US 2068118 A
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Jails 1937- J. A. TOPPING 2,068,118-
COVERING MATERIAL .Filjed Dec. 3, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR Jam19l937' 3 2,068,118"
I COVERING MATERIAL Filed Deg. 8, 1955 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR fomv f7 TOPP/NG BY M r Spa-m.
- ATTORNEYS Jan. 19, 1937. TOWING 2,068,118 I [COVERING MATERIAL Filed Dec. 8, 195a 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 20 uz v r A 73 f i "I I" II "I lull Ill
INVENTORI Jaw/v HTOPP/IYG 53 5 12 "75 BY v +8 m I 72 75 74 7o 72 73 75 34 5/ 33 F A NEYS Patented Jan. 19, 1931 2,068,118
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE COVERING MATERIAL John A. Topping, Bronxville, N. Y. Application December 8, 1933, Serial No. 701,477
10 Claims. (01. 108-7) This invention relates to covering elements and strip the tabs and recesses themselves may be more particularly to covering elements for surcomplementary to each other or may be nonfaces exposed to the weather, especially those in complementary to each other. However, as a the form of strips simulating shingles. The infeature of the invention they have similar outvention also relates to the process of making such lines. There thus may be provided, according to 5 elements. my invention, a pair of strips which may be cut Shingle strips with shingle simulating tabs from a sheet of material without waste accordseparated by spaces or notches are in common ing to the process tobe described and each of use. Strips upon which are formed tabs which which maybe used to produce a number of novel are separated by recesses having an outline comassemblies upon the surface to be covered, hav- 10 plementary to the tab also have been used. An ing novel symmetrical or unsymmetrical outline example of such a strip is one formed with a tab of the motifs produced and which also, when in the shape of a half hexagon in which the used together, may produce modifications of the recess is also a half hexagon. When two such effect of the exposed edge of the single tabs or strips are laid in an overlapping arrangement a of the single recesses, as will hereafter be de- 15 hexagon motif may be formed in the roof or scribed.
assembly upon the surface to be covered. In My invention in its preferred embodiment regeneral, the assemblies of such strips upon the lates to covering elements having tabs which are roof or upon the surface to be covered produce not complementary to the spaces between the a regular outline of the motif, such as the hexatabs but which have the edges thereof formed 20 gon, formed by regularly placing the tabs of one with an outline similar to that of the recess or strip with respect to the recesses of a strip to spaces between the tabs. While the invention be overlapped. v broadly or in its preferred embodiment, is not The present invention provides a covering elelimited to a particular form of the outline of the ment or strip formed with tabs separated by a tab and of the recess, I prefer to form the outer 25 recess. The outline of the tab is such that it is edge of the tab with an outline which, when similar to that of the recess between the tabs. viewed with respect to the body of the element, In the preferred embodiment of my invention is the same or similar to the outline of the inner the form of the outline of the tab is such that edge of the recess when viewed with respect to While being similar to that of the recess it is not the body of the strip. Thus in a particular em- 30 v complementary thereto. My invention, however, bodiment I may use a serrated outer edge for is not limited to elements or strips in which the the tab and a serrated inner edge for the recess, tabs have an outline not complementary to that each ofthese edges having the same or similar of the recess but includes elements or strips prooutline and similar placement with respect to vided with tabs having a form of outline which the body of the element of the lines forming the 35 is complementary to that of the recess. In either points and notches of the serration. Thus I may case the form of the edge to be exposed of the accomplish the formation of the recess with an tab and of the inner edge of the recess are simioutline which is not complementary to that of lar or alike and are so placed with respect to the the tab but is of similar or like outline thereto.
40 body of the strip that when strips of like kind When utilizing such a form of the edge of the 40 or of different kinds as to the complementary recess and of the tab I may cut from a sheet two relation of the tabs and recesses are assembled strips, each of which has the tabs thereof comupon a surface or to form a roof, unusual deplementary to the recesses of the other strip and signs and motifs may be secured which are the each of which may have the tabs thereof comresult of the mechanical form of the strip and of plementary to or non-complementary to the re- 45 the mechanical relation of the outline of the tab cesses between its own tabs. When the tabs and or of the recess with respectto the body of the recesses of each strip havev outlines which are strip and also of the mutual relationship of said similar but not complementary to each other, outlines of tabs and recesses. two strips may be produced at the same time in Moreover, as will be hereafter described, acso cutting the sheet, which strips are not alike cording to my invention there may be formed but both of which have tabs which are of similar two strips of complementary outline, one with outline and recesses which are of similar outline.
respect to the other in the edges to be exposed The invention will be more clearly understood thereof, each of which strips is provided with from the following description taken in connectabS Separated y recesses 1 paces. In each tion with the drawings of which Figure 1 shows a sheet cut in outlines to produce the covering elements of the invention.
Figure 2 shows an element having the typical form of the invention.
Figure 3 shows an element complementary to that of Figure 2.
Figure 4 shows a modified form of the element of Figure 2.
Figure 5 shows a modified form of the element of Figure 3.
Figure 6 shows an assembly using the elements of Figures 2 and 3.
Figure 7 shows a sheet cut in outlines to produce complementary tabs and spaces in each element.
Figure 8 shows a single elementof the type produced by the method of cutting illustrated in Figure '7.
