US 2067739 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Jan. 12, 1937.
F. M. 'TANSKI 2,067,739
KNITTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed July 1, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet J.
ATTORNEYS Jan. 12,
F, M. TANSKI KNITTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME 5 sheets-sheet 2 July 1 IN VEN R a.
w 772 m BY @wcd Jan. 12, 1937. F. M. TANSKI KNITTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed July 1, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 JW 77?. INVENTOR. BY flit/(OW ATTORNEYS Jan. 12 1937. K, 7 2,067,739
KNITTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Filed July 1, 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 b I f J INYENTOR. BY [w /c mJflm/a fitacd M ATTORNEYS Jan. 12, 1937.
F. M. TANSKI 1936 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Filed July 1 ATTORNEYS ran s'rEs KNITTED FABRIC AND METHOD OF MAKING THE SAME Frank M. Tanski, Maspeth, N. Y., assignor to Karo Knit Fabrics, Inc., New York, N. Y.,- a corporation of New York Application July 1, 1936, Serial No. 88,316
.This invention relates to a new and improved knitted fabric, to a new and improved method of making the same, and to a new andimproved mechanism for making the same.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide a non-run knit fabric.
' Another object of the invention is to make a knit fabric, in which the loops are inter-knitted. For the purpose of interconnecting said loops, I may use an additionalthread but the invention is not limited to the use of such additional thread.
Another object of the invention is to provide an elastic knit fabric which may be made wholly or. in part from elastic yarn, said yarn being made of rubber .which is covered with one or more helical windings of silk or cotton or the like, this yarn being well known on the market as Lastex.
Another object of my invention is to provide an improved elastic fabric which is particularly usefulin making women's undergarments of the girdle type, although the invention may be used for various other purposes.
Another object of the invention is to provide mechanism for making the improved fabric,
- which involves simple attachments to a well known type of knitting machine.
Another object of the invention 'is to provide an improved fabric of the type which may have contrasting color eifects at the opposite sides thereof. d
Other objects of the invention will be set forth in the following description and drawings which illustrate a' preferred embodiment of the mechanism which may be used for practicing the invens tion, it being understood that the above state ment of the objects of the invention is intended to generally explain the same without limiting it in any manner. A
Fig. 1 is a partial perspective view of a well known type of knitting machine to which the improved attachments have been applied.
Fig. 2 is a side elevation of the attachments 1 which can be applied 'to astandard type of .knitting machine, and which may replace the yarnfeeding. attachments'which are now ,in use.
Fig. 3 is a sectional view on the line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
viewon the line l-d of venience.
(Cl. 66-196) I The attachment which is not shown in Fig. 5 is used for feeding a single yarn to the cylinder needles only.
Fig. 6 is a sectional view on the line 5--6 of Fig. 5.
Fig. 7 is a perspective View of the attachment which is illustrated in Fig. 5 and which feeds two yarns to the cylinder needles and to the dial needles.
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view which shows the cylinder needles and the dial needles of a standard circular machine, and it also shows how the yarns are supplied to these needles, in order to knit the improved fabric.
Fig. 9 is a general diagrammatic perspective I view of the completed fabric, it being understood that the loops are shown widely separated from each other, in order to illustrate the construction of the fabric more clearly.
Fig. 10 illustrates how the non-run properties of the fabric are secured, when a yarn is broken.
Fig. 11 is a perspective view showing how elastic threads can be inserted into the fabric.
Fig. 12 Ba front elevation of the fabric shown in Fig. l1."
Figl'l3 shows a tubular in making a girdle.
Referring to Fig. 1, this shows the usual top stationary plate I of any suitable circular knitting'machine. An angular bracket 2 is fixed to the plate I, by'means of a clamping screw 3. The base of the bracket ,2 is forked, and the head of the clamping screw 3 engages the top surfaces of the legs-of this fork.
If desired, the plate I can have a removable section la to which the bracket-2 is connected. Said removable section In can be fixed to the plate I by meansof clamping screws 4, or the like. v The vertical surface of the bracket 2 is provided 25 blank of the type used with a vertical recess, in which the first attach- 40 ment 5 can be vertically adjusted.
