tying elements around and between which the plastic material is poured so as to rigidly anchor the reenforcing relative to the plastic material, the holes from which said punched out portions are formed being so disposed that the various structural members may be temporarily connected by pins, dowels, or other suitable means inserted through alined holes or apertures;
Seventh, to provide a building construction wherein the holes or other apertures formed in the various structural members permit the partial escape of the cementitious or plastic material so as to form nodules or protruding portions over which plaster may be applied to form an adequate bond therewith, and
Eighth, to provide on the whole a novelly designed building construction, and method of con- 55, structing buildings which is durable and provides a finished structure which will not readily deteriorate orget out of order.
With these and other objects in view as will appear hereinafter, my invention consists of .certain novel features of construction, combination and arrangement of parts and portionsas will be hereinafter described in detail and particularly set forth in the appended claims, reference being had to the accompanying drawings and to the characters of reference thereon which form a part of this application, in which:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary sectional view 0f a buildingwall and the floor and ceiling joist members before the plastic material is applied; Fig. 2 is a fragmentary sectional view .IOf a joist member, floor and inner partition; Fig. 3 is a fragmentary plan view of the base member used to locate and support inner partitions; Fig. 4 is a partial sectional partial elevational view taken substantially along the line l-4 of Fig. 1; Fig. 5 is a fragmentary sectional view through 5-5 of Fig. 4; Fig. 6 is a fragmentary perspective view of one of the joist members showing thenranner in which the floor reenforcing is supported and secured thereto; Fig. 7 is an enlargedtransverse sectional view of a completed wall with the plaster applied; Fig. 8 is a similar view of a partially completed wall showing the manner in which the studding may be strengthened; Fig. 9 is a fragmentary sectional view illustrating the manner in which the studding forming member may be adapted to permit connection of such members at right angles to each other; Fig. 10 is a fragmentary sectional view thereof through Ill-l0 of Fig. 9; and Fig. 11 is a sectional view of the ceiling joist and rafter taken through ll-ll of Fig. 1;
Similar charactersof reference refer to similar parts and portions throughout the several views of the drawings.
Foundation I, studding 2, pins 3, floor joist 4, floor reenforcing 5, floor slab 6, wall reenforc'mg 1, wall slab 8, reenforcing bars 9, top channel I0, rafters H, and base channels l2 constitute the principal parts of my reenforced monolith building construction.
A foundation I is provided. This is formed from concrete and may be conventional except that there is provided a trench or channel la. centered along its upper edge. Studding 2 is set at the desired distance and in upright position with its lower ends fitting into the trench or channel Ia.
Each studding member 2 comprises a pair of channel members which are secured together along their central or base portions 2a. The legs of each channel member are arranged at obtuse angles with the base 2 so that the pairs of legs, designated 2b, formed along each margin of the studding, diverge from the bases or central portions 2a; thereby forming a structural member of substantially X-shaped cross-section. The legs or webs 2b are provided with a series of apertures 20 arranged in columns therealong and preferably in staggered relation. The apertures 20 are formed by partially punching the material inwardly; that is, into the triangular spaces of which the diverging webs form two sides. The apertures 20 are so formed that the tie lugs or elements are larger at their extremities than at their attached ends. The several tying lugs extend substantially horizontally.
The studding is formed of sheet metal so'that the tying lugs may be readily stamped therefrom, and the lugs may be variously bent or broken off whenever desired in order that the studding may be connected to other structural members of other similar design. However in most instances the lugs may remain intact. It is quite easy, providing that the apertures 20 are arranged in sufficient frequent intervals, to connect the studding at right angles to each other; thus using the studding for other purposes; for example, it may bedesirable to connect several studding intermediate their ends to define to the upper and lower sides of a window or the top of a door frame. This is done by beveling the webs of the member which is to be positioned horizontally, as indicated in Figs. 9 and 10. The beveled end is then positioned against the side of the studding, and a nail or other securing pin 3 is inserted through any apertures that may be in alinement or partially in alinement; thereby providing ample temporary connections between the studding and frame members. It will be noted that this. feature of the studding is enhanced by increasing the diverging relation of the webs 2b.
Following out the same principle as embodied in the studding or other frame members similarly formed, joist and other structural members of different section may be provided. The joist members, designated'4, are in the form of relatively deep channels and constructed of sheet metal. The bottom designated 4a is closed and preferably without apertures. The side walls, designated 4b, are provided with a number of horizontal rows of apertures 40, the apertures in the several rows being arranged in staggered relation. The spacing of the apertures 40 and the transverse spacing of the apertures 20 are so arranged that when a floor joist 4 is placed against. the side of a studding member 2, a number of the apertures register so as to receive suitable pins 3, as shown in Figs. 1 and 4.