Figure 9 shows an assembly of the elements of Figure 7. g
Figure 10 shows a sheet cut in outlines to produce elements having the tabs and spaces thereof complementary to each, said element having outlines similar to but not complementary to the elements of Figures 7 and 8. 4
Figure 11 shows a single element of the type produced by the method of Figure 10.
Figure 12 shows an assembly of the elements of Figure 11.
Figure 13 shows an assembly of the elements of Figures 2 and 3 in varied arrangement.
Figure 14 shows as a further modification an assembly of the elements of Figures 2 and 3.
In Figure 1 is shown diagrammatically a sheet I of indefinite length having a width equal to the depth of one element from the outer edge of its tab to the opposite longitudinal edge of the element plus the depth of-a complementary element from the inner edgeof its recess to its opposite longitudinal edge. In full lines are shown the elements illustrated in Figures 2 and 3. The element shown in Figure 2 is marked 2 inFigure l and the element shown in Figure 3 is marked 3 in Figure 1.. In the particular embodiment-of the invention as illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 the element 2 has its longitudinal dimension ex-,- tending between the lines 5 and 6, which lines extend transversely across the element and transversely to the length of the sheet I from which the element is cut. correspondingly, the element 3 has its longitudinal dimension. extending between the lines 3 and III, which, lines extend transversely of the element and of the sheet from which the element is cut.
In the particular embodiment illustrated in Figure 2, the'element is provided with tabs I2 and I3 separated by a spaceor recess having a width equal to the width of the tabs but the invention is not limited to tabs and recesses of equal width. Adjacent the tabs at the ends of the; elements are recesses which are equal in longitudinal dimension to one-half the Width of thespacebetween the tabs I2 and I3. In this particular embodiment the tabs are formed with straight lines I4, I5, I6 and I1 extending transversely of the longitudinal dimension of the element and connecting the edges I8 and ill of said tabs with the inner edges 22, 23 and 24 of the recesses. By using a straight line for these transverse edges I may more easily separate the complementary strips as they are cutfrom the sheet. However, other forms for this transverse line may be used within the scope ofthe invention. In the embodiment illustrated the edge. I8 of the tab I2 is termed in serrated outline having the portions 30,
3|, 32 and 33 providing points 34, and 36. The inner edge 23 of the recess formed between the tabs I2 and I3 is of similar serrated outline composed of the parts 40, 4|, 42 and 43. The inner edge 22 of the recess at the lefthand end of the element is formed with two portions corresponding to the portions 42 and 43 of the edge 23 and the inner edge 24 of the recess at the righthand edge of the element is formed with portions and 4| corresponding to the portions4|l and 4| of the edge 23. It will be noted from Figure 2 that the outline provided by the edges 22, 23 and is similar to the outline provided by the edges I8 and IQ of the tabs I2 and I3.
Moreover, it will be noted that with respect to the'body of-the element the outlines of the edges H3 and I9 of the tabs I2 and I3 and the edge 23 of the recess are similarly placed, that is, the edge 23 of the recess provides notches between the portions 4|] and 4| and between the portions 42 and 43, which correspond with the notches between the portions 30 and 3| and between the portions 32 and 33 of the edges I8 and I9 of the tabs. These edges of the. tabs and of the recess may be said to be similarly formed. and of similar shape and provide outlines of two different portions of the body of the element which are similar or alike and are similarly placed with respect to the body of the strip.
It will also be noted, however, in the particular embodiment of Figure 2 that theoutline provided by the tabs is not complementary to the outline provided in the recess, that is to say, it is not possible to fit the tab I2 or the tab I3 into the recess between the tabs so that the outline of the edge I3 or of the edge I9 will fit to the outline of the edge 230i the recess. The points 34, 35 and 36 of the tabs will meet the corners 44 and 46 and the point of the edge Bend the notches between the portions of the outlines will leave open spaces. By such a form of outline-for the edges of the tabs and of the inner edges of the recesses there thus is provided a strip having tabs which are separated by a recess or space or which a1- ternate with recesses, the tabs being non-complementary to the spaces.
outlines 58 and 59 which may be said to be inverted from that provided by the edges I8 and I9 of the tabs of the strip of Figure 2. The edge 58 thus is formed by the portions I0, I Hand I3 forming corners and I5 and points I6 and 17. The edge 63 of the recess between the tabs 52 and 53 is formed by portions 8|], BI,
82 and 83 resulting in points 84 and 85. Simie larly the edges 62- and 64 of the recesses at the ends of the element are formed by portions 82 and 83 for the lefthand recess and portions 80 and 8! for the righthand recess corresponding to the respectively numbered portions of the edge 63.
Upon inspection of Figure 3 is will be noted that the edges 58 and 59 of the tabs 52 and, 53
have a similar outline to theinner edges of the recesses and are similarly formed with respect to the body of the element in like manner to that describedin connection with Figure 2. It will also be noted that theedges '58 and 59 of said tabs 52 and 53 are not complementary to the edge 63 of the'recess and that if one of said tabs were inserted in the recess the points I6 and T! of the tab would meet'the points 84 and of the edge of the recess, leaving open the spaces between the notches. Thus the edge of the tab is not complementary to the edge of the recess although the outline utilized for the edge of the tab is the same or similar to that of the recess.
