US 2065491 A
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Dec. 22, 1936. G. o. HARM 2,065,491
CLOCK Filed Aug. 7, 1934 2 shee-sheet 1 l NVEN TOR.
of 0. #a1/1%. Fg/.f QQ/74, rJMlm ATTORNEYS Dec. 22, 1936. G, O, HARM 2,065,491
CLOCK Filed Aug. 7, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 #5; ATTORNEYS "www:
Patented Dec. 22, 1936 UNITED STATES CLOCK George 0. Harm, Warren, Ohio, assignor to Marjorie Lea Harm, Warren, Ohio Application August 7, 1934, Serial No. 738,779
My invention is an improvement in clocks, and relates more particularly to electric clocks and to novel mechanism for and manner of displaying the time.
It has been the common practice, heretofore, to arrange numerals or other indicia for indicating the time, in a circular series about the face of aclock or watch, and providing suitable pointers or hands which are adapted to be revolved over the face by means of suitable mechanism to indicate the time. In these instruments it is necessary that the second, minute and hour hands be mounted on shafts which protrude through the face of the instrument and which must be freely rotatable through the opening in the face and spaced from the walls thereof. While such an instrument and the manner of indicating the time thereon is more or less the conventional style, I have, by my invention, produced a clocl:v having an imperforate face bearing suitably arranged indicia, thereby eliminating the passage of dust through the face and into the interior of -the clock mechanlsm, and increasing the ease in quickly cbserving the time. l
It is, therefore, one of the objects of this invention to constructs clock having a face whereon the hours andminutes are displayed in separate linear series of indicia.
y It is a further object of my invention to provide a novel means or method of indicating the time which includes one or more members slidable along the face of the clock adjacent the linear series of indicia. v
It is another object of my invention to construct a clock including a simple drive mechanism for a time indicating means of the type referred to. y,
A still further object fof my invention is to simpliiy the construction of electric clocks and to improve'l thev appearance ofthe-same by eliminating shafts or other vdriving means passing through the clock face for indicating the hour and minute of the day or night.
Other. objects and advantages of my inven- -tio'n will become more apparent from the following description of an embodiment thereof, reference being made to the accompanying drawings in whichy like reference characters are employed to designate like parts throughout the same. l A
Inthe drawings: e e
Figure l is affront elevation of a clock embodying my invention;
Figure 2 is a vertical section of the lower fragment of the clock;
Figure 3 is a section through the lower portion of the clock and is taken on a line 3-3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is an enlarged section taken on line 4-4 of Figure 3 and shows in dotted lines the positions of the parts at the beginning of movement of one of the indicator strips upwardly'of the clock face;
Figure 5 is a, section taken on line 5--5 of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a section taken on line 8 6 of Figure 2; and
Figure 7 is a section taken on line 1-1 of Figure 1.
By means of my invention the observer will be able more readily to determine the time of day or night. This is primarily due to the particular arrangement of the indicia on the face of the clock and the sliding indicator operating adjacent each linear series of indicia. It is to be understood that while I have shown the present embodiment as applied to an electric clock, the 'invention is equally well adapted to mechanical clocks driven by a spring motor or other means, and to watches.
In carrying out my invention as applied to the embodiment shown ln the accompanying drawings, I provide a clock casing I, which is preferably of an ornamental type or design and which is provided with a vertical, elongated opening for displaying the clock face insertable in the casing. Ihe clock face comprises an oblong piece of glass or any other suitable material 2 either opaque or transparent and carries spaced linear series of indicia representing the hours and minutes over a twelve hour period. 'I'he outer surface of the piece is grooved or recessed as at 3 and I to receive and guide the indicator strips 5 and 6, respectively, as they slide over the iace adjacent the respective series of indicia on the face. An outer plate 1, which is preferably transparent'is superimposed upon the plate 2, and the plates 2 and 'l ilt between the frame members 8 and 9 of the clock body as illustrated more particularly in Figure 7. A window I0 may also be provided in the lower clock casing for purposes which will be more fully described hereinafter.
According to my invention I have provided a simplel mechanism for sliding the indicating strips 5 and 6 progressively upwardly over the face of the clock to indicate respectively the hour and minute oi' time. I have also provided an automatic return for the indicating strips when they have respectively reached the upward limits of their movement over the face of the clock over a period of twelve hours so that the cycle of operation may proceed over succeeding periods oi' similar duration.