The first attachment 5 can be held in vertically adjusted position by means of a clamping screw 6.
in one wall thereof, in order to permit the ver tical adjustment of said attachment 5.
Referring to Fig. 7, the attachment 5 is pro- 5() vided with a first and inclined and tubular yarn guide A and with a second transverse yarn guide B. The yarn guide 13 is merely a transverse opening through the member 5, which can be made of any suitable metal or other material.
'vided with an wall 50' 'at its bottom, for purposes which will be later described. The second attachment, which feeds a third additional yarn, is connected to the removable section la by means of a forked bracket 1. A
w clamping screw 8 adiustably connects the bracket which is in front of 1 to the section is sothat said bracket 1 may be horizontally or radially adjusted. Likewise it is to be noted that the bracket 2 can be radially adjusted, in addition to being horizontal- 1y adjusted.
The bracket 7 is provided with a vertical face the front face of the plate I, Hi is adjustably connected to said front face of the bracket 7, by means of a clamping screw ii. Said clamping screw I l permits the sliding adjustment of the bar It relative to the bracket l, in the direction of the longitudinal ams of said bar i0, which is shown in Fig. 1. The forked upper end ofthe bar it is mounted in a suitable recess of the front face of the bracket 7|, so that the' bar It always has the same angle relative to the bracket if The lower end of the bar it] is of split and resilient construction, and for this purpose the bar In can be made of suitable metal. A metal tube i2 is held between the legs of the lower end of the bar I 0, and'said legs are provided at their inner faces with suitable substantially semicircular recesses, 'in order to receive and clamp the tube l2. 1
and 'a forked bar A clamping screw its forces the legs at the, the bar to tow each other so bottom end of as to vexert the necessary clamping pressure upon the tube 12.
By loosening the screw Ida so as to allow the adjacent legs of the bar as to separate sufiicientthe tube I! can be adjusted relative .tothe bar In, in the direction of the longitudinal axis .of the tube l2.
The third yarn guide C is a metaltube, which is held in the adjacent split portion of a plunger IQ, which is shown in .Fig. 4. This plunger M has a snug sliding fit within the tube l2.
As shown in Figs.) and 4, one end of the plunger I 4, which may be designated as the outer end thereof is provided with a transverse pin I15,
which fits slidably in two longitudinal recesses type having the shows a blank D I which are formed in thewall of the tube l2, as
shown in Fig. 1. Hence the plunger It can slide within the tube II, but without turning relative to the tube It. However, the plunger it can be moved a sufficient distan e relative to the tube l2, until the pin li'leaves said slots lid. The
slots lib, which are'located equally between the er M Thisspring plunger II can then be turned relative to the tube l2 and tile pin' llcan be caused to enter slots lid-so that the plunger canethen be held in outer position. Y
, A's shown in Fig. '4, the plunger M is of'stepe shape,sothat it has-.two portions of different transverse diameter.
llspring i6 is located between-a shoulder of reduced portion of the plung the tube i2 and the ll normally forces the plunger ll toa Position the slots lia. this position being shown in Fig. 1.
7 As shown in Fig.4. the inner end of the plunger I4 iso f split construction and the third yarn guide 0 is clamped between the adiacent legs of in which the pin "contacts with the inner ends of independently of the supply and 2b.
' combined with the the opposite faces d les 22. The cylinder and 26.
the plunger M. A screw I1 forces the the plunger towards each other so the necessary yarn guide C.
A yarn IO is supplied through the yarn guide A, a yarn i9 is supplied through the yarn guide B, and a yarn 20 ,is supplied through the yarn guide C. All these yarns may be of any type, and any combination of yarns can be utilized.
Fig. 5 shows how the yarn I9 is passed through guide B, and then fed laterally to the needles 2| and. 22. This is also shown in Fig. 8.