By reference now to Figure 1 and by reference to corresponding reference numerals which are the same in Figure 1 as those used in Figures 2 and 3, it will be noted that the element 2 of Fi ure 2 has such' an outline as to fit to the outline of the element of Figure 3. The edge l8 of the tab 12 and the edge 59 of the'tab l3 fits to the edges 64 and 63 of the recesses of the element of Figure 3. correspondingly the edge 58 of the tab 52 and the edge 59 of the tab- 53 fit to the edges'2 l and23 of the recess of theelement 2. As shown in Figure l in full lines, the edges 6 and 9 areoffset longitudinally of the sheet I a distance corresponding substantially to the width of the tab or of the space. Similarly, the edges 5 and [0 are offset. By cutting the elements from the sheets along the lines 5 and 6 and 9 and Ill both strips are formed with recesses at the ends of the strips, which has certain ad'- vantages hereafter to be described. Thus it may be seen that by the method of cutting shown in Figure l a pair of elements is provided, each of which has an outline of the edge to be ex posed thereof which is complementary to that of the other element but which, as described above, have tabs and recesses which are not complementary.
In order to produce the elements which have been described in connection with Figures 1, 2 and 3 I form the serrated outline, or other'outlines having the character which will produce tabs and recesses in each element which are not complementary to each other but which will in each pair of elements form the tabs with outlines complementary to the recesses of those of the other element, by cutting adjacent the center of the sheet l the line. 95 forming the serrations laterally offset in different portions to produce the edges l8 and I9 and 58 and 590i the tabs and the edges 22, 23 and 24 and 62, 63 and 550i the recesses, as well as to'produce the connecting edges l4, l5, l6 and I! of one element and the connecting lines 55, 55, 56 and 51 of the other element. Thus the line of Figure 1 is composed of the various portions which have been described in connection with Figures 2 and 3, some of the numerals from which are indicated in Figure 1.
It will be noted from Figure 1 that'the outline 90 while having an apparently general symmetrical relationship to the center line of the sheet I is not symmetrical about said center line. The notches of one tab form the points of the recess of the other element and the points of the tabs of one element form the notches of the recess of the other element Thus, as may be seen from Figure 1, when viewed in one direction the points of the outline project all in one direction that is, toward oneside of the sheet I and the notches between said points all project inwardly toward the other side of the sheet I. However, within the scope of my invention I may use other forms of outlines for the edge of the tab and for the inner edge of the recess which, while the tab of one strip is complementary to the recess of the other, said outlines are such that said tab is not complementary to the recess in its own strip. It also will be noted that in the elements shown in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive the outlinesof the tabs or of the recesses are symmetrical about lines transversely of the longitudinal dimension of the element. However, within the scope of my invention these outlines may be unsymmetrical about such a transverse line while maintaining the general complementary form in the two elements formed in the sheet I and while maintaining the non-complementary form of the tabs and recess in each element.
An important feature of my invention consists in so cutting the sheet I as illustrated in Figure 1 that the distance from the outline of the central out, which severs the sheet into the two elements, produces two complementary elements which may be laid adjacent each other endwise in a course with the rear or overlapped edgesof the two elements in line in order to modify the motifs produced by the assemblies referred to above. For example, the strips illustrated in Figures 1, 2 and 3 may be formed with the serrated edge having the portions 3ll3l, etc. and l6ll, etc. extending at such angles that the meeting point of said two lines in each case is offset laterally, A from the other ends of said lines Elli-3i, etc. and 'l0i I etc. In other words, the points 35, 35 and 36 extend /2" beyond the inner corners of the notches between these points, and the points 16 and 11 extend beyond the corners l5 and 15 and beyond the inner corner of the notch between said points 16 and H. It will be seen from the above descriptionin connection with Figure 1 that the lines 5,15, l6 and II are of equal length with the lines 54, 55, 56 and 51. For example, the length of these lines forming the side edges of the tabs and of the recesses may be 4".
If now, for example, the distance X from the corners 44 and 46 of the element 2 to the rear or overlapped edge 20 of said element is 7 and the distance Y from the corners 88 and 89 adjacent the sides of the recess of the element 3 to the rear edge to be overlapped 56 of said element is 7",then, if the element 3 is laid endwise adjacent in a course to element 2 With the edges. 9 and 6 abutting and with the back edges 55 and 26 aligned in the direction of the course, lines M and 82 respectively of the elements 2 and 3 will not fall in line but one will be offset /2 with respect to the other in a direction transversely of the course. The distance from the edges 26 and 50 to the outermost point of the outline of the re cess in each strip will be 7 /2" and the distance Z from said overlapped edges 20 and 5!) to the outermost point of the edge of the tab in each strip will be 11%. These dimensions are merely examples and other dimensions may be used with out departing from the invention. Moreover, by providing a suitable laying mark on each element at an equal distance in the element 2 and in the element 3 respectively from the edges 20 and 55 the degree of overlap of the courses may be determined while still providing for producing varied effects in the motifs as will be hereafter described.
Thus, according to one feature of my invention I provide two complementary elements or strips which may have the tabs and recesses of each element formed in outlines which may be complementary to each other or which may be non complementary to each other as described above,
and which elements have a difference in their transverse dimension with respect to the distance from the edge of the tab or of the recess to the edge to be overlapped of the element, so that a means is provided for securing a variety of symmetric-a1 and defined novel motifs in the assembly of said elements while also providing for assembling the elements to produce irregular motifs irregularly arranged, as will be hereafter described.
