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Publication numberUS2069587 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 2, 1937
Filing dateJan 26, 1933
Priority dateFeb 1, 1932
Publication numberUS 2069587 A, US 2069587A, US-A-2069587, US2069587 A, US2069587A
InventorsMattern Heinrich Maurits Meier
Original AssigneeWerkspoor Nv
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Means for starting an internal combustion engine
US 2069587 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Feb.l 2, 19,37. H. M. M. n'aA'VrERN 2,069,587

MEANS FORv STARTING AN INTERNAL. coMBusTl'oN ENGINEy Filed Jan. 26, 193s 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 L Il Feb. 2, 1937. H. M. M. MATTERN MEANS FOR STARTING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE l 4 sheets-sheet 2 Filed Jan. 26', 1935 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 H. M. M. MATTERN f piled Jan. 26J 1933 Feb. 2, 1937.

MEANS FOR STARTING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTIQN ENGINE /PW w54 rz/naomi" Feb. 2, 1937. H. M. M. MATTERN 2,069,587'

vMEANS FOR STARTING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Y Filed Jan. 26, 1933 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 /vf M M. Maffe/'h' rare Patented Feb. 2, 1937 UNITED STATES MEANSA FOR STARTING AN INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE Heinrich Maurits Meier Mattern, Hilversum, Netherlands, assigner of part to Werkspoor N. V., Amsterdam, Netherlands Application January 26, 1933, Serial No. 653,725

. In the Netherlands February 1, 1932 13 Claims.

'I'his invention relates to a device for starting an internal combustion engine by supplying compressed air into lthe engine cylinder, its chief object being a cheap and reliable device which is simple, quick and foolproof in operation.

With this and other objects in view, I suggest to hydraulically actuate the starting valve by .means of the fuel under pressure supplied by the fuel pump in such a manner that the hydraulic system, which comprises an active piston and a passive piston adapted for cooperation therewith, includes a change-over member adapted, when assuming its starting position, to have the plunger of the fuel pump function as the active piston of said system.

Said change-over member may be provided in the delivery pipe of the fuel pump. However, since ordinarily very high pressures occur in said pipe so that the provision of a control member therein is likely to result in leakage, I prefer to mount said member in a special pipe connecting the pump chamber with the starting valve casing, or, better still, in the suction pipe of the pump. Alternately, the change-over member may be the fuel pump plunger itself, which, with a view thereto, may be adapted for rotation about its own axis and provided with the required ports.

In order `that my invention may be readily understood by those skilled in the art, I shall now proceed to describe the same in detail with reference to the drawings, in which:

Fig. 1 is a diagram of a fuel pump, part of a combustion engine cylinder with fuel valve and starting valve, connections between said valvesand the pump, and a change-over member in the delivery pipe of the pump, said member being shown in starting position,

Fig. 1A is a diagram of said change-over member in the position which it assumes during normal operation of the engine,

Fig. 2 is a diagram of a fuel pump with its connections to the fuel valve and the starting valve of the engine cylinder, and a change-over member mounted in a special pipe between the pump chamber and the starting valve casing,

Fig. 3 is a diagram of another embodiment of the invention, in which the change-over member is mounted in the delivery pipe of the pump,

Fig. 3A is a section of said change-over member in the position which it assumes during normal operation of the engine,

Fig. 3B is a diagrammatic side elevational view of the cam for actuating the pump plunger shown in Fig. 3,

Fig. 4 is a diagram of still another embodiment of the invention, in which the change-over member is mounted in the delivery pipe of the pump,

Fig. 5 is a diagram of a fuel pump, its connections with the fuel valve and with the starting valve, and a change-over valve mounted in the suction pipe of the pump,

Fig. 5A is a side view of the pump plunger shown in Fig. 5 on an enlarged scale,

Fig. 6 is a diagram of part of an engine cylinder with fuel valve and starting valve, in which the change-over member is mounted in the suction pipe of the pump and forms the passive hydraulic piston through which the starting valve is actuated,

Fig. '7 is a diagram of a fuel pump, the plunger of which is adapted for rotation about its own axis and provided with ports through which the pump chamber can be put into communication with the starting valve casing,

Figs. 7A and 7B are a diagrammatic end view and a side elevational view, respectively, of the cams for actuating the pump plunger shown in Fig. 7,

Fig. '7C is a side view of the pump plunger shown in Fig. 'I on an enlarged scale,

Fig. 8 is a diagram of another modification in which parts of the engine cylinder are also shown,

Fig. 8A is a diagrammatic side view of th pump plunger shown in Fig. 8,

Fig. 8B is a cross section of the plunger on the line VIIIB-VIIIB in Fig. 8A, v

Fig. 9 is a diagram showing a fuel pump, arranged substantially as the one illustrated in Fig. 8, in combination with a special starting pump adapted to be driven by compressed air,

Fig. 9A is a diagrammatic detail view of the plunger of the fuel pump shown in Fig. 9, on an enlarged scale, and

Fig. 9B is a longitudinal section of the pump plunger in its starting position,

Fig. 10 is a diagrammatic view of still another embodiment, in which the plunger of the fuel pump forms the change-over member.