I In the preferred embodiment, the yarn 20 is a silk yarnwhich is of the ordinary type and which does not have any rubber therein. In'one embodiment, a single elastic yarn I9, made of covered rubber, can be utilized. If deslredthe yarns i8, i9 and 20 may material such as cotton or silk, and elastic rubber two legs of as to exert clamping pressure upon the third yarns may be interlaced in the wellknown'manknit by means ner between the courses which are of said textile yarns. In such case the elastic yarn would be supplied from a fourth spool wholly of yarns l8, I!-
- One of the advantages of the improved fabric is that it lies smooth when elastic yarn is thus fabric, sd-that the fabric does not curl so as to form uneven waves or corrugations. This is particularly useful in making a smooth seamless tubular knit fabric. e
Figs. 11 and 12 show an elastic fabric oflthis fourth'elastic yarn E. Fig. 13 of the type which is used for making a woman's undergarment of the girdletype. This blahk is smooth and seamless and tubular.
The invention is therefore capable of numer- 'ous modifications depending upon the type of .material which is" to knit.
The threads I! and 20 may be of different colors, so as to provide fora two color effect at of the fabric, and in .such case the thread l8 may have a color which is either the same as l9 or 20 or the thread It may have a third color.
Referringto Fig. 8 for convenience, this shows and the radial dial neethe cylinder needles 2i needles ii are in the usual manner so that they reciprocate vertically and parallel to each other, and the radial dial needles 22 are arranged in the usual manner, so that they can reciprocate to and fro along radii which diverge from a common center. While Fig. 8 shows the dial needles fl more or less parallelto each-other, this is-merely for conven'ence of illustration, as the n betemployed inconnection "with The ordi-- nary standard circular knitting machine.-' In the particular embodiment shown the needles have latches of theusual type. The machine is assumed to turn counterclockwise when, viewed from above, this being indicated by the arrows 23 in Fig; 8.
As shown in Fig. 1 and on a larger scale "in M specified, theyarns i9 and 20 are supplied to the needles at about the same time, and the yarn I8 is supplied in advance of the yarns I! The yarn I8 is supplied dies 22. The yarn is is only to the dial neebe yarns ofordinary textile attachment supplied both to: the
dial needles I2 and the cylinder needles 2|. The a inder needles Zia and 2") and said yarn 20 is located between the hook and the latch of the cylinder needle 21c.
As shown in Fig. 8 the dial needle 22a. has been moved outwardly so that it is in an operative position relative to the cylinder needle 21b. The cylinder needle 21a is not yet in operative position relative to the respective dial needle.
,fabric which is shown in The yarn l9 passes over the dial needle 22a, and it is engaged by the hook of the dial needle 22b. Said yarn is held between the hook and the latch of the dial needle 220 which has been moved sufiiciently towards the commoncenter of said dial needles, so that the old loop has closed the latch of said dial needle 22c.
The cylinder needle 2ld has been lowered sufficiently so as to pull the new loop which has been formed by the yarn 283 over the old loop, said old loop being indicated on the needles 2m, Zlb and Ho, and also to close the latch of said needle Zld in the well known manner. Fig. 8 thus illustrates the sequence of the operations in knitting the fabric, from the left-hand side of Fig. 8 to the right-hand side thereof.
Considering cylinder needle 2H) and dial needle 22a, the third yarn I9 is about to be engaged by the hooks of said needles, and it is closer to the inner ends of the hooks of said needles;
than the yarns Z0 and I8. needle Zlc and dial needle 22b, the latch of cylinder needle 21c has been closed so asto lock the yarns 20 and i9, while the latch of dial needle zzuaaui open. The third yarn l9, has been formed into zig-zag legs.
Considering cylinder needle Zld and dial needle 220, the old loop on cylinder needle Zld has been cast off and dial needle 22c still retains its old loop.
- It is clear that yarn It! can now be under greater tension than yarn- 20 or ill and that the zig-zag legs of yarn l9 exceedin length, the lengths of the loops which are formed on the respective series of needles.
Since, as previously stated, the yarn 20 is supplied ,to the needles under little or no feeding tension, and since the yarns l8 and i9 are supplied under equal feeding tensions, it is clear that during the knitting process, the yarn i9 is subjected to greater tension than either of the other yarns.