The elements shown in Figures 4 and 5 correspond respectively to the elements shown in Figures 2 and 3 and have forms of tabs and recesses respectively like those shown in Figures 2 and 3. However, each of the elements of Figures 4 and 5 have two recesses separating three tabs. Such forms of the elements, as will be understood by reference to Figure 1, may be produced by cutting the sheet I transversely of the length thereof along the dotted lines 95 and 96 to produce the element of Figure 4 and along dotted lines 99 and I00 to produce the element of Figure 5.
It will be noted that the lines 95 and 96 and 99 and IE8 are so positioned as to cut in two an otherwise complete tab formed by the line' 90. This may in some cases make such a form of the elements unsuitable for protection against the weather due to the possibility of leakage through the joint necessarily formed between elements abutting endwise. In assemblies such as that shown in Figure 14, however, or where the assembled covering need not be water tight or other means are used for water tightness, the forms shown in Figures4 and 5 may be used to provide variations of design. When the forms of the elements shownin Figures 2' and 3 are used the end joints become covered withtabs as may be seen from the assembly figures, for example Figure 6, and the covering, therefore, is made water tight.
The above description for the most part has referred to the embodiment of the invention in which two complementary elements or strips 2 and 3 are formed each having the tabs thereof similar to but of noncomplementary outline to the recesses of the respective strips. In Figure 7 the sheet I is shown cut with the outline I09, which resembles the outline of Figure 1. However, in the two strips I 08 formed by the out having the outline I99, the tabs III of the strips I08 have their edges I I2 similar and complementary to the edge H4 of the recess between said tabs E I0. An individual element I08 formed as shown in Figure 7 is illustrated in Figure 8. It willbe noted that not only both elements are alike and have their tabs complementary to the spaces between the tabs but that the edge II2 of the tab, while of similar form to the edge N4 of the recess, is not formed in like relation but in inverted relation to the body of the element as is the edge H4 of the recess.
While in some cases I may form the strips on either side of the line I89 with different transverse widths from the line I99 to the edge to be overlapped I28, in order to obtain different forms of the motifs which I desire to produce in the assemblies, I preferably make the distances from the outline I99 to said edge I20 in both strips at either side of said line I09 the same. Thus the edges H35 and I08 of the strip I98 are of the same length and like points of the serrations are at equal distances from the edge I20 in the two strips produced by the cut I09.
In Figure 10 the sheet I is similarly cut in an outline H9 to produce tabs II3 of serrated outline H5 and complementary to a serrated outline II! of the recess between the tabs H3. A single element III of the form produced by the cut II 9'is shown in Figure 11 and the elements I II on either side of the cut II9 each have their tabs of the same outline and complementary to the space between thetabs on each element. It will be seen that the outlinev H9 is a modification of the outline 109 as shown in Figure 7 and that the form of strip I I I is similar but not complementary to the form of strip illustrated in Figure 8. As has been stated above in connection with Figures 7 and 8 the strips formed as in Figure 10 may be made of equal transverse width or if desired to produce different effects, may be made of unequal widths. In some cases I may make the strips of such width with respect to those of Figures 7 and 8 that the length of the edges H6 and H8 are the same as the length of the edges I05 and I06 of the strip of Figure 8. In such case it will be seen that when a strip as shown in Figure 8 is laidendwise adjacent in a course to a strip as shown in Figure 11 with, for example, the edge I06 ofthe strip of Figure 8 abutting against the edge IIG of the strip-of Figure 11, the portions of the serration in the adjacent strips which are adjacent the end edges thereof will fall in line and a serrated outline of peculiar form will be produced for the recess formed between a tab II2 of the strip I08 and the tab II3 of the strip I I I. When the strips of Figures 8 and 11 are made with the transverse width, from the rear edges I20 and I22 to the outermost point of the tabs, the same, then if strips I08 and III are laid endwise adjacent in a course said positions of the serrations will not fall in line but the points of the strip III will fall below those of the strip I08.
Thus within the scope of my invention I may produce strips which have tabs complementary to the recesses or spaces between the tabs and strips which are of like form and are out complementary to each other. However, I also may form strips which have their tabs complementary to the recesses between the tabs and which, being formed in pairs and being of like form in said pairs, are not complementary to similarly formed strips having similar outlines. All the various forms of complementary tabs and recesses and non-complementary tabs and recesses and of strips which are complementary to each other and those which are non-complementary to each other, as has been described above, are within the scope of my invention and are useful in the assemblies hereafter to be describedin producing the motifs and designs in great variety. It is to be noted that this invention resides not in the design forms themselves and moreover that the possibility of producing the different and varied designs with the same elements resides not alone in a mere design form for the edge of the strip itself, but in the mechanical relation of said form of the edge of the tab and of the recess in relation to each other and in their relation to the body of the element.
Also. according to my invention, I provide a. process of producing an element having a tab and a recess, the outline of the tab being similar to that of the recess but non-complementary thereto. I also provide a process for producing a pair of strips which are complementary in their outlines and are provided with tabs and recesses between the tabs, each of the tabs having an outline similar to butnon-complementary to that of the recess in the strip of which it is a part.