Fig. 10A is a detail view of the distributing valve used in the arrangement vshown in Fig. 10 in the position during normal operation.

In Fig. l, the numeral I designates the fuel valve of the engine cylinder, 2 the starting valve of said cylinder, and 3 the fuel pump. 'I'he fuel valve and the starting valve are connected with the fuel pump by pipes 4 and 5, respectively, through a common cock 6 adapted to be turned by a handle 1. According to the position of said vGO a suction valve |3 connected through a pipe I4 with the fuel tank I5.

The amount of fuel suppliedat each working stroke of the pump 3 is controlled by means of a rod I3 adapted to engage a cam lever I1 having a pin and slot connection with the pump plunger |2 and eccentrically pivoted as at I 3 to a shaft I9, adapted to be adjusted manually (Fig. 4) by means of a handle |9b or automatically by the governor, I 9a (Fig. l) during the operation of the engine.

Rod I6 is adapted, when lifted by cam lever I1 during the delivery stroke of plunger I2, to unseat the suction valve I3 and thereby to cut off the supply of fuel through the delivery valve 20.

Normally, the fuel delivered by valve 2li flows through a pipe 2|, cock 6 and pipe 4 to the fuel valve I, the needle 22 of which is adapted to be lifted under the action of the hydraulic pressure of the liquid fuel acting on the lower side of the piston-like body of the valve 22 in order to allow the fuel to be injected into the cylinder of the engine.

In order now that also the starting valve- 23 may be actuated by the fuel supplied by pump 3, its casing comprises a small cylinder 25 in which a plunger 24 is adapted to reciprocate and which is connected near its top with pipe 5. If changeover cock 6 assumes the position shown in Fig. 1A, said pipe 5 communicates with a pipe 26 branched olf from suction pipe I4. Moreover, cock 6 is connectedto a pipe 21 which directly opens into the pump cylinder.

In normal operation of the engine, i. e. with cock 6 in the position shown in Fig. 1A, pipe 21 is shut oif, but with the cock 6 in starting position (Fig. 1), pipe 21 communicates with pipe 5, pipe 2| is shutoff, and pipe 4 communicates with pipe 26, i. e. with the fuel tank, so that no fuel can be injected into the cylinder of the engine through fuel valve I.

During starting, the means for positively lifting the suction valve I3 may assume a position responsive to the maximum supply of fuel for normal operation, or it may be set in a special position, for instance so that suction `valve I3 is not lifted at all during the cycle of plunger I2. Now, with change-over cock 6 in the position shown in Fig. 1, the fuel delivered by the pump will flow through said cock and pipe 5 to hydraulic cylinder 25, whereby plunger 24 is depressed against the action of a light spring 23, until it engages rod 29 of `starting valve 23, whereupon said valve opens against the action of a relatively strong spring 30, it being understood that the normal clearance between plunger 24 and valve rod 29 is adapted to be varied in accordance with requirements by adjusting the disk-shaped nut 29a on rod 29.

As soon as suction valve |3 is unseated during the delivery stroke of the pump, the hydraulic pressure on plunger 24 falls to zero, and valvev 23 is again closed by its spring.

It will b e understood that, if suction valve |3 is not opened at all during the cycle of plunger I2, the plunger 24 and the starting valve 23 will simply follow the movements of the pump plunger I2, i. e. valve 23 will be pressedupon its seat as soon as the returny stroke of plunger I2 begins.

Starting of the engine is carried out as follows:

The flywheel of the engine is turned until the piston of the engine, or one of the pistons, approximately assumes the correct starting position. Change-over handle 1 is set to the position shown in Fig. 1 and compressed air is supplied, through pipe 23a, yto valve 23 by means of a starting valve not shown. Thereafter, the plunger I2 of the fuel pump, or with a multi-cylinder engine the plunger of the fuel pump corresponding to the cylinder, whose piston assumes the correct starting position, is forced inward by hand, or by a suitable tool |2b, so'that the fuel in pipe 5 depresses the plunger 24, which in turn opens the starting valve, whereby compressed air supplied through pipe 23a is allowed to act upon thepiston of the engine, the motor is started, and the starting valve or valves is or are further actuated automatically by the fuel pump or pumps.

When the engine has attained the required speed, handle 1 is again set in the position shown in Fig. 1A, whereby fuel will be injected into the engine cylinders through the fuel valve or valves I, while the starting valves remain seated. Thereafter the starting air valve referred to above is closed.

In the following description and in the appended claims the plunger I2 will be called the active piston, and plunger 24 the "passive piston of the hydraulic system which serves to actuate the starting valve;

Fig. 2 illustrates part of a somewhat simplified arrangement, which is suitable, for instance, when direct fuel injection is used and the fuel injection pressure is high, it being understood that actuation of the starting valve requires only a relatively low hydraulic pressure. In this case, the delivery valve of the fuel pump. 3 is connected directly, and not by way of any valve member, with the fuel valve casing of the engine cylinder through the'delivery pipe,4. Pipe 32, which is the equivalent of pipe 2| in Fig. 1, is in direct communication with the pump chamber and through said pipe the fuel supplied by the pump is adapted to flow, through a cock 3| andpipe 5, to the cylinder for actuating theV starting valve 23. Into the casing of cock 3| also opens a pipe 33, which is branched of! from the suction pipe |4 of the fuel pump.

