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Publication numberUS2067403 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 12, 1937
Filing dateAug 31, 1933
Priority dateAug 31, 1933
Publication numberUS 2067403 A, US 2067403A, US-A-2067403, US2067403 A, US2067403A
InventorsLea William C
Original AssigneeLea William C
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Metal building construction
US 2067403 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
Next page
Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Jan. l2, 1937. w. c. LEA

METAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Aug. 31, 1933 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 :'NVENTOF? WILL/AM C LEA .l o. nv-nnonlnnoc n. auneczr...

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METAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION v 4 sheets-sheet 2 Filed Aug. 3l, 1933 HH 9 E m A T E 5 a N E I8 D EL m MF 6 VC ,N M ,a m L .L 1w nl... wm e J5 5 udl @0J a 7 r f 4 T 9 9 f H T@ i 'TGRNEY W. C. LEA


4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Aug. 3l, 1933 E Wfw-..."

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ATTORNEY Jan. l2, l937. W. C. LEA

METAL BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 1933 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Aug. 51



Application August 31, 1933, Serial No. 687,614

This invention has to do in a general way with the art of building and is more particularly relatedA to improvements inv the framework of buildings whereby they are rendered fire proof, earthquake proof and are immune to the natural disintegration brought about by decay, termites, etc., such as occur in wooden structures.

It isone object of this invention to produce means for constructing metal buildings which are of light weight and can be easily handled.

It is a further object of this' invention to provide means of the class described which can be economically manufactured and from which the framework of a building can be quickly and easily fabricated or erected with either skilled or unskilled labor.

It is a still further object of this invention to provide means of the class described wherein the individual elements are of standard shape and are provided with regularly spaced attaching means whereby they can be cut to specications, at the point of manufacture, and can be assembled or erected by means of a screw-driver,4

or other suitabletool or tools, depending upon the type of securing means employed.

The general construction of the building material, contemplated by this invention, comprises metal channels which are formed of two or more different widths so that part of the channels can i'lt within other of the channels. These channel members are provided, both in their web portions and in their flanges, with regularly spaced bolt holes, or fastening holes, such holes being arranged in sets or pairs, the sets or pairs being spaced apart throughout the length ofthe channels at equal distances. lit is, therefore, one feature of the invention that channel members of this nature may be secured together to form a lframe, the parallel members of which are spaced apart at any predetermined distance within the increments of length between the sets of bolt holes, or other fastening holes.

It is a further object of this invention to provide channels, of the class described, with bolt holes of novel construction in that they are,

countersunk so as to interfit whereby the shear stressesintwo adjacent members fare carried by the* contersunk portions in such members rather than the bolt, or other securing, means, whereby the members are locked together.

In this invention it is a still further object to provide for use, in combination therewith, a no'vel bolt and nut construction, the head of the bolt being adapted for reception in the countersink, above referred to, and the nut beingprovided with projecting points, or corners which engage the inner surface of the member through which the bolt extends and, through such engagement, is held against turning during the insertion and tightening of the bolt.

(c1. 1st- 1).

It is a still further object of this invention to provide channel members of the class described with a plurality of large uniformly spaced openings formed in the webbed portion of the channel members, such openings providing a wall which is ventilated throughout and also providing convenient means for the placement of pipe or conduit within the wall. In this connection it is another feature of this invention that it is adapted to the construction of a wall, finished on both sides, wherein the pipe or conduit is readily accessible from the outside. This object is attained by'virtue of the fact that a covering member, such as a wall board or a base plate, can

be readily removed to give access to the interior of the wall itself.

My invention also contemplates a novel type of base plate or base board construction which can be easily and quickly removed for the purpose above referred to.

Another novel feature of this invention resides in the fact that the studding of a wall, of the class described, is employed .to form the side jambs of the doors and windows. It is well known, to those familiar with the art, that the door and window frames in conventional'building construction are separate units inserted in the framework of the building after it has been erected. The elements of my invention are of a nature such that horizontal braces can be placed between, the studdings to form head jambs or sills and stop members or guide members can be placed directly on the portion of the studding between such horizontal braces to form a complete window or door frame.

