US 2065915 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 29, 1936. w. b. wEsToN METHOD FOR FORMING BRANCH NOZZLBS ON PIPES 2 Speets -Sheec 1 1 Filed Nov, 8, 1934 Inve fltor LIAM, D. WESTON Dec. 29,1936. w. D. WESTON 1 METHOD mmrmmme BRANCH uozzmss on 'P IPEs Fu'ed Nov; 8; 1934 '2 sheets-swim z 11112611502 WILLIAM D. Was-row iners... 29, 1936.;
mnrnon roa FORMING season Nozms on was Application November. 8, 1934, Serial No. 752,050 8 Claims. 7 (Cl. 29-457) This invention relates to methods for forming branch nozzles on pipes.
.It is an object of the'invention to provide a method whereby a branch nozzle, free from cracks and splits, having a wall of substantially uniform thickness, and a smooth-curved entrance, may be formed simply and inexpensively from the material of the pipe itself.
The best modes in which I have contemplated applying the principles of my invention are shown in the accompanying drawings, but these are" to be taken as merelyillustrative for it is intendedihat the patent shall cover by suitable expression in the appended claims whatever features of patentable novelty exist in the invention as a whole.
In the drawings:
Figure l is a plan of a' section of a pipe showing how an opening may initially be formed.
where the branch nozzle is to be located;
Figure 2 is a longitudinal section, as on line 22 of Figure 1;
Figures 3, 4 and 5 are a plan, a perspective and a. side view respectively of an improved forming tool suitable for practicing one of the steps .in;my improved method; 1 Figure is a longitudinal section, as on line 6-4 OLFigures '7 and 8, showing the result during the first drawing step of the method;
Figure 7 is a transverse section, as on line 'l-l of Figures 6 and 8;
, Figure 8 is a plan view of Figure 6;
Figure 9'is another longitudinal section showing the result during another drawing step;
Figure 10 is a corresponding transverse section, as on line Ill-H3 of Figure 9:
Figures 11 and 12 are longitudinal and trans verse sections as on lines H-H and I2l2 of each other showing the finished work; I
Figures 13 and 14 are plan and side views respectively of the forming tool shown in Figures 9 and 10; Figures 15 and; 16 are plan and side views respectively, of another forming tool; and
Figures 1'7 and 18 are plan and side views respectively of still another forming tool.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings, the pipel is at the outset cut in some convenient manner to provide a hole It shown in dotted outline in Figure 1. This hole is appreciably smaller than the opening to be ultimately formed-and may be cut round as shown or may be of somewhat elliptical configuration. A suitable swaging tool (not shown) is next used to' enlarge the hole and form a substantially elliptical opening 2 with its longer or major axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe. This enlargement of the hole by the swaging tool necessarily efiects a thickening or reinforcing Figure 2. The pipe is now prepared for th drawing operations.
The first drawing step is accomplished by means of a forming tool 3 such as is shown in Figures 3, 4. and 5. This tool is of novel design, being approximately semi-spherical or ovoid, but having opposed flat sides 31;. A central threaded hole 31) is provided so that a rod 4 may be engaged with the tool through the opening in the pipe wall. If the pipe is made of brass, bronze, copper or other non-ferrous ma terial itmay be worked cold but if made of iron. steel or like metal, the region in the vicinity of the opening may be heated until suitably ductile before the tool is forced'outward through the opening.
It is a feature of the invention to efiect this initial drawing step with the tool disposed with tool enters the opening 2 and begins its draw-,
ing operation on the pipe, the greatest force is necessarily exerted by the curved faces 30 against the sides 2a of the opening which may be said to lie along or transverse of the longitudinal axis of the pipe, near'the ends of the major axis of the elliptical opening. Accordingly the material in these portions of the pipe is more sharply turned outward than is the material ,at the sides 2b near the ends of the minor axis of the opening. Although the latter material is also turned outward, the turning is not nearly so abrupt because of the natural curvature of the pipe wall at thesides. The flat sides 3a. of the tool also permit the material in contact therewith to stretch as the opening is enlarged thus relieving the tendency of the material at. the ends to stretch and thin and possibly split. As a result, the size of the opening is primarily increased along its major dimension, stretching as does occur to any appreciable extent taking place along the sides of the opening where the flat faces of the tool offer less resistance thereto. When the tool is finally 'withdrawn the wall of the nozzle will be partly formed, being substantially elliptical with somewhat fiattened sides parallel to the major axis and with curved sides nearthe ends of this axis.