Moreover, I provide aprocess of producing elements which may be laid in overlapping arrangement and which have configurations of the tabs and the spaces between the tabs which make possible new effects; in an assembly of the element in overlapping arrangement as Well as.
a process of producing pairs of such strips by which variations may be made in the effects produced by such assemblies.-
In the illustrations described above the transverse edges of the tabs, for example, the edges I4, l5, l6 and I1 and edges 54, 55, 56 and 51, have been formed as straight lines. While in some cases I may .use other outlines for these edges and also may form the edges with the lines extending at angles to the longitudinal dimen-- sion of the strip other than a, right angle, in
general I prefer to utilize a form for this edge;
which is of simple outline in order that in cutting the complementary strips I may easily separate one strip from the other when said strips are severed from the sheet by the cut of serrated outline adjacent the center of the sheet. When outlines of serrated form, or others having angles and indentations, are used it has been found difficult easily to separate one strip on one side of the cut from that on the other side.
In Figure 6 is shown an assembly of the elements 2 and 3 illustrated in Figures 2 and 3, the element 2 of Figure 2 being shown in the topmost course illustrated and the element 3 of Figure 3 being shown therebeneath and overlapped by the element 2. The assembly of Figure 6 shows alternate courses of the elements 2 and 3. It will be noted that the edges l8 and I9 of the tabs I2 and I3 of the element 2 are placed adjacent the edges 62, 63 and 64 as the case may be of the element 3 in the course therebeneath; also that the edges 58 and 59 of the tabs 52 and 53 of the element 3 are .placed adjacent the edges 22,
23 and 24 of the recess of the element 2.
As has been mentioned above, by suitably located laying marks 25 and 65 respectively in the elements 2 and 3, a suitable amount of overlap or head lap of one course with respect to the other may be obtained and the advantage also may be obtained of uniformly laying the strips in.
the courses with respect to the subjacent course.
For example, when the strips or elements of Fig.-
ment 3, for strips having the particular dimension given, a minimum head lap of 2 /2 is provided. It will also be seen that when an edge 50 of an element 3 is placed at a distance of 4 /2" from the edge 20 of the subjacent element a similar .head lap is provided. Moreover, it will be clear from inspection of Figure 6 that this mechanical construction makes possible a water tight covering while obtaining variations of the form of the motif produced by laying the elements in the overlapping courses as illustrated in Figure 6, two different motifs and two modifications of edge forms being secured.
It will be seen that adjacent the edges l8 and IQ of the strip 2 are formed small diamonds by the adjacent relationship of said edges l8 and ii] to the edges 62, 63 and 64 of the recesses of the subjacent strip. Also it will be seen from Figure 6 that the edges 58 and 59 of the strip 3 form a centrally positioned diamond and two half dialationship of the edges 58 and 59 to the edges 22, 23 and 22 of theel'ement 2 of a subjacent course. These relationships in the particular arrangement shown in Figure 6 produce the two different main motifs in the assembly and these relationships also produce the two different sub-motifs, namely, the diamonds and half diamonds which, in the particular arrangement of Figure 6, are in certain relations respectively to the two different main motifs; Thus the tWo adjacent diamonds are formed at the upper and lower sides of the motif A and thesingle diamond and two half diamondsareformed at .the upper and lower sides of the motif B. It will also be noted that the half diamonds of the motif B form side extensions of the motif A.' The assembly of Figure 6 shows a relatively simple design which is pro-- duced by the mechanical form of the strips 2 and 3, the tabsof which in each strip are not complementary to the spaces thereof, which tabs, however, are complementary to the recesses of the other strip. 1
Figure 9 shows an assembly of the strips illustrated in Figures Y-and 8. In this assembly only one type of the strips, namely, the strip IE8, is utilized in all thecourses. It will be noted that the motifs C which are produced in this assembly by the tabs and the recesses therebetween, because of the relationship of the serrated edges of the tabs to 'theiserrated edges of the recesses are all alike and'have two diamonds at the upper and lower edges of the motif. This motif C is similar in-general outline to the motif A of Figure 6 but is formed without the side half diamonds. This modification results from the use of strips which are alike, but it also illustrates the possibility of assembling strips having the tabs thereof complementary to therecess'es between the tabs to produce a motif having the characteristics of the motif A, said motifA being produced by complementary strips having the tabs and recesses in each strip non-complementary. While the assembly in Figure 9 is limited to a single motif C, the assembly of Figure 6, utilizing the strips of the form of Figures 2 and 3, produces two motifs of different character in the same assembly. However, in some cases it may be preferable to utilize strips or elements which are all of the same form and which are produced as shown in Figure 7; The assembly'of Figure 9 shows the type of result which may be obtained with such strips. s
The assembly'of Figure 12, like the assembly of Figure 9, shows strips all of one type in overlapping arrangement in courses. This assembly utilizes the strip lii of Figure 11. It will be noted that the motif D produced by the tabs and the recesses therebetween is similar to the motif B of the-Figured but unlike the motif B has the half diamond extension at the side thereof the motifs of the assembly of Figure 12 are alike. For the reasons discussed in connection with Figure 9 the assembly of strips all of one kind in some cases maybe preferable. The assembly of Figure 12 illustrates how the modification of the motifs may be obtained while utilizing strips having the form of the edges of the tabs and of the recesses as'proposed bymy invention, namely strips which are. complementary and with tabs and recesses of similar outline, the tabs being complementary to the recesses.