It is a further object of this invention to provide means, formed in the channel members Fig. 2 is a partial sectional elevation illustratl ing the manner in which a sill member is secured tothe foundation;

Fig. 3 is a fragmentary perspective view illustrating a preferred form of base plate or base board connection;

Fig. 4 is a. fragmentary view, partly broken away, illustrating in detail the construction of a vso preferred form of connection contemplated by this invention;

Fig. is a sectional view taken on the plane represented by the line 5 5 in Fig. si;

Fig. 6 is an enlarged plan section showing the details in the construction of a corner in a building frame of the type shown in Fig. 1;

Fig. '1 is a sectional elevation showing the details in the construction of one forni oi window head jamb contemplated by this invention;

Fig. 8 is a plan section taken through the side' janib of the window shown in Fig. 7;

Fig. 9 is a sectional elevation, partly broken away, taken on the line 8-9 of Fig. 8;

Fig. 10 is a plan section showing the mullion portion of a window construction;

Fig. 11 is a Asectional elevation through the head jamb of a modified form of window con'- struction; v

Fig. 12 is a plan section of thewindow constructionshown in Fig. 11; Y

Fig. 13 is a sectional elevation on the plane iiila of rig. 12;

Fig. 14 is a plan section showing a preferred form of door jamb construction contemplated A by this invention;

f may be used in connection with the channel members contemplated.- by this invention;

Fig.`19 is an elevational View showing a modiiled form of frame construction 4in which the elements of my invention are adapted for use;

Fig. 20 is an enlarged elevation illustrating the construction-of the end of the roof truss shown in Fig. 19; l

Fig. 21 is an end view of the connection shown in Fig. 20;

Fig. 22 is an elevation, with parts broken away, illustrating the manner of connecting the brace members in the roof truss shown in Fig. 19:A

Fig. 23 is an enlarged view showing an elevation of the end portion of the iloor'truss shown in Fig..19; and v Fig. 24 is an elevation, with parts broken away. illustrating the manner of connecting the brace members in the said floor truss.

More particularly describing the invention, as herein illustrated, reference numerals II and II' indicate the corner of a foundation' upon which channel members I2 and I2' are positioned with their web surfaces I3 resting on top of the foundation and their ange portions I4 extending upwardly. These channel members i2 and I2 form sills for the building frame and receive the 'lower ends of upright channel members I5 which constitute the studding for the frame. The studding members I5 are provided with horizontal braces- I6 and angle braces Il andthe upper xds of the channels are received in an inverted channelmember I8 which forms the plate. of the building frame. The plate I8 carries a plurality of ceiling joists i9, which are also channels, having their ilanges resting on l top of the plate I8. Reference numeral 2@ indicates rafters, which are channel members similar to the studding and ceiling joists, such members being secured at their web portions with the webs of the ceiling joists I9. In order that the studding members may be spaced apart in various predetermined increments of' length, and,

at the. same time, be faced in either direction g and also to provide a standard construction, in which the braces and other elements may be correspondingly mounted at predetermined points, I form the channel members, contemplated by this invention, with bolt or fastening ho1esf2i and 2l', for example, such bolt holes being arranged in pairs or sets and the sets being spaced apart at equal distances through the length of the unit. Furthermore, in order to provide a wall structure which is ventilated throughout and in which pipe or conduit may be conveniently mounted, I provide the channel members with additional large openings 23 which are also uniformly spaced apart.

One use of the last mentioned openings 23 is illustrated by the pipe or conduit 24. Another use of the openings 23 resides in the means of connecting the sill channel I2 to the foundation. Such connection is best illustrated in Fig. 2 where the foundation is shown as being provided with a bolt 26 adapted for reception in one of the enlarged openings 23. In securing the sill channel to the foundation a washer 2l is placed over the opening 23 and a nut 28 is screwed onto the bolt to engage the washer. It is to be understood that while I have shown the openings 23 as being rectangular in cross section, that these openings may be made round or any other shape.

In forming the corner of a building frame, of the type contemplated by this invention, studs I5 are placed in the adjacent ends of both the sill channels. The inner adjacent anges of these two studs are then connected by means of an angle member or corner clip30 and the outer flanges of the two channels are connected by means of an outer corner member or corner clip 3i.' In this connection it is to be understood that all of the members are punched or stamped with the bolt holes in the same spaced relation so that in a corner construction, of the class described, the parts, being standard, there is no necessity for boring or punching during the assembly of the building. This is also truev of all of the studdings and interconnecting braces.