In Fig. 2, the change-over cock 3| assumes its f starting position, in which pipes 32 and 6 are in communication with each otherI and pipe 33 is shut off. If, now, the plunger of the fuel pump performs it-s delivery stroke, the starting valve 23 will be forced off its seat, but the fuel valve 22 will remain seated, since the last said valve requires a much higher hydraulic pressure for its actuation than does the starting valve.

If cock 3| assumes its normal position as indi-v cated by a dotted line, pipe 32 isv shut of! and pipe 5 is in communication with pipe 33, so that no hydraulic pressure can act upon the "passive" pisis adapted to be controlled by adjustment of the length of stroke through axial adjustment of cam 36 (see Fig. 3B).

A piston valve 31 mounted in a cylindrical casing 38 is adapted to be lifted by a change-over handle 39. Opening into said cylinder are, on the one side, a pipe 40 connected through a delivery valve with the pump chamber, a pipe 4I directly connected with said chamber, and the suction pipe 42, on the other side the pipes 4 and 5 to the fuel valve and to the starting valve of the engine, respectively. The valve piston 31 has a circumferential groove 43 and also a central longitudinal passage 44 opening into the top and bottom faces thereof, a coiled spring 45 tending Vto keep said valve piston in engagement with handle 39. Said handle may be held in its position for normal operation by means of a clamping mem`\ ber (not shown) or by the friction about its pivot.

In the position shown, which isv the starting position, pipes 5 and 4I communicate through the circumferential groove 43, whereas pipe 40 is shut off and pipe 4 is connected', through passage 44, with suction pipes I4, 42. Consequently, the fuel valve is `relieved from pressure and the fuel supplied by the pump ows exclusively to the starting valve of the engine.

Fig. 3A shows the position of the piston valve A 31 when the engine is in normal operation. It

will be seen that pipe 40 then communicates,

v'through groove 43, with pipe 4, whereas pipe 4I plied by the pump is exclusively forced to the fuel valve.

Fig. 4 shows Va device comprising a fuel pump 46 of a somewhat different construction. As shown, the fuel pump is provided with a suction valve 41 and a delivery valve 48. In addition, it is equipped with a so-called spilling valve 49 for controlling the stroke volume of the pump, said spilling valve being adapted to be unseated at any desired moment during the cycle of the pump plunger under the influence of lever I1. As described with reference to Fig. 1 one end of said lever is connectedwith the pump plunger and the other end is eccentrically pivoted as at I8 to a shaft I9, adapted to be adjusted by means of handle I9b. The suction pipe I4 opens into the valve casing at a point below valves 41 and 49.

The pump has only one delivery pipe, designated by 50, which is connected with the pump chamber through the delivery valve 48. Said pipe 50 opens into the casing 5I of a change-over valve 52, but is in permanent communication with pipe 4 to the fuel valve of the engine cylinder. The space below valve body 52 is connected with the starting valve of the engine cylinder through pipe 5. Valve 52 is adapted to be manually unseated by means of a change-over handle 53, so that the fuel pump is adapted either to actuate the starting valve, or to inject fuel through the fuel valve into the engine cylinder, dependent upon whether valve 52 is unseated by handle 53, or seated under the actionof a spring by which it is loaded. li l Also in this embodiment, the operation of the device is based uponv the fact that the pressure required for opening the fuel valve of the engine cylinder is much higher than that required for actuating the starting valve.

If one single delivery pipe is provided, which communicates with the pump chamber through the delivery valve of the pump, this valve should be unseated during the operation of the starting valve ofthe engine cylinder, otherwise the starting valve could not again seat itself. With a viewv thereto, the change-over handle 53 is operatively connected, through a suitable lever system, 53a

53h, 53e, with a lever 54 provided with a cam 55 arranged to hold theA delivery valve 48 unseated, through the medium of a rod 58,-as long as the handle 53 assumes its starting position.

Figs. 5 and 6 illustrate embodiments of an arrangement whereinthe pressure pipe of the starting valve of the engine cylinder'is connected with the suction pipe of the fuel pump. It will be appreciated by those skilled in the art that such an arrangement has distinct advantages over theconstructions described with reference to Figs.' l, 3, and 4, in that the delivery pipe from the fuel pump to the fuel valve of the engine, which ordinarily is subjected to very high pressures, need now not be provided with joints, which are always liable to leakage.

According to Fig. 5, the device comprises a fuel pump 51, in which the stroke vvolume is adapted to be controlled by rotation of the pump plunger about its axis. As shown, pump ,51 is directly connected with the fuel valve of the engine by means of the delivery pipe 4. The pipe 5, which runs to the starting valve casing of the engine, is branched off from the suction pipe 58 of the fuel pump.

