US 2065531 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
CLGSETS, SIN 'v AND SPLUQNS.
S. H T1 A B Dec. 29, 1936. P. w. KERR SHOWER BATH CABINET Filed May 23, 1935 me sentons.
Patented Dec. 29, 1936 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE This invention relates to shower bath cabinets, and among other objects aims to provide a socalled knock-down shower cabinet which can be produced at lower cost than heretofore and will have a quality and decorative appearance in har- Y mony with standard bathroom design.
The nature of the invention may be readily understood by reference to one construction embodying the invention and illustrated in the accompanying drawing.
In said drawing:
Fig. 1 is a small scale perspective view of a' shower bath cabinet;
Fig. 2 is a fragmentary plan section of the cabinet on a larger scale showing approximately onehalf of the area of the cabinet, the section being taken approximately on the broken plane 2-2 Y of Figs. 1 and 3;
Fig. 3 is a vertical section taken on the plane 3-3 of Fig. 1; and
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary section through the edge of the receptor at the door opening, being taken on the plane 4-4 of Fig. 1.
One of the characterizing features of bathroom design is porcelain enamel both in white and attractive colors. For most fixtures this material has proved entirely satisfactory and it is now so firmly established as a standard material that its use in practically essential. For shower bath cabinets, particularly the sheet metal and knock-down types, which are fabricated largely of sheet metal, porcelain enamel has not heretofore been entirely satisfactory, and its application to sheet metal has been diicult and in some cases impractical.
The major problems in this connection have been (1) chipping or cracking of the relatively brittle enamel because of the flexibility of the sheet metal; (2) warping of the sheet metal side walls under the enameling heat, particularly at the connecting flanges or joints, which makes assembly difficult and tends to cause leakage at the joints; and (3) the slipperiness of a porcelain enameled receptor. Among other objects the present invention has solved these problems in a practical and economical way. The illustrative shower` bath cabinet which embodies the invention, both harmonizes with present bathroom practices and design and may be produced at relatively low cost.
As here shown, the shower bath cabinet comprises the receptor ID forming the base of the cabinet and the superposed sheet metal side walls II, in this case embodied in connected sections, forming the enclosure except for the entrance or l cabinet side walls and the receptor.
doorway I2 which may be closed either by a curtain or door as desired. The receptor is here shown resting upon a rectangular base frame I3 whose height is at least suiiicient to accommodate the dish of the bottom I4 and may advantageously be somewhat higher, as in the present instance, to allow space for a portion of the drain outlet fixture I5 which is connected to the receptor at its center or lowest point. The'receptor is centered on the frame by downwardly extend--4 ing projections I6 preferably torch-welded to the under face of the receptor adjacent its corners.
The receptor is preferably formed of sheet enameling iron or steel of sufficient thickness to provide, in conjunction with the receptor side walls or flanges I1 (which are in this case integral with the bottom), an adequately stiif or rigid structure. Sheet metal of from sixteen to fourteen gauge has been found suitable for this purpose.
The side walls I I are likewise formed from sheet enameling iron or steel but may be of a somewhat lighter gauge, twenty to sixteen gauge being satisfactory. As here shown, the side walls are formed in three sections, namely, two side sections I8 and I9 and a back section 20. The side sections include also front wall portions 2I formed with side stiles 22 to frame the door opening I2.
As shown more particularly in Fig. 3, the side walls are supported by and connected to the receptor side walls I'I by finishing screws 23 which penetrate the side walls and receptor and enter nuts 24 on the exterior. A leak-proof joint between the side walls and receptor is provided by a gasket 25 preferably of molded rubber which is located between the cabinet side walls and the receptor and is sufficiently resilient to compensate for any inequalities (frequently produced by warping in the enameling process) between the Preferably the gasket is finished at its upper edge with a head or bead 26 which partially extends over the side of the receptor and at its lower end with a liange 21 which extends under the lower edge of the side wall. The upper edge of the receptor wall is advantageously finished by bending over the metal as at 28 to form a smooth and finished upper edge.
The nuts 24 are advantageously positioned and concealed by a partly closed sheet metal channel 29 extending around the receptor. As shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the channel is of a size to hold the nuts against turning, and is provided with an upwardly extended curved flange 30 constructed and A arranged to be inserted in the space 3| under the margin 28 by which the channel is frictionally held in place. The nuts are held in position longitudinally of the channels in any appropriate manner as by crimping the inner channel flange (see Fig. 2) on opposite sides of the nuts to prevent their sliding in the channel. The nuts may thus be located accurately opposite the registering perforations in the receptor and cabinet side walls through which the fastening screws eventually pass.