With regard to the bolt holes, it is pointed out hereinabove, as one object of the invention, to provide connecting means in which the shear stresses are absorbed or carried by the members themselves, and, further, to provide a bolt, the nut of which grips the engaged plate so that the device can be assembled without the use of a tool on the inside of the unit. The structure whereby these objects are attained is best illustrated in Figs. 4 and 5. The reference numerals I4 and I4 indicate the engaging 'anges of two channel members I2 and I5. The bolt holes in both of these channel members are punched so as to form intertting countersunk portions 35 and 35'. Reference numeral 36 indicates the head of a screw bolt 31 which extends through the bolt holes to hold the members iii-locked engagement. Reference numeral 38 indicates a special form of nut which has an embossed central portion 39 adapted to rest over the countersunk portion of the inner flange and also has projecting pointed corners 40 adapted to engage and grip the inner surface of the engaged flange 2,067,403 when the bolt istigmened; 'rhraugh the usofn this construction the bolt may be tightened without using a wrench or other tool on the nut and, after the two members are assembled, the shear stresses are carried by the countersunk portions of the plates instead of the bolt. It will be understood that this type of bolt hole is employed throughout the entire unit, that is, in both the ilanges and the web portions of the channels.

It was pointed out in the ilrst part of the speciilcation, as another object of the invention, to provide a novel type of base plate or base board which could be readily removed to provide access to the interior of the wall and pipe or conduit contained therein.l Such a base plate is indicated by reference numeral 45 in Fig. 1, and Fig. 3 illustrates a preferred means for mounting the base plate.

Referring to Fig. 3, I show an offset or Z plate 46 secured by means of a bolt 41 to a ange I4 of one of the stud channels.' This offset or Z plate may extend the full length of that portion of the wall which is to carry a base plate or it may be a short section positioned adjacent the channel.

In any event, it is provided with a pair of spaced bolt holes, one of which receives a bolt 48 which engages a threaded opening in an elongated nut member 49, The other bolt hole 50 is opposite a second threaded opening in the nut member 49 and the base plate is provided with bolt holes which are spaced apart so as to fall into alinement with the openings 50. Through this arrangement the base plate member is secured to the Wall by means of bolts which extend through the bolt holes 50 into the second threaded opening in the nuts 49. Bolts 52 may also be provided at the lower edge of the base plate, and it will be understood from the construction so far described, that the base plate can be removed simply by removing the bolts 5| and 52 and that the holes in the nuts which receive such bolts remain in their proper position by virtue of the bolts 48.

It was emphasized as an important feature of this invention that the channel studdings are employed as door andwindow jambs in the construction of a building wall. When it is desired to use the studding for this purpose I consider it preferable to form the same with anges which are substantially twice the width of the anges on the channels which are used merely for the purpose of studding. facilitates the mounting of the wall and provides additional space for trimming the wall adjacent the window or door opening. It will be understood. of course, that the narrow type of anged channel may be employed for this purpose but the wider flange has advantages over the narrow ilange. Ihis type of construction is clearly illustrated in Fig. l where the studding channels l5a and lib constitute side jambs for a door opening, the head jamb. of which is formed by a horizontal brace Ilia. The studding channels |54 and |5b are shown as having wide flanges and the horizontal brace [6a 'is shown as having narrow anges. It is to be understood, however, in view of the remarks above, that the wide flanged channel may be employed for the horizontal brace Ia. In carrying out this construction the side jambs, or the channel studdings, and the head jamb, or the horizontal brace. are Provided with door stop members 53 which may be of any suitable construction, such as inverted channels, such membersbeingsecuredtotbestuddingandthebrace ...,by means of bolts 31a, oi' the type hereinabove referred to, which extend through the standard boltv openings in the studding and brace members, and are adapted to be engagedby a door 5.4 (Fig. 14). v

'I'he window construction is formed in a manner similar to the door opening and, in this form of my invention, is shown as comprising the studding channels I5c and lid forming the side jambs of the window and horizontal braces i6b and I6c which form the head jambV and sill of the window. The window frame thus formed is provided' with stops or guides, depending upon whether it is a window of the hinged or double hung type. The details in the commotion employed in both types of windows will be described later in the specification.