The suction pipe 53 here is not in direct communicationwith the pipe i4 to the fuel tank, but is connected thereto through a valve 59 in a casing 68. By means of a change-over handle 6I, said valve 59 is adapted to be unseated. In the drawings said handle is shown in a position, in which it has released the stem of valve 59.

Aslong as valve 59 is lifted, no pressure can be Set up in pipe 5, so that the starting valve cannot be actuated and the fuel pump can draw from the fuel tank in Athe ordinary manner. However, if handle 6I assumes its starting position-shown in Fig. 5, valve 59 acts as a nonreturn valve so as to allow the pump to draw fuel from the fuel tank, but to check the reverse flow of the fuel and compel the fuel supplied by the pump to actuate the starting valve of the engine.

In order that the full quantity of fuel be delivered to the actuating plunger of the starting valve, it is necessary for the plunger 62 to be turned langularly into a position wherein, during normal operation of the engine, no fuel would be injected, i. e. into the position of zero stroke volume. Since it requires a higher pressure to open the fuel valve, than it does to actuate the starting valve, the latter only will be actuated.

The plunger 62 of the .fuel pump is provided with a circumferential, helically wound groove or recess 63 (see also Fig. 5A), which by means of an axial groove 64 is in permanent communication with the pump chamber. In a predetermined position of the plunger, groove 64 registers with port 65, into which suction pipe 58 opens. The stroke volume of the pump can be controlled .by allowing groove 63 to uncover port 65 at the desired moment during the cycle. As soon as this registration takes place, the amount of fuel delivered by the pump is by-passed through suction pipe 58, and further to the fuel tank through valve 59 which, during normal operation of the engine, is unseated by lever 6I.

With a view to said control, plunger 62 is provided With a square portion 66, on which a gear wheel 61 is slidably but non-rotatably mounted. Said gear wheel is adapted to be turned in either direction by a rack 68 mounted for lengthwise sliding motion.

The plunger 62 is driven in the ordinary manner by means of a cam 68 cooperating with a pusher 10, a coiled spring 10a serving for the return movement of the-plunger.

When the engine is to be started, the rack 88 is placed in the position wherein the strokevolume is zero, and handle 6I is switched over into position 6I. With the rack 68 in said position, axial groove 64 permanently registers'with port 65, so that suction pipe 58 is in permanent communication with the pump chamber and the total amount of fuel drawn from the fuel tank is forced during the working stroke of the pump, through pipes 58 and 5 to the starting valve of the engine, which is thereby opened in the manner described hereinbefore with reference to Fig. 1. During the return stroke of the pump plunger.

'the hydraulic plunger 24 of the starting valve 23 (Fig. 1) follows this movement, until the starting valve is seated and plunger 24 again sufficiently clears the valve rod 29.

The abutment of plunger 24 may be formed as a valve disc 24a for preventing any leakage by liquid from the hydraulic cylinder 25 during normal operation of the engine. Any fuel that still should leak past valve 24a will be replaced, through valve 59, during the suction stroke of the pump.

During normal operation of the engine, the rack 68 is set in a position wherein plunger 62 covers port 65 during part of the working stroke. As long as port 65 is covered during said stroke, the fuel is forced, through pipe 4, to the fuel valve of the engine. If, however, during said stroke groove 63 uncovers said port, the pressure immediately falls to zero, since valve 59 is unseated by lever 6I. i

Fig. 6 illustrates still another arrangement in accordance with the invention. As shown, the suction pipe I4 from the fuel tank is connected with the suction pipe 13 of the fuel pump through a piston valve formed by the plunger 1I for actuating the starting valve 23 of the engine. Plunger 1I is provided with a radial passage 14 which, during normal operation of the engine, connects pipes I4 and 13. Said piston is further provided with a square portion 12, on which the hub portion 15a of a handle 15 is slidably but non-rotatably mounted. Consequently, said plunger is adapted to be rotated about its own axis so as to cut off the connection between pipes 13 and I4.

If the fuel pump is set in a position wherein its stroke volume is zero, as described with reference to Fig. 5, so that the total amount of fuel drawn from the fuel tank is forced through pipe 13, then, with plunger 1I in the position shown, the fuel is by-passed through a passage 16 and permitted to act upon the top face of said plunger, whereby the starting valve is opened. A nonreturn valve 11 in the by-pass 16 prevents said fuel from returning to the fuel tank.

I shall now proceed to describe an arrangement Y in which the change-over member is formed by 8l. Connected to port 80 is the suction pipe I4,

running to the fuel tank. Port 8I is connected with pipe 5 to the starting valve of the engine. The delivery pipe 4 connects the fuel valve of -angular position of the plunger and controlled,

in the manner described with reference to Fig. 5. by means of a small gear wheel 81 slidably but nonrotatably mounted on a square portion 68 of the plunger and meshing with a rack 88 adapted for manual sliding operation.V The working stroke is brought about by a cam 83. the return stroke by a coiled spring 88a, as usual.

If the engine is to be started, rack 68 is moved through the required distance, whereby the plunger is turned until the axial'groove 64 is in alignment with port 8| and port 88 remains covered during the cycle. The-total amount of fuel is now forced to the actuating plunger of the starting valve of the engine.