The corners of the channels 29 are advantageously enclosed by corner members 32 having projections 33 which extend upwardly into the space 3| in which they are held by a cement or other appropriate means. Adjacent the corners the flanges 28 are cut or mitered away to accommodate the projections 33. The channel and corner member fastening means need function only during the assembly of the cabinet since after the fastening screws 23 are positioned, the latter will serve to support the exterior channel 29. The latter may be formed either in one piece or in a separate section for each side of the receptor. In either case, the supporting corner elements 32 serve to cover any joint at the corner. These channels may also advantageously serve as finishing strips just below the folded-over receptor flanges, and for that purpose are formed of suitably decorative material such as brass, stainless steel, nickel plate or the like.
As will presently appear, the location of the nuts in accurate position facilitates the assembly of the cabinet from within the receptor without requiring access to the exterior, and thereby permits the erection of the cabinet in small or confined spaces where access to the back or side walls of the receptor is impossible.
The cabinet side wall sections are in this case connected at the two rear corners of the cabinet. As here shown, the adjoining side flanges of the sections are inwardly offset as at 34 and are joined by an interior corner strip 35 having curved side edges 36 which embrace and conceal the offset portions. The joint is rendered leak-proof by gaskets 31 which lie between the corner strip and the inwardly offset margins. Preferably such gaskets are in the form of molded rubber channels which embrace the inwardly offset margins and extend, on the interior, to the edges of the corner strip and are there engaged by the inwardly curved margins of the strip. The corner strip is here shown appropriately secured in place by oval head finishing screws 38 which thread into anchor bar 39, the side flanges 40 of which lie behind or outside the inwardly offset side wall margins, between which, in the present instance, the other side of the rubber gaskets extend. When the side wall margins and the corner strip are tightly clamped together, the resilient rubber gaskets serve to form a leak-proof joint notwithstanding inequalities caused by warping of the side wall edges during the enameling process. process the temperature is raised to about 1600" F. and it is generally impossible to prevent some slight warping of the side walls particularly at the free side flanges. Despite the magntiude of distortions due to warping and indeed recognizing the impossibility of preventing warping, the joint structure is such as to make assembly and eventual alignment of the parts possible without damage to the enamel. In the particular construction shown, the side walls and joint strip may be assembled and initially connected together (regardless of warped side flanges) simply by placing the In this corner strip 35 in its appropriate position and entering the screws 38 into the anchor bar 39, the screws being long enough to allow for considerable initial separation of the parts due to warping. Thereafter the screws serve to draw the parts tightly together, flattening out any warping at the joint. It should be particularly noted that hammering or other violent methods of forcing the parts into alignment to form the corner joint is avoided, thereby protecting the porcelain enamel against chipping or cracking. These and other improvements herein disclosed, make practical the use of porcelain enamel on the sheet metal sidewalls.
The corner strip 35 is advantageously dished or countersunk at the screw holes to seat the oval screw heads and thus render them relatively inconspicuous. The rubber gaskets also prevent enamel to enamel contact or enamel to metal contact which might result in chipping of the enamel.
The rear corners of the cabinet structure may be advantageously finished by exterior corner strips 4| having inwardly turned flanges 42 which embrace the edges of anchor bar 39 and are thereby held firmly in place. be of appropriate decorative material such as brass, stainless steel, nickel plate or the like. The lower ends of the strips extend into the receptor and are seated against the rubber gaskets 25.
It will be noted from the foregoing that the corner joints are formed without the necessity of penetrating the side walls with fastening means, thereby allowing slight relative movement between the parts and greatly facilitating assembly since accurate alignment of parts is unnecessary.
Nevertheless, substantial movement or displacement of the side wall margins is prevented by the extremities 36 of the corner strip which pass behind the inwardly extending offsets 34 of the side walls and thus prevent their withdrawal without however preventing the aforesaid slight movement of the side wall flanges in the joint.
As shown in Figs. 1 and 3, the cabinet may be covered with an enameled sheet metal top whose flanges are bolted to the side walls.
The side wall sections and receptor are coated with vitreous porcelain enamel according to approved practices for enameling sheet metal ware. The so-called wet process may be employed to advantage. coat is sprayed on the metal side walls and either dried at room temperature or in a drying oven for about an hour and a half at a temperature of about 150 F. The ground coat is then burned or fired in an enameling oven for about six minutes at about 1550a F.
All the margins, inside and out, of the side walls are then coated with so-called flexible enamel which is available only in dark colors. Black is employed since it can be so used as to provide a decorative effect. The width of the black stripe 43 is made wider than the margin covered by the corner and top and bottom joint structures, to leave a stripe of about one-eighth of an inch visible. After drying, the enameled margins are burned at about 1550 F.