If theelements illustrated in Figure 8 and Figure 11 are laid in alternate courses, as is the case in the assemblyof, Figurefirthe edge H2 may be laid to be coincident with the edge III of the recess in strip III of Figure 11. Similarly the edge II of the tab of the strip III may be laid to be coincident with the edge I I4 of the recess of the strip I08 of Figure 8. When such an arrangement is adopted in the assembly there may be produced motifs having serrated outlines at the top and bottom but without the formation of diamonds adjacent the top and bottom outlines or at the sides. It will be noted that in this case, as in the assembly of Figure '6 there will be utilized a pair of strips to produce the desired result, the strips of said pair, however, being noncomplementary to each other, as is the case in the assembly of Figure 6, but each having their tabs complementary to the spaces between the tabs. The motifs formed by such an assembly which have the character provided by the serrated outlines but the edge effects produced by the diamonds and half diamonds will not be ob tained. Nevertheless the edges of the tabs and recesses will appear thicker and the shadow effect will be enhanced. Moreover, as will be described hereafter, variations in the laying may cause one edge to be seen below the other to produce a still different effect with the parallel serrated outlines.
It will now be understood that the effects obtained in Figure 6 may be produced by a pair of different strips, which may be cut at one time from a sheet with tabs non-complementary to the spaces therebetween, whereas to produce the assemblies of Figures 9 and 12, or an assembly utilizing the strips I08 and, III of Figures 8 and 11 it is necessary to cut the strips in two different operations to produce the two different strips. By using strips both of the same kind, for example strip 2 of Figure 2, I may produce the same forms of the main motif as are produced by two different strips I08 and III as described in the previous paragraph.
Figure 13 shows an assembly of the strips illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 in which assembly the two different types of strips are arranged at random as to their position in the courses and as to their position in one course with respect to another course. As may be seen from Figure 13, in the uppermost course, strips I30 and I3I of the type illustrated in Figure 3 are shown in laterally adjacent arrangement in the course. In the next course beneath at the leftis shown a strip I32, only one full tab of which appears in the overlapping assembly. This strip also is of the type shown in Figure 3. The edges 80, BI, 82 and 83 are coincident with the edges I0, II, 12 and 13 of the tabs 52 and 53 of the superimposed strip I30. The edges IO, II, 12 and I3 of the strip I32 in the second course are coincident with the edges 80, 8| and 82 of a strip I34 in the third course, the strip I34 being also of the type shown in Figure 3. At the right hand of the strip I32 in the second course is shown a strip I36 of the type illustrated in Figure 2 laid in relation to the strips I30 and I3I of the uppermost course in the manner shown in Figure 6. Thus there are produced the half diamonds and diamonds and motifs similar to those of Figure 6. It will be noted, however, that below the righthand tab 53 of the strip I30 appears a half diamond instead of a full diamond. It will be clear from the above description that thisresults from thecoincidence of the edges and 'II with the edges 80 and 8I of the strip I32. strips I32 and I36 is shown at-the-line 138.
The jointbetween the It now will be seen from this figure that the arrangement above mentioned in which a strip of the type of Figure 2 is laid in laterally adjacent arrangement to the strip of Figure 3 with the rear overlapped edges 50 and 20 in alignment, that a modification of the motifs in Figure 6 may be obtained. It will also be clear that where the assembly is composed of strips in successive courses all of like outline, but of the type shown in either Figures 2 or 3, the diamonds and half diamonds are not developed in the assembly.
Further modifications of the motifs are evident from a mere inspection of the figure. These are obtained in some cases by laying strips which are adjacent endwise in the courses transversely out of alignment. This may be accomplished, for example, by placing one strip with its rear edge 20 or 50 offset from that of an adjacent strip in the course. Such offsets may produce for example sub-motifs composed of small diamonds and half diamonds separated by the points of the serrations of the tabs of the strips. This may be seen at the lower portion of Figure 13. In some cases the offset may produce the parallel positions of the lines 40, II, 42 and 43 and the lines 30, 3i, 32 and 33 or similar parallel arrangement of other edge lines. The exact modification produced depends not only upon the amount of the offset, which may be varied in different cases, but also upon the direction of the transverse offset of one strip with respect to the strip in the subjacent or in superimposed course.
It will also be noted that apparently irregular motifs are produced when certainroffsets are used with certain combinations of these strips of Figures 2 and 3. While it will be understood that particular designs and repetition of the motifs may be accomplished by adopting a systematic arrangement of the strips in relation to each other and of the direction of the offset, if any, in connection with the particular form of the strip, it is also possible to produce pleasing effects which have not the regularity and repetition of the motif which usually is experienced in assemblies of shingle strips or other covering elements. Theobtaining of these variations is easily accomplished with the elements of the present invention. For example, when a course of shingles is being laid and the two types of strips illustrated in Figures 2 and 3 are being used, selection may be made at random from piles of each of the types of strips. This random selection alone will produce variations, as has been described above and as may be seen from Figure 13. However, if in laying the strips some strips in the courses are offset transversely of the course, the variation of the sub-motifs may be obtained as well as further modification of the main motif of the assemblies.
