US 2072346 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 2, 1937. w, R, miTH 2,072,346
DRAINAGE TUBE Filed Oct. 4, 1934 Patented Mar. 2, 1937 UNITED STATS PATT rice DRAINAGE TUBE 7 Ward R. Smith, Dayton, Ohio Application October 4, 1934, Serial No. 746,801
This invention relates to embalmers instru ments and more particularly to a drainage tube for removal of blood having provision for clearing the tube of blood clots or other obstructions.
After death the arteries are found empty and the blood supply collected in the veins. Toprevent discoloration and distention or pufiing while a preservative embalming fluid is being injected into the arteries, it is customary to withdraw the contents of the veins.
For this purpose an elongated tube is introduced into one of the larger and easily accessible veins. Usually the axillary vein or its continuation, the basilic vein, is selected, which when the arm is extended, is substantially aligned with the subclavian vein permitting the drainage tube to be introduced to approximately the juncture with'the internal jugular vein where the vessels are materially larger than the'diameter of the tube and afford ample clearance for free blood flow.
While for the most part the blood continues fluid and flows freely, occasionally through separation or disintegration jelly-like clots and stringy masses of fibrin are formed which tend to clog the entrance to the drain-age tube and arrest the blood fio-w. Various devices have heretofore been proposed for dislodging such obstructions and for cutting the clot or mass. However, such appliances afford but temporary relief and the dislodged material again collects at the I tube inlet.
The purpose of the present invention is to enable the removal of such obstructing masses by initially distending the blood vessel about the intake to the tube and so release any compacted mass of material, and thereafter snare the obstructing material for positive extraction through the tube.
The object of the invention is to improve the" construction as well as the means and mode of operation of drainage tubes whereby they may not only be economically manufactured, but will be more eflicient in use, easily operated and cleared and unlikely to get out of repair.
A further object of the invention is to provide manually operable means for distending a blood vessel about the entrance to the drainage tube.
A further object of the invention is to provide means for positively engaging and withdrawing obstructing masses of material.
A further object of the invention is to provide a snare operable through the tube for engaging clots or stringy masses.
A further object of the invention is to provide a dislodging and engaging means subject to manual manipulation.
A further object is to provide means for clearing lateral inlet orifices in the drainagetube.
A further object of the invention is to provide an expansible and contractable operating memher subject to manual operation and control.
A further object of the invention is to provide an instrument possessing the advantageous features of construction and meritorious characteristics herein mentioned.
With the above primary and other incidental objects in view, as will more fully appear in the specification, the invention consists of the features of construction, the parts and combinations thereof, and the mode of operation, or their equivalents, as hereinafter described and set forth in the claims.
In the drawing wherein is shown the preferredbut obviously not necessarily the only form of embodiment of the invention, Fig., 1 is a side elevation of the assembled drainage tube forming the subject matter hereof. Fig. 2 is an enlarged perspective View of the intake end of the tube with the snare removed. Fig. 3 is an enlarged perspective view of the snare removed from the tube. Fig. 4 is an enlarged perspective View of the intake end of the tube with the snare in expanded relation thereto. Fig 5 is an enlarged sectional view of a portion of the tube with the snare therein. Fig. 6 is a detail sectional view, showing the snare blades expanded.
Like parts are indicated by similar characters of reference throughout the several views.
The use of a drainage tube for the present purpose is quite old and well known. For illustrative purposes but with no intent to unduly limit the application or scope of 'the invention there is shown in the drawing a drainage tubeof the type shownin patent to Andrews No. 954,494 of April 12, 1910, comprising an elongated conduit portion I having a lateral discharge branch conduit 2. The main tubular conduit I is closed at its outer end by a screw threaded cap or head 3 enclosing a sealing gasket. The cap and gasket are perforated for accommodation of a reciprocatory snare stem as hereafter described. The tubular conduit is open at its intake terminal where it has a slightly contracted orifice 4, about which is formed a thrust seat or annular abutment 5 adjacent to the open terminal of the tube, and is further longitudinally slotted at 6. Such lateral intake slots 6 are relatively long and comparatively wide. Ordinarily four such slots are equally spaced about the periphery of the tube I alternating with unslotted portions of substantially equal extent. It will be understood, however, that a greater or lesser number of slots to accommodate corresponding snare blades may be provided.
Extending axially within the tube I is a reciprocatory stem or rod 1 projecting beyond the terminal cap 3 where it carries a knob 8. At its opposite end thereciprocatory rod carries a cage like head 9 comprising a group of longitudinally disposed laterally spaced flexible blades or wires Hi interconnected at one end to the reciprocatory stem or rod 7 and collectively attached at their opposite end to a thrust head II. The thrust head it is preferably tapered and adapted to extend beyond the end of the tube through the terminal opening 4 when the rod 1 is in its advanced position. In such relation the periphery of the thrust head II will have contact engagement with the annular abutment or seat about the terminal opening 4 while the cage like group of flexible snare members lies within the slotted portion of the tube with such flexible members it) in registry with the respective slots 6. In this condition the tube can be introduced into the vein, which is facilitated by the tapered thrust head H projecting beyond the end of the tube and serving as a pilot. The rod 1 is then retracted by the knob 8 until the expansible head 9 is beyond the outlet branch 2 of the tube which is connected by rubber tubing with a receiver, thus permitting free drainage of blood.