A suitable synchronous motor and gear reduction means are housed within the casing II in the base of the clock, the motor being connected to a source of electrical energy (not shown) and deriving power therefrom for its operation. Extending from the casing II is a hollow shaft I2 which revolves at the rate of one revolution every twelve hours. This hollow shaft I2 extends forwardly of the casing II and supports the hour drum I3 which is operated by this shaft. Another hollow shaft I4 concentric within the hollow shaft I2 also extends forwardly of the casing II and beyond the end of the shaft I2 to support the minute drum I5. This other shaft I4 revolves at the rate of one revolution per hour and operates the minute drum at this rate. Also carried on this other shaft I4 is a disc I6, the periphery of which is serrated or roughened as at I1. This disc is fixed to the shaft I4 and, as shown in Figures 2 and 6, projects through an opening to the rear of the clock casing, as at I3, where it is easily accessible to the user for purposes of setting the positions of the hour and minute drums I3 and I5, and, of course, the indicating strips operated by these drums. In this way the clock can easily be set to the correct time.
A shaft I9 concentric with the hollow shafts I2 and I4, and operating within the shaft I4 extends forwardly from the casing I I, its outer end operating in a bearing bracket 20 as shown in Figure 3. The shaft I9 also revolves at a rate of speed sumcient to visibly observe that it is operating, and has xed thereto a sprocket wheel 2I having a driving connection with the sprocket 22 on the shaft 23, through the medium of a belt or chain 24.
The shaft 23 operates through suitable openings in the bearing blocks 25 and 26 of the minute and hour revolving units. The bearing blocks 25 and 26 are formed as a part of the respective stationary casings of the minute unit I5 and the hour unit I3. The shaft 23 drives a sprocket 21 fixed thereon which in turn has driving connection by means of the belt or chain 23 with a sprocket 29 formed as a part of the second drum 30 which revolves freely on the hollow shaft I4 and which is provided about its periphery with markings which may indicate seconds of time. The periphery of the drum 30 may also be decorated to produce various effects when viewed through the window I0 provided in the lower portion of the clock case.
The hour and minute drums I3 and I5 are rotatable Within the housings 3| and 32 respectively which flt the respective drums substantally throughout their peripheries as illustrated in Figures 2 and 4, except for a restricted portion to permit the respective strips 5 and 6 to pass tan gentially from the drum peripheries into the respective guiding grooves 3 and 4 of the clock face. It will be noted that the construction is quite compact and that the plate or face 2 is supported in the seats 33 provided in the housings 3| and 32. The outer or cover plate 'I is likewise supported at 34. Each of the housings is constructed as a unit as indicated in Figure 3 and is supported on the clock base 35 in the position shown, the bearing bracket 20 having a. base portion 38 abutting the housing 32. The housings are formed to provide spring supports and stops 31 and 38, comprising upwardly projecting members having their upper ends turned inwardly toward the hubs of the drums housed therein.
To each of the respective brackets or supports 31 and 33 is attached an end of a spiral spring 33 and 40 respectively, as at 4I the opposite ends of the springs being attached to the respective drums I3 and I5 as at 4Ia. These springs are provided for the purpose of automatically returning the respective drums I3 and I3 to their normal positions, that is, so that the indicating strips 5 and 6 will return to their lowermost positions opposite the respective linear series of indicia, after said strips have reached the uppermost positions opposite the series. Each drum I3 and I5 is freely rotatable on its respective shaft to permit the return movement.
Arms 42 and 43 are fixed to the respective shafts I2 and I4 and rotate therewith to impart motion to the drums I3 and I3 respectively. These arms engage similar latches 44 pivotally carried on each of the said drums as at 45. Springs 46 are xed to the drums at 4Ia and are held in compression against the latches by means of the pins 41 so that positive engagement of the latches with the arms is obtained. Pins 4l limit the movement of the latches during the period of release and return oi' the drums to normal position.
The end of each latch is bent outward at 49 so that when the drums revolve they will contact the stops 31 and as the movement continues, the ends 49 of the latches 44 will be depressed releasing the opposite ends from contact with the end of the arms 42 and 43 respectively. 'I'he spiral springs then become effective to return the drums in a counter-clockwise direction in Figure 4 and thus rewind the strips upon the drums. The arms 42 and 43 continue their rotative movement uninterrupted and again engage the latches 44 to repeat the cycle of operation.
I have described above the construction and operation of both the hour and minute units, but, as has been pointed out hereinbefore, it will be observed that each unit operates independently of the other because 0f the different speeds of thc relative shafts I2 and I4.
When the face is made of transparent or translucent material and the indicia are opaque, or vice versa, a source of illumination such as an electric lamp 50 may be provided in a suitable position in the clock casing I, and when energized will uniformly and adequately illuminate the entire face of the clock or the indicia as the case may be.
I will now describe one complete cycle of operation of the clock equivalent to a twelve hour period of time, since by the particular design shown the hour indicator must traverse the hour scale twice in twenty four hours. It is to be understood that while I have shown a twelve hour scale, a twenty-four hour scale may be substituted for it, and the speed of the shaft I2 reduced by one half.