The zig-zag legs which are formed in the yarn I9, vary in length as shown in Fig. 8, and the longest legs exceed the lengths of the loops which are formed in the fabric.
Hence the yarn 20 forms loops upon one face of the fabric. Likewise in the preferred embodiment the loops which are formed by means of the yarn 20 are coupled with loops formed by Considering cylinder Likewise the dial needles operate to form two series or layers of loops from the two yarns fed thereto, namely, the extra yarn :for the loops of each face of the fabric. 7
Referring to Fig 9 and assuming that a seamless tube of fabric is being knitted, the inner face of the tube would be the rear face of the Fig. 9.- 'One of the principal purposes of the invention is, to provide a-seamless tubular knitted fabric, of the kind which is used folr making girdles and The yarn 20 is at the outer sur-- The yarn l9 may be under higher tension than .the other yarns, during the knitting operation,
so that the loops formed by yarn l9 are located behind the loops formed by yarn l8. Thus formation is facilitated by the lateral feed of yarn l9. In the finished fabric the legs of yarn 19 which are between the loops of said yarn, are under substantial tension. The loops at the front and the rear of the fabric are arranged in aligned rows. The legs of yarn i9 which are between the loops are inclined toeach other.
Referring to Fig. 10, if the yarn 20 is ruptured, or even if a hole is made ina fabric which ruptures the yarns l8, l9 and 20, the run or hole cannot spread because the yarn I9 is under high tension so that the loops at the front face and at the rear face of the fabric are pressed together so tightly as to cause a frictional locking eflect whereby the loops cannot be unraveled one For example, if it is attempted to pull out the broken yarn 20 in Fig.- 10, it is necessary to pull out said yarn from the next loop. In said next loop, the yarn 20 is in front of yarn i9, and said loop is pressed firmly against the corresponding rear loop so that the yarn IQ of the unbroken loop frictionally holds the yarn 2!! of the unbroken loop.
As shown in Figs. 9 and 10, the fabric has four layers of loops.
Successive loops of the third yarn IQ are connected by transverse portions of said third yarn In the preferred fabric the loops of the layers are arranged in aligned rows, so that each vertical row of front loops is aligned with the corresponding vertical row of rear loops.
It will be noted that some of the loops of the yarn l9, namely, the loops in the second layer,
are located between the loops of the flrstyarn 20 i are located between the loops of the yarn IS in the second layer, and the loops of the yarn IS in the fourth layer. I
In its broaderaspect, the loops of yarns 20 and I8 could be interknit without using the third yamll9.
In the completed fabric the third yam I9 s.
under tension so that the .layers of loops are firmly pressed against each other.
The invention can be used in connection with the manufacture of all types of circular knit fabrics, so that it is not limited to the manufacture of elasticknit fabrics. The invention can be utilized for, manufacturing the blanks for girdles and corselettes and also for manufacturing bathing suits. knitted outer-wear and underwear, knitted upholstery cloth and the like. The invention also includes fabrics which are made wholly from non-rubber thread so that the entire fabric can be made of silk or cotton or wool' or from any combination of yarns which are and two cotton not elastlcsave to the extent that yarns made of such textile materials have a certain inherent elasticity. I
The loops must be sufficiently fine in order to producev a self-locking effect if a hole is formed in the fabric. If the loops are too long, the fabric will not be self-locking. In making a tubular fabric with the use of a rayon face yarn,
yarns, I have secured the selflocking effect by having from 26 loops to 28 loops per inch in thelength or height of the fabric in its width, the tubular fabric may have ten loops to fourteen loops per inch. The gauge of the rayon yarn was No. 300 denier, and the gauge of each cotton thread was 36/2,,American system.
This produces a fabric which is much tighter than according to ordinary practice, while using yarns of said gauges. In ordinary practice, there would be about, 1 8 loops per inch in the height orlength of the fabric, and in the width ofthe fabric.