. Theupper edges of the side walls 4b are provided with a series of short downwardly extending slits,-the material between alternate slits being bent horizontally and outwardly forming rudimentary shelves or brackets 42. The remaining projection, designated 4 remains vertical, as shown best in Fig. 6. The brackets 4e and the upwardly projecting portions 4 serve to connect floor reenforcing vt5 thereto. The floor reenforcing 5 is preferably formedof relatively stiff and, if desired, heavy wire. A special type of reenforcing has been found most suitable. This type comprises wire of relatively large mesh with the strands at right angles to each other, and secured together by spot welding or solder as distinguished from the usual woven wire mesh.
Thus the wire mesh comprises strands 5a which parallel the joist, and other strands 5b which traverse the joist at right angles. Supported from the under side of the strands 5a. and 5b is a backing 50 preferably formed of paper and which carries at intervals a tie wire 5d having loop portions 5e at intervals which pass over the strands 51) or 511 so as to support the backing 5c in spaced relation to the wire mesh. In laying the floor reenforcing the paper backing is cut away above each floor joist so as to expose the upper end thereof, and the margins of the paper are rested upon the brackets ie, as shown best in Fig. 6. The wire mesh is preferably positioned so that the adjacent strands 50. extend along opposite sides of the channel member in contiguous relation therewith; thatis, the adjacent strands lie contiguous to the outer sides of the projections if so that these projections may be bent into diverging relations, and thereby secure the floor reenforcing in position.
After the joist members are arranged and the floor reenforcing has been positioned thereover, a floor slab of concrete, designated o, is applied over the reenforcing, and caused to enter the several floor joists 4. The concrete, cement, or plaster is applied in a fairly dry state, but sufficiently wet to fill solidly in the floor joist and ooze or partially protrude from the apertures 40. The projecting portions or nodules 6a provide excellent means for tying plaster or the like which may be applied over the outside of the floor joist, thereby completely covering the floor joist.
The walls between the studding 2 are covered with wall reenforcing 7 similar to the floor reenforcing 5. The extremities of the webs 2b may be formed similar to the upper end of the floor joist s, or may be without the brackets and projecting portions in as much as the strands of the wall reenforcing may be tied by loops of wire through various apertures 20. After the wall reenforcing l is positioned, a wall slab 8 of. concrete is applied over the wall with portions of the concrete being poured into the trianguw reenforcing rods 9 may be positioned along and.
in spaced relation to the bases 2w formed by the members of the studding, and stucco or the like may be applied in the manner of plaster over the surfaces, as shown in Fig. 8. The
plaster being forced through the apertures so as to firmly tie itself to the studding; thereupon the wall reenforcing and the wall slab may be applied as above described.
The upper end of each studding is provided with a slit 2e extending inwardly from the end and centrally located. The several studding forming a wall support a top channel It]. The top channel H] is formed similarly to the floor joist 4 except that its base portion Illa is wider, and its side walls lilb are less in height. side walls I lib are provided with a plurality of apertures lflc formed by pressing portions of the metal inwardly to form tying lugs ltd. In addition to the apertures I and the tying lugs ltd, the bottom of the top channel It] is provided along its side margins with apertures we, the material being bent downwardly so as to protrude from the channel and overhang the The upper extremities of the studding. The wall reenforcing 1 and wall slab 8 are continued over the side Walls lb of the top channel. The top channel I0 is provided along the center of its base portion HJa with a depending rib lllg which is provided with a series of apertures lfih therein. The apertures Hlh are adapted to aline with the openings 2c at the upper end of the studding so as to receive apin or the like 3.
If the structure is to be only one story in height, the ceiling joist is rested on top of the top channel 10; however, if the structure is to continue up more than one story, the studding 2 of the second story is supported in the top channel l0 similar to the manner in which the first story studding is mounted in the channel la. formed in the foundation I. It should be here noted that the channel In after the studding 2 has been positioned, is filled with concrete so as to imbed the lower ends of the studding and hold them in an upright position.
The lower ends of the studding used in the second story are not indicated by 2] at their lower ends, and the apertures 20 aline with the apertures lllc so as to receive pins 3 and thereby support the second story studding in a vertical position. The second story floor joist 4 is placed across the top of the channel It! adjacent the sides of the second story studding, and are tied thereto by means of pins 3 as described hereinbefore. If desired, reenforcing bars 9 may be extended along the top channel. The notches 2f straddle the reenforcing bars 9, as shown best in Figs. 1 and 4.