When, however, the blood flow is interrupted by accumulation of fibrin or clots about the intake orifices of the tube, the rod is advanced in the tube and rotatively adjusted until the flexible blades or wires It! are in registry with the lateral slots 6, and the thrust head II is seated against the annular abutment seat 5. Then by applying pressure to the rod knob 8 the cage like head is expanded by longitudinal compression causing the blades or wires i 0, as the case may be, to bow outward through the lateral slots 6. The distention of the members not only serves to clear the slots, by dislodging any deposits which may be clogging the slots, but it also distends the surrounding walls of the blood vessel and relieves the pressure on any accumulation of clots or fibrin, and allowing movement thereof toward the drain tube where they collect beneath the distended bowed blades or wires Ill. Upon release of compression such masses of material are caught beneath the blades Ill and upon retraction of the rod or stem 1 such clots and masses of stringy substance are withdrawn into the tube from which they will pass through the discharge branch 2, leaving the inlet orifices 4 and 6 of the tube unobstructed. The expansible head 9 upon the reciprocatory rod thus serves a threefold purpose, of clearing the lateral slots, distending the walls of the vein to release accumulated material and positively grasping the material for retractive movement into and through the tube, thus insuring a free drainage outlet.
For purpose of limiting expansion of the flexible head 9 and preventing undue distention of the blood vessel about the tube, the rod or stem 1 may be continued within the group of flexible members [0 comprising the expansible head 9 and terminated at a point in spaced relation with the thrust head H, as is indicated at la. As the stem or rod is pressed inwardly subsequently to the contact of the thrust head H against the annular abutment '5 of the tube,
the members 10 are flexed or bent outwardly awash;
through the slots 6 until the extremity of the rod extension Ia contacts the inner side of the thrust head ll, thereby arresting the advance movement of the rod and preventing further flexing of the members If]. By making the rod extension la of different length the degree of expansion may be correspondingly varied.
To facilitate the drainage flow, continuations 6a of the longitudinal slots 6 are provided rearwardly thereof and separated by intermediate bridging portions 61) which serve to stiffen and strengthen the slotted portion of the tube. The flexible blades ID are preferably sufficiently long to extend throughout the combined length of the main slots 6 and extension slots 6a. Such increased length also increases the flexibility of the members H] which as they are expanded through the main slots 6 by their engagement with the ends 6b thereof are induced to assume a substantially compound curvature by which their rear portions are contracted more closely about the rod within the limits of the slot extensions Ga, thereby permitting free ingress of fluids therethrough.
From the above description it will be apparent that there is thus provided a device of the character described possessing the particular features of advantage before enumerated as desirable, but which obviously is susceptible of modification in its form, proportions, detail construction and arrangement of parts without departing from the principle involved or sacrificing any of its advantages.
While in order to comply with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural features, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown, but that the means and construction herein disclosed comprise the preferred form of several modes of putting the invention into effect, and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the legitimate and valid scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. An instrument for insertion in a restricted passage including an elongated tubular conduit having longitudinal parallel slots adjacent its end, a reciprocatory rod extending within the tubular conduit, an expansible head carried by the rod comprising a group of flexible members collectively connected at one end to the rod and collectively connected at their opposite end to a contact head, an abutment surface on the tubular conduit engaged by said contact head upon axial movement of the head under influence of the rod, said head being subject to axial compression by further movement of the rod whereby the flexible members are bowed outwardly through the longitudinal slots in the tubular conduit.
2. An instrument for insertion in a restricted passage including a tubular conduit having lateral openings therein, a reciprocatory rod extending within the tubular conduit, a head cartried by the rod, an abutment surface on the tubular conduit with which the head has thrust engagement upon axial movement of the rod in one direction, said head being deformable upon continued pressure exerted through said rod whereby the head is caused to expand beyond the confines of the tubular conduit through the lateral openings thereof.
3. An instrument for insertion in a restricted passage including a tubular conduit having lateral' openings therein, 'a"reciprocatory 'rod extending within th'e'tubular conduit, a thrust bearing-within the tubular conduit limiting the advancement of the rod, and a plurality of flexible members carried by the rod and bowed through the lateral openings of the tubular conduit under influence of thrust pressure upon said rodg I 4. An instrument for insertion in a restricted passage including a tubular conduit having lateral openings therein, a reciprocatory rod extending within the tubular conduit, an expansible head for said rod, a thrust bearing within the tubular conduit engaged by thehead of the rod before the rod reachesthelimit of its range of movement whereby the rod is capable of a limited additional. movement'by which the expansible head is subjected to axial compression and resulting radial expansion through the lateral opening of the tubular conduit, and means for limiting such additional movement of the rod.
5. A drainage tube for embalmers use including a tubular conduit having lateral openings therein adapted to be removably inserted into a human body, a reciprocatory rod extending within the tubular conduit, and spring means carried by the rod adapted to be expanded through the lateral openings by manipulation of the rod.