Thereafter the color or nish coat is applied by spraying on enamel of the desired color which is brushed or otherwise applied adjacent the margins to leave a uniform width of black margin visible. The color coat is dried and then burned in the enameling oven at about 1600 F. for about six minutes. The greater flexibility of the black enamel on the margins allows the latter to be The corner strips may In that process the ground or gripl flexed sufficiently to flatten any warping at the Lib corner joints and also avoids breaking or cracking of the enamel finish in ordinary handling and usage in which the edges of the metal are flexed more severely than any other portion of the side wall sections.
The receptor is preferably finished to simulate generally the conventional terrazzo or other shower receptors. After the ground or grip coat has been applied by dipping or spraying and then dried, the color or finish enamel is stippled on so that it falls in relatively large drops (which spread to irregular areas 44 about three-sixteenths of an inch in diameter) which in contrast with the dark ground coat 45, give an attractive finish. The coarse stippling or speckled effect as aforesaid may be produced by lowering the air pressure on the spray gun so that the enamel is deposited in relatively large drops spaced substantial distances apart (see Fig. 2). If a uniform or plain color coat be desired, the iinish enamel coat may be sprayed on the receptor in the usual way; but in that event it is preferable first to fire the ground coat. With either method of finishing, the receptor with the ground coat and subsequently applied and dried finish or speckle coat is then placed in the enameling oven and subjected to a temperature of about 1600 F. for about six minutes.
The receptor bottom is advantageously made slip-proof by uniformly distributing thereover granular material such as ine silica sand and anchoring the same in the enamel. In Fig. 2 an attempt has been made to illustrate the sand particles 46 by fine dots but it will be understood that exact illustration is impossible since' the particles of sand are relatively inconspicuous and are individually much smaller than illustrated. Moreover, their concentration is much greater than shown. Indeed, the effect is somewhat like fine sandpaper except that the particles of sand are preferably not as sharp as in sandpaper and are not so concentrated. When the surface is wet, the appearance of the bottom of the receptor is not noticeably different from that of the interior faces of the receptor side walls which are not rendered slip-proof.
The sand is advantageously applied by uniformly sprinkling the same over the bottom of the receptor at some stage in the enameling process prior to the firing of the top or finish coat, which in this instance is the vstipple or speckle coat. Uniform distribution can readily be effected by a vibrating screen on which the sand is placed. The texture of the non-slip surface depends on the following: (l) The coarseness or iineness of the sand; (2) its sharpness; (3) the degree to which the particles of sand are submerged in the enamel; and (4) the amount or concentration of the sand grains. Preferably the sand should be clean to eliminate fine dust particles which serve no useful function and only dull the iinish. A satisfactory non-slip surface the sand in the enamel may be secured by sprinkling the sand uniformly on the bottom after the finish or speckle coat has been applied but before the latter has been dried. Those particles of sand which lie on the ground coat between the speckles 44 or finish coat, do not become embedded until the firing operation, at which time the ground coat softens and allows the grains of sand to embed themselves. The grains of sand lying, in the speckles or finish coat are of course somewhat more deeply embedded in the enamel but are not entirely embedded nor glazed over. Too deep embedding f the particles should be avoided since it increases the possibility that they will be glazed over in firing and thus to a great extent lose their property of rendering the receptor bottom slip-proof.
Obviously the invention is not limited to the details of the illustrative construction since these may be variously modified. Moreover, it is not indispensable that all features of the invention be used conjointly since various features may be used to advantage in different combinations and subcombinations.
Having described my invention, I claim:
l. A shower bath cabinet of the character described comprising in combination sheet metal side walls, coated with porcelain enamel, a sheet metal receptor having side flanges supporting said side walls, said receptor being coated with porcelain enamel and the bottom thereof having particles of sand partly embedded in said enamel.
2. A receptor for shower bath cabinets comprising in combination an integral sheet metal structure having a bottom and side iianges, said bottom having thereon porcelain enamel, and grains of sand partly embedded in the enamel coat to provide a non-slip surface.
3. A shower bath cabinet of the character described comprising in combination a sheet metal receptor having marginal side flanges, said flanges being bent down to form a double thickness of metal at the top edge of the receptor, sheet metal side walls carried by said receptor iianges, bolts passing through said side walls and flanges to connect the same and carrying nuts on the exterior of said receptor, and an exterior finishing strip covering the nuts for said bolts and having flanged portions which lie between the nuts and said receptor.
4. A shower bath cabinet of the character described comprising in combination a sheet metal receptor having marginal side flanges, sheet metal side walls carried by said receptor flanges, bolts passing through said side walls and flanges to connect the same and carrying nuts on the exterior of said receptor, and a channel-shaped exterior finishing strip coveringthe nuts for said bolts and provided with a ange lying between the nuts and the face of said receptor.
5. A shower bath cabinet comprising in coinbination a metal receptor, side walls rising from said receptor, said receptor having an enamel surface with grains of sand or the like embedded therein to provide a non-slip surface.
PAUL W. KERR.