Assuming that the strips I and 3 are at the starting point on the clock face, that is. the hour strip 5 is opposite the lower hour marked "12 on the scale, and the minute strip is opposite the 0 in the minute scale, the synchronous motor is caused to operate by connecting it -with a source of electrical energy of the proper frequency for which the clock is built. Of course thisis also assuming the clock is started operating precisely at twelve o'clock 'noon or twelve oclock midnight.
The shafts I2, I4 and I9 are caused to rotate continuously in one direction, but at different speeds, by virtue of the gear reduction unit, the shaft I2 rotating at the rate of one revolution in twelve hours, the shaft I4 at the rate of one revolution per hour and the shaft Il preferably at a rate fast enough so that the markings on the drum 30 will be visible behind the window or opening III to show that the clock is in operation.
Rotation of the shaft I2 will cause the hour drum I3 to rotate in the same direction since the driving connection between the drum and the shaft is through thelatch u and arm 42 in the position shown in the drawings. As this drum rotates, the strip 5 wound about its periphery and within the housing 3| is slowly unwound and pushed upwardly in the groove l of the clock face toward the next succeeding hours on the scale. When the free end of the strip reaches a point opposite the uppermost-Figure 12 on this scale, the drum I3 will have made one substantially complete revolution. During this rotation the spiral spring 39 is placed under increasing tension until the latch M is released from its engagement with the arm 42 at the end of the revolution, thus permitting the drum to quickly rotate on the shaft I2 in the reverse direction to again engage the latch with the arm and re-establish the positive driving connection with the shaft I2. During this quick reverse rotation of the drum on the shaft I2 the strip 5, which is secured at one end 4to the periphery of the drum, is rewound on the drum and withdrawn downwardly in the groove 3 to its initial starting position. This operation -is repeated a long as the motor is running. The operation of the minute drum I6 is similar to that of the drum Il except-that its speed is increased to one revolution per hour, the strip 6 indicating minutes of elapsed time on the minute scale. As the drum rotates the strip 6 is pushed upwardly in the groove 4 of the face until it reaches its uppermost limit of movement opposite the marking 60 on the scale. At this point the latch is released and the spiral spring 40 rotates the drum quickly in a reverse direction to withdraw the free end of the strip toward the lowermost position opposite the marking on the scale. At the 'same time this strip is wound upon the periphery of the drum I5. This operation is repeated as long as this motor is running.
When it is desired to set the strips to a predetermined hour and minute, as in starting the clock between twelve noon and twelve midnight, the operator turns the disc Il. This movement is imparted through the shaft Il and the mechanism within the casing II.
From the foregoing it will be seen that I have provided a very simple, compact and inexpensive mechanism for easily and quickly observing the time and elapsed time. It will be understood that while the strips and C areshown asoperating alongside the linear series of indicia, they may be caused to overlie these indicia during` their movement.
Various changes in the details of construction and arrangement of parts may be made without departing from the spirit of my invention or the scope of the appended claims.
1. In a clock, a face. a linear series of indicia on said face, an indicator strip slidable over said face and adjacent said linear series of indicia, and means for imparting movement to said strip, said means includinga driving motor, a shaft driven by said motor in but one direction, a drum freely rotatable on said shaft, one end of said strip being secured to the periphery of said drum, and means on said shaft and said drum for imparting intermittent movement to the latter in one direction.-
2. In a clock, a face, spaced linear series of indicia on said face, indicator strips slidable along the face and adjacent said indicia, and means for sliding said members, said means including a driving motor, a plurality of shafts driven by said motor in but one direction at relatively different speeds, members freely rotatable on each of said shafts and means on each of said shafts and the'respective rotatable members for imparting intermittent movement to the latter.
3. In a clock, a face, spaced linear series of indicia on said face, members slidable along the face and adjacent said indicia, and means for sliding said members, said means including a driving motor, a plurality of shafts driven by said motor in but one direction at relatively different speeds, members freely rotatable on each of said shafts and means on each of said shafts and the respective rotatable members for imparting intermittent movement to the latter.
4. In a clock, a face, spaced linear series of indicia on said face, members slidable along the face and adjacent said indicia, and means for sliding said members, said means including a driving motor, a plurality of shafts driven by said motor in but one direction at relatively different speeds, members freely rotatable-on each of said shafts, a resetting member fixed to one of said shafts, and means on each of said shafts and the respective rotatable members for imparting intermittent movement to the latter.
5. A clock including a face scaled for hours and minutes of time and having guiding means along its outer surface adjacent the scaled portions, strips slidable in said means, and means for sliding said strips at relatively different speeds.
6. A clock including a face scaled for hours and minutes of time and having guiding means along its outer surface adjacent the scaled portions, strips slidable in said means, means for sliding said strips in one direction at speeds corresponding to elapsing hours and minutes of tima-and means for quickly retracting said strips after they have reached their limits of movement in one direction.
GEORGE 0. HARM.