For starting the engine, the change-over handle operatively connected to rack 68 is moved to starting position. Thereupon. the starting valve or one of the starting valves' of the engine is lifted in the manner described hereinbefore.

When the engine is of the multi-cylinder type, or of the reversible type, vI prefer to start it by means of a slidable cam or cam shaft. A reversible engine is ordinarily provided with a cam for the normal running direction, another cam forthe reverse movement, and an intermediate or neutral cam, said cams being mounted on a common shaft slidable in axial direction. If now said cams are united by portions having gradually sloping surfaces, the matter may be utilized, during sliding movement of the cams in the one or the other direction. starting from neutral position, to actuate the plunger of the pump, and consequently the plunger of the starting valve.

Provided, therefore, that the starting air valve has been opened,` the motor begins to run in the desired direction by air supplied through pipe 23a (Fig. l), and the starting valves are further automatically moved, by the fuel pumps,'in the correct sequence and in the manner explained before. In connection therewith, reference is had to Figs. 7A and 7B, wherein the cams for forward running direction and for the reverse movement are designated by 84 and 86, respectively. The cams may be shifted by means of the lever 85a.

In the arrangement shown in Fig. 8, the cylinder of the fuel pump 81 is provided with a port 86 connected to pipe 5 running to the top of the cylinder ofthe plunger for actuating the starting valve 2. The pipe 4 here directly connects the pump chamber kwith the fuel valve I. 'I'he fuel tank is connected, through suction pipe I4 and a suction valve 88, with the pump chamber and further, through a passage 89a in the cylinder wall, with a port 89 in the said wall, through which the fuel can return when the effective portion of the working stroke is finished.

I'he pump plunger 98 (see also Figs. 8A and 8B)' has a central axial passage 90a opening into the top face and is provided with a control port 9i in communicationl with said passage. The stroke volume here is again controlled by means of the change-over handle 94 having a hub portion 84a adapted for sliding movement over a square portion 95 of the plunger 80, so that the latter can be manually turned about its own axis.

When said handle assumes its normal position, port 8 I, which is somewhat in the form of a parallelogram, is adapted to register with port 89, whereas port 86 remains covered during the whole cycle.

The plunger 90 may further be provided, in addition to port 9|, with an elongated port 92, which also communicates with passage 90a and which, in starting position, is adapted to register with port 86 to supply oil under pressure to the starting valve of the engine. 89 only serves for the control of the stroke volume.

In order that the starting valve of the engine may be opened quickly, and any air that may be enclosed in thefuel may be removed, the plunger 96 for actuating said valve may be arranged to perform, during the working stroke of the fuel pump 81, a quick downward movement until the starting valve has attained its maximum lift, and thereupon to uncover a circumferential groove 91 in its cylinder, into which groove opens an overflow pipe 98 to the fuel tank. Through said pipe 98, any excess of fuel and any air entrapped therein is returned to the fuel tank, so that the volume of the cylinder of the passive plunger 96 may be smaller than that of the fuel pump cylinder. The starting valve remains in its fully opened position, until a third port 93 provided in the plunger of the fuel pump and communicating with passage 90a registers with port 89, whereby the pressure in the pipe 5 and in the cylinder of plunger 96 is relieved, and the starting valve is again seated by a quick movement under the influence of the spring by which it is loaded.

The cam 99 for actuating the fuel pump has a steep sloping portion dimensioned as required for the fuel injection during normal operation. Following said portion |00 are a concentric portion |0| and a short, steep slope |02 for bringing port 93 into register with port 89 so as to allow the starting valve to seat itself at the required moment. As shown in Fig. 8 the cam |00 is symmetrical, so that the engine is adapted to be reversed. Starting, controlling and stopping of the engine may be effected by means of one and the same handle 94. Stopping may also be effected by lifting suction valve 88 by means of a special handle |03.

In the various embodiments described herenibefore, starting is effected by means of a tool or a handle, whereby the plunger of the fuel pump is forced into its cylinder to perform its working stroke, after the change-over handle has been set to starting position; alternatively, the starting valve of one of the cylinders is manually lifted, after the piston of said cylinder has been moved into the required position. With multi-cylinder engines, or with engines that repeatedly require to be started, it is desirable to provide for an arrangement allowing the engine to be started fully automatically, and irrespective of the positions of its pistons. To this end, a manually operated pump, a pressure accumulator, or another suitable device may be provided which, when the engine is in rest, supplies the energy required for lifting at least one of the starting valves. Said. device may be commorr to all starting valves, provided that the pressure supplied thereby is 'adapted to be suitably distributed in accordance with the position of the crank shaft, for which purpose the plungers of the fuel pumps -themselves may be used. Fig. 9 illustrates, by Way of example, an arrangement of thistype.

In this arrangement, a starting pump 04 In that case, port serves for supplying the hydraulic pressure required for unseating one of thestarting valves a plunger |05, by means of which hydraulic pressure may be supplied through pipe |06 and branch pipes |01, |08, |09 to the plungers ||0 of the various fuel pumps, one of which only is shown. Pipe |06 opens into a port in the cylinder wall of the fuel pump, which also has ports ||2 and ||3 connected with pipe 5 to` the starting valve casing of the parent engine cylinder and with a passage ||4 to the fuel tank, respectively.