In the construction of a building which is provided with a iloor it will be understood that floor joists must be employed and, in this type of construction, the joists, like the other elements, are formed of standard punched channel members, one form of such joist being indicated by reference numeral 55, which is shown as being supported on the sill channel I2. It is to be understood, of course, that any number of such joists may be employed as is common in the building art, also that other types of sections or joist construction may be employed.

It is also a feature of the construction, contemplated by this invention, that all of the channel members are formed with means for supporting a surface or covering material. Such covering material may be either a. wall board held in place by reason of retaining strips, a wall board held in place by clips and covered with plaster, or a metal lath covered with plaster. In the event wall board is employed as the covering material, the flanges of the channel members are provided with uniformly spaced slots or openings 56 which are adapted to receive prongs 5l formed on clip members 58 or prongs 51' formed on strip members 59 (see Figs. 16 and 17). The clip members 58 are employed in case the wall board is to be covered with plaster and, as shown in Fig. 16,4 comprise a flat plate provided with oppositely disposed angle portions 62 and 62' which extend over the edges of adjacent wall board sections 63 and 63'. The prong 5l is of a width corresponding to the width of the slot or opening 56 and is undercut, as indicated at 64, so that the clip, after it is inserted, can be pressed downwardly and locked in place over the lower edge of a slot or opening 56. This same type of prong is 'employed in connection with the strip 51', the prongs in such case being formed on the web 65 which projects inwardly from an outer strip 66 forming a member which is T-shaped in cross section, the plate 66 having portions which extend over adjacent wall board sections 63a and i317.

In the regions adjacent the window and door openings the edges of the wall board 63 are covered with trimming strips shown as comprising Z-shaped or offset plates. indicated by reference numeral 6B, and secured in place either by means of screws 69 or by prongs similar to those just described in connection with Figs. 16 and 17.

In the event the wall is to be surfaced with a metal lath and plaster, such as is the case with the outer surface of the wall structure shown in Fig. 1. I provide the flanges ot the channels with prongs 'I0 adapted to be received in the lath and bent over' the same to hold it in place.

The finish strips employed at the openings, in

connection with a plaster wall, are mounted on the jamb members before the wall is plastered. A preferred form of such strip is shown in Fig. 1 5 where the strip 68 is shown as being secured to a jamb or stud channel |5a' by means of a bolt 31a.

Referring now to Figs. 7 to 9 inclusive, which illustrate the details in the construction of one form of window contemplated by this invention, it will be observed that the horizontal braces ltb and |6c are of the same width as the studding channel |5c which forms one of the side jambs. It is also important in this construction that the studding channels which form the side jambs of the windows be arranged with their web surfaces facing each other, and it is, therefore, necessary to provide some means for supporting the cross braces, or the head jamb and the sill. Such means are shown as comprising angle members or clip members i3 and lli which are secured. to the studding members and the horizontal braces lb and |6c by means of bolts l5, which extend through the standard openings in thev channels forming the studding and braces.

'I'he two side jambs and the head jamb of the window on the inside of the wall are provided with metal trim plates 68 secured to the channel members by means of bolts 69. The sill Ic of the lWindow is of special construction and has a stool Tl on the inside and an oset lip portion I8 formed on the outside providing a Weather bar. Reference numeral 'H9 indicates a backing plate which supports the wall surfacing material 63a, such plate being secured to the sill IGc by means of bolts i9. Numeral 13a indicates a backing plate for the inner wall surfacing material 63b, such plate comprising an angle which is secured to the sill by bolts '|9b. Reference numerals 8E, 8| and 82 indicate stop members which are shown as comprising inverted channels secured to the` head jamb, the side jambs and the sill plate respectively by means of bolts 83. Numeral 8d indicates a hinged window of the conventional type, supported on the outside of the window sash by means of hinges 85 and 86 and adapted to engage the stop members in the window frame. Reference numeral 87 indicates a resilient weatherstrip positionedaround the outside of the stop-members and adapted to be engaged by the stiles and rails of the Window. Reference numeral 88 indicates a trim and weather bar which is mounted on the head jamb of the Window,-

and 88 indicates a trim mounted on the out-* vside of the side jamb. Numerals 9|) and 9| indicate screens adapted to slide in guide passages 92 and 93, such passages being formed by channel members 94, positioned in spaced relation with the outer edge of the stop members 8D, 8| and 82.