This offset may be readily accomplished by means of the laying marks referred to above. If instead of laying an element with these marks in exact coincidence with the edge 20 or 50 to be overlapped of the subjacent element, a slight offset is given merely by gauging with the eye, the modifications which have been mentioned and shown may be produced. It is also to be noted that in addition to the gauging of the amount of offset which may be obtained by noting the position of the laying mark with respect to the edge 50 or 20 to be overlapped of the subjacent element, the workman may gauge the element by noting the position of the tabs with respect to the edge of the'recess of the subjacent element. Thus in some cases it may be desirable to change the element being laid to one of another type in order to avoid immediate repetition of a motif or of a sub-motif or otherwise to modify the design and character of the assembly.
A further modification of the assemblies which are possible with the element of my invention is shown in Figure 14. In this assembly elements of the types of Figures 2 and 3 are utilized and are laid in random selection as to these types. In the assembly of Figure 14 the edges 5 and 6 of the element of the type of Figure 2, for example, or the edges 9 and ID of the element of the type of Figure 3, are lapped upon the adjacent corresponding end edge of an element adjacent in the course. Thus the element I50, which is the type illustrated in Figure 2, has its lefthand edge 5 lapped upon the righthand edge I0 of an element of the type of Figure 3. Upon the righthand edge 6 of the element I50 is lapped the lefthand edge 5 of an element I52 laid adjacent thereto in the course. Similarly the end edges of elements in the other courses of the assembly of Figure 14 are lapped upon each other, the lap in some cases being in one direction and in other cases in another direction.
It will be noted that the amount of the lap in the particular embodiment illustrated in Figure 14 is equal to the distance in the direction of the course which corresponds to one of the lines forming the serrated edges. For example, the element I50 has its lefthand end edge 5 at the point of intersection of the lines and 8| of an element I5I of the type of Figure 3. When the rear edge 20 of the element I50 is laid in alignment with the rear edge 50 of the element I5 I, the edges 42 and BI may coincide. On the other hand, when the rear edge 20 of the element I50 is in alignment with the rear edge 20 of the element I52, these elements being of the same type, the edge 42 which is lapped upon the edge II crosses this edge to produce a small half diamond, the point adjacent the edge 42 extending over the edge 4| By lapping the edges 5 and 6 in the reverse manner the visible half diamond may be produced at the left rather than at the right of the point. The amount and direction of the endwise overlap, however, may be varied to produce further modifications and such combinations and arrangements are within the scope of the inventlon.
It will be noted that the lapping of the end edges of the strips in the courses may produce the eifect of shifting the strip endwise in the course with respect to a subjacent or a superimposed strip. Thus between the strip I50 and the strip I55, instead of two full diamonds which would be formed by the points 34, 35 and 36 meeting the corners 88 and 89 and the notch therebetween, as in the assembly of Figure 6,.there is formed a space in which the sides 30, 3|, 32 and 33 are parallel to the edges 80, 8|, 82 and 83. In some cases, however, it is apparent, from Figure 14, that a diamond and an open diamond may be formed, or a diamond and a half diamond as a part of the area of a given strip. Various modifications may be made by selection of the type of strip and the amount of the endwise overlap. Suitable variety ofeffects, however, may easily be obtainable with two strips, for example, of the types shown in Figures 2 and 3 with an amount of overlap a distance equal to one of the lines of the serration.
Moreover, while it is to be noted that, in the particular arrangement illustrated in Figure 14, the elements are arranged with the rear edges 20 or 50 to be overlapped in alignment, further modification of the effects shown in Figure 14 may be accomplished by laying the elements with a transverse offset as described above in connection with Figure 13. It will further be noted that with the serrated edge a convenient guide is at hand in laying the elements to determine the amount of endwise overlap, it being merely necessary tobring the overlapping edge, for example the edge 5, in alignment with a point of the serrations Neither in connection with the assembly of Figure 13 nor that of Figure 14 is it necessary to adopt a strict and rigid arrangement by measurement. In fact more pleasing effects are produced by slight irregularity in the arrangement which may be accomplished in the manner described above by the workman merely using the laying guides 25 and 65 and the points of serrations. All such variations are within the scope of my invention.
In Figures 4 and 5, which-show two strips which are complementary to each other and. cut in the manner illustrated in Figure 1 transversely across the strips, the stripsare provided with bands I60 to I65 inclusive of different widths. These bands may be of diiferent colors. It will be noted that as a result of the complementary method of cutting the two strips the colors on one strip proceed in the reverse order from left to right than in the other strip. It will also be noted that as a result of forming in the sheet I, the transverse cuts which connect the serrated outlines with the longitudinal edge of the sheet, these cuts being made in offset arrangement lengthwise of the sheet, the colors assembled on the strip of Figure 4 are not merely different by being reversed from those of Figure 5, as the offset of the transverse cut develops a different order in the two strips.