These'figures can be varied, but the stitch must tight. The yarn 20 is supplied to the needles under little or no tension in the. feed. The yarns i8 and I9 are supplied under equal and normal tension. However, since the loops of the yarn I 9 are longer than the fourth layer of I said loops being sufilciently fine relative to the the loops of -yarns IQ and 20.
loops of the other'yarns, since the loops of yarn I 9 go back and forth, the final fabric has the loops of yarn l9 pulled tight so that they knot Hence even if the three yarns are broken, the break stops at thenext loop.
The machine which-may be used with the at-' tachment'is known inthe trade as the Wildman rib machine. This machine knits a seamless tube'ofiabric, which can then be fashioned to make a girdle or' other garment. .I can use any style of machine which is used for knitting a ribbed fabric.
' I have shown a preferred embodimentof my invention but it is clear that numerous changes and omissions could'be made without departing from 'its spirit. A
1. A method of forming a khit fabric which consists in forminga first layer of loops and'a second layer of loops from'separate yarns, and simul-" taneously forming a third layer of loops and a loops from a third yarn, the third layer of loops being in'terknit with the first layer and being located between the first layer and the second layer, the fourth layer of loops being interknit with the second layer, the second layer of loops being. between the third layer and the 2; Asmooth seamless tubular knit fabric, comprising four layers: of loops, said loops being formed from a first yarn and a second yarn and a third yarn, the loops of the first yarn being confined to one of said layers; the loops of the second yarn being confined to a of thethird yarn forming the other two layers, successive loops of the third yarn being con-' nected by transverse portions of said third yarn,
- prising four layers of loops,
formed from a first yarn and a about 8 loops per inch both to the cylinder needles needles, forming intermeshing a series of parallel the dial needles,
second layer, the loops loops ofif the Fdial to knot said loops even if said three yarns are severed in a part of said knit fabric, so as to make said fabric non-running.
3. A smooth seamless tubular; knit fabric comsaid loops being second yam-and a third yarn, the loops of the first yarn being confined to one of said layers, the loops of the second yarn being confined to a second layer, the loops of the third yarn forming the other, two layers, successive loops of the third yarn being connected by transverse portions of said third yarn,
- said loops being sumciently fine relative to the gauge of the yarns and the loops of the third yarn being sufficiently tight and under greater tension than the loops of the other yarns so as to knot said loops even if said three yarns are severed in a part of said knit fabric so as to make said fabric non-running, said smooth seamless tubular knit fabric including elastic yarn and being elastic in the direction of said elastic yarn.
4. A method of knitting a fabric by means of a series of parallel and vertically'disposed cylin-" der needles and a second series of radial dial needles located in a horizontal plane; and with the use of a first yarn and a second yarn and a third yarn, which consists in feeding the first} yarn to the cylinder needles, feeding the second yarn to the dial needles,'feeding the third yarn .and to the dial loops from the first yarn and the third yarnby means of the cylinder needles, also forming intermeshing loops from the' second yarn and the, third ya means of the dial needles, while feeding thethir -yarn to the cylinder needles above the firms. Li,
and while feeding the second yarn to the dial needles behind the third'yarn, and while causing the outer ends of the hooks of the cylinder needles and of the dial needles to engage the prior to engaging the other yarns.
5. A method of knitting a fabric by means of and vertically disposed cylinder needles and a needles located in a horizontal plane and with the use of -a firstyam and a second yarn and a third yarn, which consists in feeding-the first yarn to the cylinder needles, feeding the second yarn to ceding the third yarn both to the cylinder needles and to the dial needles, forming intermeshing loopsfrom the first yarn and the third yarmby means of the cylinder needles, also fo second yarn and the third yarn by means of the al needles, while feeding the third yarn to the cylinder needles above the first yarn, and while feeding the second yarn to the dial, needles behind the third yarn, and while causing the outer ends of the hooks of the cylinder needles and of the'dial needles to engage the third yarn prior to engaglngthe ot er yarns, and while casting the loops offthe cylinder needles prior to casting the.
FRANK M. TANSKI.
third yarn second series of radial dial