In a similar manner the upper ends of the second story studding 2 receive a second top channel, and the ceiling joist may be supported thereupon. The ceiling joist is of similar construction to the floor joist, and suitable reenforcing bars 9 may be supported in the ceiling joist with ends bent downwardly to extend into the upper top channel In, as shown best in Fig. 1. It should be here noted that the apertures 4c in the several joist members and lflc in the top channels may receive pins upon which the additional reenforcing bars 9 may rest prior to the pouring of concrete or the like.
If it is desired to support a sloping roof from the ceiling joist, rafters II may be provided. The rafters are identical in construction to the floor joists except that their widths are slight- 1y less. As shown in Fig. 11, the rafters 11 are inserted in the ceiling joist in angular relation therewith, the securing lugs which would otherwise interfere being bent out of the way or broken off. The rafters are additionally held in their desired positions by the insertion of pins 3 through alining apertures.
In the forming of interior partitions, the fioor joist and floor slab are poured first, then base channels l2 are positioned along the fioor so as to define the desired partitions. The channels l2 are similar to the channels I!) except that in place of the depending rib 10; the base channel I2 is provided with a series of large openings l2a. When the partition studding has been positioned and the channels l2 filled with cement, said channels are tied through the openings with the floor slab. If. desired, the partition base channels may be mounted before the floor slab is poured by suitably suspending it a desired distance above the floor reenforcing. If this is done, the channel may be filled with cement the same time the floor is poured.
If desired, in addition to the temporary securing arrangement afforded by the pins 3, the structural members may be tacked together by spot welding.
Though I have shown and described a particular construction, combination, and arrangement of parts and portions, I do not wish to be limited to this particular construction, combination, and arrangement, but desire to include in the scope of my invention the construction, combination, and arrangement substantially as set forth in the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. In a building construction, combined frame and form elements formed of sheet material and bent to form the various structural members of a building construction, said structural members having a plurality of. apertures therein, the apertures in the several structural members being so disposed that upon arrangement of the structural members in their various positions to form a building construction several apertures of adjacent structural members are in registry, tie members adapted to be inserted through such apertures to initially retain the structural members in position, said structural members having structural sections and defining channels adapted to receive plastic material, the apertures adapted to permit extrusion of a limited quantity of plastic material to provide irregular exterior surfaces facilitating the application of other plastic material, and anchor lugs extending into the channels formed by partially punching the material deleted to form the apertures.
2. In a building construction, combined frame and form elements formed of. sheet material and bent to form the various structural members of a building construction, said structural members having a plurality of apertures therein, the apertures in the several structural members being so disposed that upon arrangement of the structural members in their various positions to form a. building construction several apertures of adjacent structural members are in registry, tie members adapted to be inserted through such apertures to initially retain the structural members in position, meshwork extended between and across the structural members, and a backing for said meshwork connecting the structural members, said structural members defining channels, exposed to the meshwork, monolithic initially plastic material spread over the meshwork and into the channels, the apertures adapted to permit extrusion of limited quantities of plastic material to provide irregular exterior surfaces on the structural members, and a coating of, plastic material spread over such exterior surfaces whereby the structural members are completely encased, and anchor lugs extending into thel channel formed by partially punching the material deleted to form the apertures.
3. In a building wall construction, a series of alternating foraminous studding and channel members, the channel members being disposed horizontally across the upper ends of the studding therebelow and arranged to receive the lower ends of the studding thereabove, said studding likewise defining channel portions, the channel members and channel portions both provided with integral inwardly enlarging inwardly extending tying lugs, said channel members and channel portions serving as forms to receive plastic material whereby the lower ends of the stud- 75 ding are anchored in thechannel members and serve as reinforcing for plastic material.
4. In a building wall construction, a series of alternating foraminous studding and channel members, the channel members being disposed horizontally across the upper ends of the studding therebelow and arranged to receive the lower ends of studding thereabove, said studding likewise defining channel portions, the channel members and channel portions both provided with integral inwardly enlarging inwardly extending tying lugs,
said channel members and channel portions serv-. ing as forms to receive plastic material whereby the lower ends of the studding are anchored in the channelmembers; means interlocking the, channel members and studding, a meshwork con-. necting the studding, and a; monolith plastic material applied in and. around the studding and channel members and over the meshwork.
CLARENCE Sl-I-IARPER. 1o