The color bands I60 to I65 may be applied to the strip in various ways. For example, when strips of slate surfaced roofing are to be made the color bands may be applied by suitable means transversely of the sheet I in sections or areas of different width longitudinally of sheet I. By another method of producing the strips of Figures 4 and 5 the color bands may be applied as longitudinal bands extending throughout a sheet I and in laterally adjacent arrangement across the sheet. It would then be necessary to cut the strips of Figures 4 and 5, in the serrated outlines, producing the tabs and recesses, transversely of the length of the sheet I. This transverse cut of serrated outline, however, may be formed so as to produce two complementary strips. In such case, when it is desired to avoid waste of the material, complementary strips of the type shown in Figures 2 and 5 may be produced at the same time or complementary strips of the type of Figures 3 and 4 may be simultaneously produced. The transverse cuts then extend completely across the sheet I. Color bands shown in connection with Figures 4 and 5 can as well be utilized in the strips shown in the other figures, the complementary cutting operation producing the reversal of the color bands in the two strips and the offsetting of the transverse cuts to form the ends of the strips still further modifying the arrangement of the colors upon the two strips regardless of the particular character of the outline of the edge of the strip.
The width of the color bands illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 has been made to correspond to one or more of the portions of the serrated outline. While this arrangement may be preferable in many cases, the invention is not limited to the coincidence between the division line between the color bands with the points of the serrated outlines, it being possible to obtain the variation in the arrangement of the colors upon the strips by reversal of the complementary strips as has been described above, whether or not the width of the color bands is that determined by the lines of the serrations. The arrangement shown in Figures 4 and 5 is merely typical and has been shown in these particular figures for the sake of convenience and simplicity of illustration. The variations illustrated in Figures 4 and 5' may be used to obtain further modification of the efiects produced in the assemblies shown in Figures 6, 9, l2, l3 14.
What is claimed as new is:
1. A pair of covering elements each having a tab projecting from the body thereof, the outer edge of said tab on each element having a serrated outline, said edge of the tab on one element being of complementary outline to said edge of the tab of the other element, the portion of the edge of the body of each element adjacent its tab having a serrated outline complementary to that of the tab of the other element.
2. A pair of covering elements each having a plurality of tabs projecting from the body thereof and separated by a recess of similar dimension to the tabs, the tabs on one element being complementary to the recess of the other element and having their outer edges of serrated outline noncomplementary to the outline of the inner boundary of the recess between the tabs on the same element.
3. A pair of covering elements in the form of strips each having tabs projecting from the body thereof and having the lengthwise portions of the edges of the strip of serrated outline, the strips of said pair being of like form except that in the respective portions of said lengthwise edges the serrations of one strip are complementary to those of the other strip.
l. An assembly of elements each having a tab and a recess adjacent to said tab, the outer edge of said tab and the inner edge of said recess being of similar serrated outline, at least some of said elements being assembled in pairs in overlapping arrangement with the points of the serrations of the tabs meeting the points of the notches of the recesses, the elements of said pair being of like form except that like portions of said pair of elements have the edges thereof respectively complementary.
5. An assembly of elements each having a tab and a recess adjacent to said tab, the outer edge of said tab and the inner edge of said recess being of similar serrated outline, said elements being assembled in overlapping arrangement with points of the serrations of the overlapping tabs meeting points of the notches of the recesses, said serrated outlines of said tabs and recesses in the same element being non-complementary.
6. An assembly comprising a pair of elements having the edges to be exposed thereof formed in complementary outlines and with the tabs of one element complementary to recesses in the other element, the tabs of each element being generally similar to each other but being non-complementary to the recesses of the same element, said elements being assembled in overlapping arrangement with the edges to be exposed of the overlapping tabs adjacent the inner edges of the recess of the other elements.
'7. An assembly-comprising a pair of elements having the edges to be exposed thereof formed in complementary outlines with the edge of a tab of one element in complementary serrated outline to a recess in the other element but with the tab of each element non-complementary to the recesses of the same element, said elements being assembled as in courses in overlapping arrange ment with the edge to be exposed of the overlapping tab adjacent the edge of the recess of the other element, and with the points of the serrations of the tab and of the recess in a relation determined by the offset transversely of the course of the" element in one course with respect to'the element in an adjacent course.
8. An assembly comprising a pair of elements having the edges to be exposed thereof formed in complementary outlines with the edge of a tab of one element in complementary serrated outline to a recess in the other element but with the tab of each element non-complementary to the recesses of the same element, said elements being assembled as in courses in overlapping arrangement with the edge to be exposed of the overlapping tab adjacent the edge of the recess of the other element and with the points of the serrations of the tabs and of the recess in a predetermined relation in the direction of the course with respect to the points of the serrations of an element in the adjacent course, said elements being overlapped endwise in the courses upon elements adjacent thereto in the course.
9. An assembly of covering elements comprising a plurality of courses of the elements in overlapping arrangement, the elements being laid adjacent to each other endwise in the courses, each of said elements having a tab with a recess adjacent thereto, the tabs of said elements having an outline similar to the recess of the same element but not complementary thereto, some of the elements of said assembly having an outline complementary to the outlines of other elements of the assembly, said elements being arranged in the assembly at random with respect to the two kinds of elements but with the edges of the overlapping tabs adjacent the edges of the recesses in the elements of the adjacent course overlapped thereby.
10. A pair of covering elements each having a tab projecting from the body thereof, the outer edge of said tab on one element being of complementary outline to that of the outer edge of the tab of the other element, the portion of the edge of the body of the element adjacent the tab in the same element being of similar extent to that of said tab but being of non-complementary outline to'that of said tab in the same element.
JOHN A. 'I'OPPING.