In Fig. 10 I show a modified form of construction which is designed for use in walls where a larger portion of the wall is open. 'Ihis construction is frequently employed in factories and the likel and, in the particular type of construction contemplated by this invention, is obtained by. forming the studding |00 of two channel members |0| and |0| secured together through their anges by means of biilts` |02. The outer faces of'both channelmembers are provided with stops `|03 and |04, respectively, `such stops being shown as comprising inverted channels secured to the studding member by means of bolts |65. Reference numerals |06 and |D6 indicate the stiles of windows mounted in the frames formed in this manner.

In Figs. 11 to 13 inclusive I show the manner in which the construction contemplated in this invention may be employed to form a double hung sash wndow. In this construction the head jamb of the window, indicated by y reference numeral H0, which is mounted between the studding members of the frame in the same manner described above, (one of such studding members being indicated at I) is of special construction in that it is formed with an inverted trough M2. A special clip Mii, having a cutout corner l5, is used to support this head jamb or horizontal brace between the two studding members. The side jambs, formed by the studding channels are provided with bent plates 3 and H3', such plates being constructed so as to form guide channels ||l and H8 which receive the stilesl i9 and |2 of window sashes |2| and |22 respectively. The bent plates H2 and H3 are secured to the side jambs by means of. bolts |2 which extend through the standard openings inthe side 'jamba Reference numerals |25"V and |26 indicate window weights and numeralk |21 indicates a division plate for these weights. In ,this form of my invention the sill plate is also ofspecial construction which, as shown in Fig. 13, is formed with a stool I, an offset section 3|, adapted to be engaged by the bottom rail |2| of the lower Window sash, the oset portion |3| terminating in a. downwardly inclined portion |32 which is engaged and supported by a special clip member |33 mounted on the studding by means of screws |36 which'extend'through the standard bolt holes in the studding and the clip. Reference numerals |36, |36a and |361) indicate resilient weather stripping engaged by the rails and stiles of the Window sash. These Weather strips, which are also contemplated by this invention, are formed of spring bronze, or other suitable resilient metal and provide a window construction which is dust and moisture proof, and reduces infiltration of air to a Furthermore, the window is easy to operate and will not rattle. The weather strips |36 and |361) in the sill and head jamb, respectively, are held in place by angle members |31 and |3122 and bolts |315 and |3`|c respectively. The weather strips I 36a in the side jambs are made U-shaped in cross section and are locked in place by forming them with flanges |38 underlying the offset guide plates H3 and H3'. The side jambsv of the windows are, provided with sash pulleys and weight pockets (not shown) to facilitate the installation of, and provide ready access to, the weights and sash chains or cables.

In Fig. 18 I show a preferred form of splicing means for use in connection ywith the channel members contemplated by this invention. -Such splicing means comprises a channel plate M0, which fits between the adjacent 'end portions of two abutting channel members |4| and IM'. Both the anges and the web portion of the channelv plate are provided with pairs of bolt holesv |42 which are spaced apart laterally Va distance corresponding to the spaces between the sets of bolt holes in the channel members. In this way I provide a splice plate which can be used in conjunction with two channel members regardless of v'the manner in which they are cut. In the form shown, bolts |43 are mounted in the bolt holesin the anges of the channels.

In Figs. 19 to 24 inclusive I show a modified form of building construction which may be |50, studding members ||a, floor or ceiling truss |52, the ends of which carry additional studding members |53 which in turn support a roof truss |54. The 'elements 0f this construction are, as pointed out above, channel members, similar to those described in connection with Figs. 1 to 18, inclusive, which may be bent or formed to the particular shape necessary to produce the desired structure. The truss |54 is comprised of a top channel |55, bent to form an arch, and a bottom horizontal channel |56. The construction of the end portions of these two channels, whereby they are joined together, is best illustrated in Figs. 20 and 2l where the ends of the channels |55 and |56 are shown as being mounted upon a short channel member |51 and secured thereto by means of bolts |58, the bolt holes being countersunk similar to the bolt holes described hereinabove.

The construction of the struts and braces in the truss |54 is best illustrated in Fig. 22 where the strut |59 is shown as comprising a channel member mounted between the two channels A|55 and 56 in normal relation to the bottom channel |56 and secured therein by means of bolts |60, which are receivedv in countersunk bolt holes. The angular brace struts |6| and IBI are channels, similar to thel channel: |59, which are mounted between the side flanges of the two members |55 and |56, being secured therein by means of the bolts above referred to.