Another forming tool. isnow inserted in the pipe, such as the tool 5 shown in Figures 9, 10,
13, 14. Thistool is semi-spherical except for a of the edge of the opening as clearly seen in the tool thereon. Ah; this semi-spherical tool is drawn outward its curved surface operates on all sides of the opening but more so on the sides 2bnear the ends of the minor axis. These sides are forced outward and away from the center of the opening to effect a more rapid increase of the minor axis than occurs along the major axis. As the tool is finally withdrawn the opening is truly round and of the same size as the desired branch nozzle.
During the final drawing step the walls of the nozzle may be somewhat reduced in thickness, but it is a feature ofthe invention that whether so reduced or not the wall as a whole is of substantially uniform thickness. Thexouter edge of the nozzle may be machined to give a. finished beveled edge 2c as shown in "Figures 11 and 12, which is particularly suitable for the welding thereto of a branch pipe.
When it is desired to increase the length of the nozzle so that its finished edge 2c will stand out farther from the normal wall of the pipe,
cylindrical portion Ia at the base. Both of these tools are of appreciably greater length than the semi-spherical tool and are so designed in order that the spreading of the opening may occur 'more gradually and the drawing out of the material-be more pronounced. This results in the finished nozzle being longer, with a somewhat thinner but still substantially uniformly thick wall.
A decided advantage gained by the invention is that the entrance 2d to the nozzle from the interior of the pipe is a rather gently curving smooth surface. This is conducive to smooth fiow avoiding to a marked extent the eddying and resistance to fiow heretofore deemed objectionable in branch nozzles.
The method of the present invention has been shown and described in connection with a nozzle of smaller diameter than that of the pipe, but it is to be understood that nozzles of the same diameter as that of the pipe may be produced by the method herein disclosed, it being only necessary to use forming tools of larger size than those shown as illustrative of the invention. The means disclosed herein for practicing the improved method have been made-the subject matter of a divisional application, Ser. No. 111,673 filed November 19, 1936.
1. The method of forming a branch nomle on a pipe which comprises forming an opening in the pipe wall and then forcing a forming tool outward therethrough to partly form the nozzle in elliptical shape with its major axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe, followed by increasing the minor axis of the partly formed nozzle'until the nozzle is made circular.
2. The method of forming a. branch nozzle on a pipe which comprises forming an elliptical nozzle on the wall of the pipe with its mapor axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe and with the portionsof the nozzle near the ends of said major axis reinforced, followed by making said elliptical nozzle circular by increasing its minor axis.
3. The method of forming a branch nozzle-on a pipe which comprises forming an opening in the pipe wall smaller than the size of the desired nozzle, followed by drawing "a forming tool through the opening to turn the edge thereof outward and initially shape the nozzle as an ellipse with its major axis parallel to the longitudinal-axis of the pipe, and thereafter further turning out the said edge until the .nozzle is circular in shape.
4. The method of forming a branch nozzle on a pipe which comprises forming an opening in the pipe wall smaller-than the size of the desired nozzle, followed by drawing a forming tool through said opening to turn outwardly and simultaneously reinforce the edge thereof while initially forming the nozzle in elliptical shape with its major axis parallel to the longitudinal axis of the pipe, followed by further turning outward the edge near the sides of the pipe to make the nozzle circular.
enlarge the opening without material change in its shape, followed by drawing another forming tool through the partly formed nozzle to draw the wall thereof further outward and simultaneously change the shape of the nozzle to a circular cross section.
6. The method of forming a branch nozzle on a pipe which comprises forming an opening in the pipe wall and drawing a forming tool therethrough in such manner as to force outward the sides of the opening which are transverse to the longitudinal axis of the pipe, while permitting the intervening sides of the opening to bend outward and stretch longitudinally of the pipe, followed by further forcing the edges outward with the said intervening sides being forced outward more rapidly than the sides transverse to v the longitudinal axis,
7. The method of forming a branch nozzle on a pipe which comprises cutting a hole in the pipe wall and then upsetting the edge thereof to thicken it, followed by drawing a forming tool through the opening to turn said thickened edge outward and reduce its thickness thereby forming a nozzle with a substantially uniformly thick wall.
8. The method of forming a branchnozzle on v longitudinal axis of the pipe and'having its edge near the ends of saidmajor reinforced, followed by drawing another forming tool through the partly formed nozzle to increase the minor axis thereof at a faster rate than the major axis is increased, thereby to draw out the material in circular shape to produce a round nozzle.
WILLIAM B. o-