'Ihe plunger ||0 of the fuel pump (see also Fig. 9A) is provided with ports H5, ||6, ||1, all communicating with a central passage ||0a opening into the top face of the plunger. Said ports are adapted, individually or in combination, to cooperate with the ports ||2, ||3 in the cylinder wall.

Port |I5 is so arranged and dimensioned that port is uncovered only when the plunger of the fuel pump has nearly attained its top position and the change-over handle 94 assumes its starting position The pressure set up by the starting pump |04 then forces liquid through pipe |06, port port ||5, central bore ||0a of the plunger I0, port ||6, port ||2 and pipe 5 to the starting valve casing of the corresponding engine cylinder. See also Fig. 9B.

When change-over handle 94 assumes its normal position, ports and ||2 remain covered throughout the cycle, but in that case port ||1 cooperates with port |3 in the manner described hereinbefore to control the amount of fuel forced to the fuel valve at each working stroke of the fuel pump.

The starting pump |04 is provided with a suction valve ||8 and .with a delivery valve ||9, its plunger |05 being loaded by a spring |20 tending to force it into its lowermost position. Said plunger |05 is rigidly coupled with a piston |2| adapted to reciprocate in a cylinder connected near its bottom to a pipe |22, through which starting air may be supplied from a vessel 22a to produce the required hydraulic pressure.

For starting the engine, all that is required is opening the starting air valve |22b and moving change-over handles 94 of the fuel pumps into starting position, whereby compressed air from a vessel |22a is admitted through pipe |22 into the cylinder of piston |2| of the starting pump |04.

' Thus, fuel in the space above the plunger |05 is forced through delivery valve ||9 and through pipe |06 to the starting valve casing of that engine cylinder, whose fuel pump plunger is approximately in top position, it being understood that said plunger then acts as a distributing valve for the fluid supplied by pump |04. Thereupon, the starting valves of the other cylinders are automatically operated in their sequence as described with reference to the other embodiments.

When the engine has attained sumcient speed, the change-over handles 94 are returned into position for normal operation. The starting air supply to pipe 22 is then cut oif and the pressure below piston |2| relieved by means of the threeway valve |22b, so that spring |20 forces said piston downward and plunger |05 draws fuel from the fuel tank through suction valve ||8 and pipes |23, I4, whereupon the starting device is again ready for a next operation.

If, with a reversible engine, the fuel pumps are provided with separate cams for both running directions, starting in the one direction can be effected in the same manner as starting in the other direction. If, however, only one symmetrical cam is used, which does not require to be moved axially for reversing the engine, the distribution of the hydraulic pressure supplied by the common starting pumpor the like (|94 in Fig. 9) cannot be effected by the fuel pump plungers. For that purpose a separate valve member is required, which, dependent upon the position of the crank shaft and upon the desired direction of rotation, supplies hydraulic pressure to the starting valve of one oi' the engine cylinders. A preferred embodiment thereof will be described with reference to Fig. 10 of the drawings.

The fuel pump |24 is connected by the delivery pipe 4 to the fuel valve of the engine cylinder. The starting valve casing of said cylinder is connected to pipe 5, which communicates with the fuel pump |24 through a piston valve I 25. Provided in said casing |25 is a valve piston |29. Pipe is in permanent communication, through a circumferential groove |41 in the inner wall of the valve casing |25, and a passage |21, with a port |29 in the wall of the fuel pump cylinder. Into the space on top of valve piston |29, fuel is adapted to be supplied, through pipe |29, by a starting pump |04.

Valve piston |29 is provided with an angular passage |30, which normally is covered by the cylinder wall, but which is adapted to be brought into register with the port of pipe 5 when the starting pump |04 or the like forces liquid through pipe |29 into the space on top of said valve piston. A spring |3| normally holds .valve piston |26 in its top position, wherein a valve disk |32 provided at the bottom side of said valve piston prevents leakage. Said valve disk also serves as an abutment for the valve piston. See also Fig. A.

Associated with the valve piston |29 is a push rod |33 adapted to engage cam |34 for the forward movement as soon as the starting pump (|04) or the like supplies hydraulic pressure. In additionto cam |34, a second cam |35 for the reverse motion is provided. Both cams are se- -cured to a. sleeve |36 adapted for lengthwise sliding motion on a shaft |31, but prevented from rotation with respect thereto. See also Fig. 10A.

Shaft |31 is adapted to be driven by a gear |39 meshing with a gear |39 on the cam shaft |40 of the engine, shaft |40 being fitted with a cam |4| serving for driving the fuel pump |24. Sleeve |39 is adapted to be mov'ed in the one or in the other direction by means of a reversing handle |42, so that either the cam |34, or the cam |35 can be caused to cooperate with push rod |33.

In addition to port |29, the wall of the fuel pump cylinder comprises a port |45 connected through pipe |4 with the fuel tank.