The floor or ceiling truss member |52 `comprises two channel beams |63 and |64, spaced apart vertically, the lower beam having its end bent up at an angle and then terminating in a straight portion which is parallel to the end of the upper beam, as indicated at |65, and which is more clearly illustrated in Fig. 23. 'I'he ends ,of these two members are secured together by means of short channel members |61 and |61' and bolts |68. Thestruts in this truss, like the ones described in the roof truss, comprise vertical channel members |69 and angle channel members |10, such members having their ends received between the flanges of the channel beams |63 and |64 where they are secured by means of bolts |1|.

It will be apparent, from the foregoing description, that the building material contemworkman under the supervision/of the builder.

{The-structure has a further advantage in that the sections punched from the large holes can be 'centrally punched to provide weight sections which can be assembled on a suitable bar to form 'the Window weights.

It is to be understood that, while I have herein described and illustrated certain preferred forms of my invention, the invention is not limited to the precise construction described herein, but includes within its scope whatever changes fairly come within the spirit of the appended claims.

I claim as my invention:

1. A metal building construction embodying: a plurality of vertical and horizontal metal sections intertted to form a frame, said sections having alined holes at their junction points and interfitting projections on said sections associated with said holes for carrying the shear stresses between adjoining sections; bolts extending through said alined holes; and nuts on the inner ends of said bolts engaging the inner faces of said projections, said nuts having extending corner points adapted to engage and grip the surface of an engaged section.

2. A metal building construction embodying: a plurality of vertical and horizontal metal sections interfltted to form a frame, said sections having alined holes at their junction points and preformed interfitting countersunk portions surrounding said holes for carrying the shear stresses between adjoining sections; bolts extending through said alined holeshaving screw heads received in said countersunk portions; and nuts on the other ends of said bolts, each of said nuts having a countersunkwportion adapted to receive the countersunk portion on an engaged section and extending corner points adapted to engage and grip the surface of an engaged section.

3. For use in a building of the class described, a metal wall frame embodying: a sill member; a plate member; a plurality of studs secured between said sill and said plate, said studs comprising channels the flanges of which are parallel to the twoY sides of the wall frame formed thereby; a wall coating secured to an inner surface' of said frame; an offset plate secured to the flanges on said studs adjacent the lower edge of said wall coating; the offset portion of said plate having apertures arranged in sets therein; nut members mounted on the back of said offset portion behind said sets of apertures, said nut members having two screw holes corresponding with said sets of apertures; a screw extending through one of said apertures in saidoffset plate into one of said screw holes; a base plate having a portion thereof engaging said offset portion, said base plate having apertures opposite the unoccupied apertures in said offset portion; and screws extending through the apertures in said base plate and said last mentioned apertures in said offset plate into engagement with the other screwhole in said nut.

4. A metal building construction embodying: a plurality of vertical and horizontal metal sections interfltted to form a frame, said sections having alined holes at their junction points and interfitting projections on said sections associated with said holes for carrying the shear stresses vbetween adjoining sections; bolts extending through said alined holes with their threaded ends extending outwardly beyond the exposed faces of said projections; and nuts on said bolts, said nuts having extending corner points adapted to engage and grip the surface of an engaged section adjacent the exposed surface of the corresponding projection.


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WO1991000944A2 *Jul 5, 1990Jan 24, 1991Stromback Gustav MAn economical steel roof truss
WO1991000944A3 *Jul 5, 1990Feb 21, 1991Gustav M StrombackAn economical steel roof truss
WO2000036237A1 *Dec 17, 1999Jun 22, 2000Simmons David GStructural framing system and method of assembly
U.S. Classification52/481.1, 52/220.1, 52/781, 52/693, 52/213, 52/643, 52/280, 52/262, 52/202, D25/132, 52/294, D25/66, 52/644, 52/92.1
International ClassificationE04B1/24
Cooperative ClassificationE04B1/24, E04B2001/2463, E04B2001/2469, E04B2001/2457, E04B2001/2481, E04B2001/249, E04B2001/2448, E04B2001/2493
European ClassificationE04B1/24