6. In an instrument for introduction into a restricted passage, a tube having a lateral opening therein, a bowable member confined within the tube when in untensioned condition, and means for flexing the bowable member into a bight formation protruding beyond the confines of the tube through the lateral opening thereof.
7. In an instrument for introduction into a restricted passage, a tubular conduit having a plurality of lateral openings adjacent to one end thereof, a cage like body of flexible members interconnected at their opposite ends normally confined within the tubular conduit, and means for axially compressing the said body to effect flexure of the component members beyond the confines of the tubular conduit through the lateral openings thereof.
8. In an instrument for introduction into a restricted passage, a tubular conduit having lateral openings adjacent to one end thereof, and snare means normally confined within the conduit and operable through the lateral openings thereof into grasping engagement with adjacent material to draw such material into the tube.
9. An instrument for insertion within a restricted passage including a tubular conduit having lateral openings therein, a reciprocatory rod extending within the conduit, and material grasping means projectable through the lateral openings in the conduit for drawing adjacent material into the tube by the manipulation of said rod.
10. An instrument for embalmers use adapted for insertion within a restricted passage in a human body including a tubular conduit having lateral openings therein, a reciprocatory rod extending within the conduit, and an expansible and contractable body normally contained within the conduit and expansible laterally therebeyond by manipulation of said rod to distend the passage about the conduit.
11. In a drainage tube for embalmers use for draining veins, the combination with a tubular member having longitudinal slots in its peripheral wall insertable through an opening into a human body, of a reciprocatory rod therein, an expansible head carried on said rod and normally within the tube and means for expanding such head through the slots by manipulation of the rod.
12. A drainage instrument including an elongated tube having lateral openings therein, a reciprocatory stem extending therein and snare members carried by the rod and capable of projection through the lateral openings into grasp engagementwith adjacent material for drawing such material into the tube by manipulation of the rod. s a
13. In an instrument of the character described, a tubular member having longitudinal successions of slots circumferentially spaced adjacent to one end of the tube, an expansible and contractable head insertable within the tube, in-
eluding a plurality of radially extensible members to be brought into registry with certain ofthe slots and expanded therethrough beyond the periphery of the tube, and means for effecting simultaneous contraction of a continuing portion of said head contiguous to other slots of said tube.
14. In an instrument of thecharacter described, a tubular member having parallel longitudinal circumferentially spaced slots adjacent to one end thereof, and an expansible and oontractable head insertable therein, including a plurality of flexible parallel members adapted to bend into substantially compound curvilinear form under longitudinal compression with the outwardly convex portions thereof bowed through the slots of the tubular member, and means for subjecting said including an elongate-d tubular member, having a lateral opening adjacent to one end thereof, an
expansible body capable of introduction through the tubular member, and means operable through the interior of the tube for controlling the expansion of the body beyond the confines of the tube through the lateral opening for .distending the adjacent walls of a restricted passage in which the tubular member has been introduced.
16. An instrument of the character described, including an elongated tubular member having therein a lateral opening adjacent to its end, a reciprocatory rod extending therein, an expansible head carried by the rod and normally within the tubular member and Subject to distention laterally beyond the confines of the tubular member through the lateral opening therein, the degree of such distention being controlled by the relative longitudinal movement of the tubular member and rod.
cent to such open extremity, a reciprocatory rod extending within the tubular member a head carried by the rod, for axial movement of one relative tothe other, a seat within the open end of the tubular member upon which the head abuts and a bowable member connecting the head and rod and subject to distortion through the lateral opening in the tubular member under movement of the rod relative to the head while the latter is in abutting engagement with the seat.
18. An instrument of the character described including an elongated tubular member having a plurality of longitudinal slots therein, a rod extending Within the tubular member, an assembly of bowable members carried by the rod, a stop within the tubular member against which the bowable members may abut at one end, the
opposite end of the bowable members being connected with the rod whereby upon thrust pressure of the bowable members against the stop incident to longitudinal pressure upon the rod, the bowable members will be laterally distended through the longitudinal slots of said tubular member.
19. An instrument of the character described including an elongated tubular member having a plurality of longitudinal slots therein, a rotatable rod extending Within the tubular member, an expansible and contractable assembly of bowable members carried by the rod, said assembly of bowable members being revoluble Within the tubular member about the axis thereof into and out of registry with the longitudinal slots through which they are distendable when brought into registry therewith by manipulation of the rod.
20. An instrument of the character described including an elongated tubular member, having an open end and having a plurality of longitudinal slots adjacent to such open end, an internal annular abutment seat contiguous to the open end of the tubular member, a rod extending within the tubular member, an assembly of bowable members, and a tapered guide head connected with the rod by said assembly of bowable members, said head being adapted to abut the annular seat and project beyond the end of the tubular member upon axial thrust movement of the rod and upon further thrust movement of the rod said bowable members being subject to distension laterally beyond the confines of the tubular member through the longitudinal slots thereof.
WARD R. SMITH.