Plunger |43 of the fuel pump is provided with ports |44 and I 45 adapted to register with ports |29 and |49, respectively, said plunger being adapted to be turned about its axis by means of a change-over handle 94.

Port |45 corresponds to port 9| in Fig. 8A, whereas port |44 corresponds to port 92 in Fig. 8A. Both ports |44, |45 are in communication with a central axial passage 90a. When the change-over handle 94 assumes its normal position port |45 is adapted to register with port |49, whereas port |29 remains covered during the whole cycle. It will be clear that port |45 controls the amount of fuel forced to the fuel valve (not shown) is opened, so that air pressure is supplied to the starting valve casings of the engine cylinders. If now the change-over handles 94 are placed in starting position, port |44 in each fuel pump registers with port |29, but port |49 remains covered during the whole cycle. The valve |22b for supplying compressed air from the vessel |22a to the air cylinder of the 'starting pump |04 is then opened, whereby in the manner stated above liquid fuel. is forced through pipe |29 to the tops of the valve pistons |29, which thus move down until their push rods |33 engage their cams |34. Thereby, passage |30 is brought into register with pressure pipe 5, but only in that piston valve |25 whose cam |34 allows of said downward motion, the arrangement being so that the engine cylinder corre.- sponding to that special cam assumes the correct starting position. Consequently, the liquid supplied by the starting pump |04 ows to the starting valve of that particular engine cylinder, whereby the engine is started. 'I'he starting valves of all the engine cylinders are then automatically operated by `the corresponding fuel pump plungers. Y

After the engine has attained suillcient speed, the change-over handles 94of the fuel pumps are returned to their normal positions and the starting air valve is closed, whereby the air cylinder of the starting pump is opened to atmosphere and springs |3| again move valve pistons |25 into top position. Owing to the rotation of the fuel pump plungers by handles 94, ports |29 are covered and ports |,45 allowed to cooperate with ports |46 so as to control the stroke volume of the fuel pumps.

What I claim is:-

1.In an internal combustion engine, a combustion cylinder fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open said starting valve, a plunger pump adapted to supply liquid fuel to said fuel valve, and manually operable means for establishing communication between the chamber of said pump and the said hydraulic cylinder so as to make the said plunger the active piston in the hydraulic system for opening the said starting valve.

2. In an internal combustion engine, a combustion cylinder fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open said starting valve at a predetermined hydraulic pressure, a plunger pump adapted to supply liquid fuel and inject it through said fuel valve into the said combustion cylinder at a hydraulic pressure exceeding the first said pressure, and manually operable means adapted, while maintaining communication between the chamber of said pump and the said fuel valve, to establish communication between the said chamber and the said hydraulic cylinder so as to make the plunger of said pump the active piston in the hydraulic system for opening the said starting valve.

3. In an internal combustion engine, a combustion cylinder fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open said starting valve, a plunger pump adapted to supply liquid fuel to said fuel valve, a connecting pipe between said pump and said hydraulic cylinder, a port in said pump plunger in permanent communication with the pump chamber and manually operable means for adjusting the pump plunger in its cylinder, said means being adapted to bring said port in communication with said connecting pipe so as to make said plunger the active piston in the hydraulic system for opening the said starting valve.

4. In an internal combustion engine, a combustion chamber, a combustion cylinder fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open said starting valve, a. plunger pump having a suction pipe and a delivery pipe and adapted through said delivery pipe to supply liquid fuel to said fuel valve, a suction valve in said suction pipe, manually operable means for opening saidsuction valve,a pipe connecting said hydraulic cylinder with the said suction pipe intermediate said suction valve and said pump, a port in said pump plunger in permanent communication with the pump chamber and manually operable means for adjusting the pump plunger in its cylinder, so as to bring said port into communication with said suction pipe.

5. In an internal combustion engine, a combustion cylinder fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open said starting valve, a plunger pump having a suction pipe and a delivery pipe and adapted through said delivery pipe to supply liquid fuel to said fuel valve, a connecting pipe between said pump and said hydraulic cylinder, a port in said pump plunger, a second port in said pump plunger, both ports being in permanent communication with the pump chamber, and manually operable means for adjusting the pump plunger in its cylinder so as to bring the rst said port into communication with said connecting pipe during at least the first part of the working stroke of said plunger and to bring the second said port into communication with the said suction pipe during the last part of said stroke.

6. In an internal combustion engine, a combustion cylinder fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open said starting valve, a plunger pump having a suction pipe and a delivery pipe and adapted through said delivery pipe to supply liquid fuel to said fuel valve, a connecting pipe between saidpump and said hydraulic cylinder, a port in said pump plunger, a second port in said pump plunger, both said ports being in permanent communication with the pump chamber, manually operable means for adjusting the pump plunger in its cylinder to bring the first said port into communication with said connecting pipe duringv at least the first part of the working stroke of said plunger and to bring the second said port into communication with the said suction pipe during the last part of said stroke, a port in said hydraulic cylinder intermediate the ends thereof, and a conduit connecting last said port with the said suction pipe.

7. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of combustion cylinders each fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder individual to each of said starting valves, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder` to open the starting valve, a plunger pump individual to each combustion cylinder and having a delivery pipe through which to supply liquid fuel to the fuel valve, means for driving said pump, a connecting pipe between the said pump and the hydraulic cylinder, means for producing independent hydraulic fuel pressure, conduits for connecting said pressure producing means with each of said hydraulic cylinders, a distributing member provided in each of said conduits and associated with said driving means, and manually operable means for establishing communication between the chamber of each of said pumps and the hydraulic cylinder so as to make the said pump plungers the active pistons in the hydraulic system for opening the said starting valves.

8. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality ofcombustion cylinders each fitted with a. fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder individual to each of said starting valves, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open the starting valve, a plunger pump individual to each combustion cylinder and having a delivery pipe through which to supply liquid fuel to the fuel valve, means for driving said pump, a connecting pipe between said pump and the hydraulic cylinder, means for producing independent hydraulic fuel pressure, conduits between said pressure producing means and each of said connecting pipes, a distributing valve provided in each of said conduits and adapted under the action of said independent hydraulic pressure to establish communication between said conduit and the connecting pipe, means for associating said distributing valve with the said driving means, and manually operable distributing means for establishing communication between the chamber of each of said pumps and the hydraulic cylinder so as to make the said pump plungers the active pistons in the hydraulic system for opening the said starting valves.

9. In an internal combustion engine, a plurality of combustion cylinders, each fitted with a fuel valve and a starting valve, a hydraulic cylinder individual to each of said starting valves, a passive hydraulic piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder to open the starting valve, a plunger pump individual to each combustion cylinder having a suction pipe and a delivery pipe and adapted through said delivery pipe to supply liquid fuel to the fuel valve, means for driving said pump, a connecting pipe between said pump and the hydraulic cylinder, a port in said plunger in permanent communication with the chamber of said pump, manually operable means for adjusting the said plunger so as to bring said port into communication with said connecting pipe, means for producing independent hydraulic pressure, conduits between said pressure producing means and each of said connecting pipes, a.

distributing valve provided in each of said conduits and adapted under the action of said independent hydraulic pressure to establish communication between said conduit and the consaid driving means assume a predetermined position.

10. An internal combustion engine comprising avcombustion cylindcr, a fuel valve thereon, a starting valve on said cylinder controlling a supply of compressed air, a hydraulic cylinder upon said combustion cylinder, a piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder for operating said starting valve, a pump for supplying liquid fuel to said fuel valve and means utilizing said liquid fuel for actuating said piston in said hydraulic cylinder to operate said starting valve.

1l. An internal combustion engine comprising a combustion cylinder, a fuel valve thereon, a starting valve on said cylinder controlling a supply of compressed air, a hydraulic cylinder upon said combustion cylinder, a piston movable in said hydraulic cylinder for operating said starting valve, a pump for supplying liquid fuel to said fuel valve, said pump having a pump chamber, a conduit extending between said chamber and said hydraulic cylinder and means controlling said conduit whereby said vliquid fuel actuated by said pump may serve for operating said ystarting valve.

12. An internal combustion engine comprising a combustion cylinder, a fuel valve thereon, a starting valve on said cylinder controlling a supply of compressed air, a second cylinder mounted upon said combustion cylinder, a piston movable in said second cylinder for operating said starting valve, a pump for supplying liquid fuel to said fuel valve, said pump having a pump chamber, a conduit extending betweenfsaid fuel valve and said chamber. a second conduit extending between said chamber and said second cylinder and change-over means controlling the flow of fuel in said conduits whereby during'starting the force of said pump may be directed through said second conduit to actuate said piston in said second cylinder to operate said starting valve.

13. An internal combustionengine comprising a combustion cylinder, a fuel vvalve thereon, a starting valve on said cylinder controlling a supply of compressed air, a second cylinder mounted upon said combustion cylinder, a piston movable in said second cylinder for operating said starting valve, a pump for supplying liquid fuel to said fuel valve. said pump having a pump chamber, a conduit extending between said fuel valve and said chamber, a second conduit extending between said chamber and said second cylinder and means controlling the flow of fuel in said conduits whereby during starting ythe Aforce of said pump may be directed through said second conduit to actuate said piston in said second cylinder to operate said starting valve, and means for shutting off the feed of fuel through said ilrst conduit to said combustion cylinder during the operation of the starting valve.

HEINRICHv MAURITS MEIER MA'I'IERN.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2580369 *Jan 29, 1949Dec 25, 1951Westinghouse Air Brake CoEngine control apparatus for starting, stopping, running, and reversing
US4258672 *Oct 20, 1978Mar 31, 1981Hietikko Calvin NVariable lift camming apparatus and methods of constructing and utilizing same
US6000368 *Jul 17, 1998Dec 14, 1999Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki KaishaThree-dimensional camshaft and its manufacturing method
US20120152183 *Feb 20, 2012Jun 21, 2012Langham J MichaelHydraulic Engine
Classifications
U.S. Classification60/631, 91/53, 91/461, 91/460, 91/54, 123/90.18
International ClassificationF01L13/00
Cooperative ClassificationF01L13/00
European ClassificationF01L13/00