US 2072595 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 2, 1937.
L. E. HUTCHISON WELL PUMPING APPARATUS Filed OCL. l5, 1954 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 4March 2, 1937. l.. E. HuTcHlsoN WELL PUMPI'NG APPARATUS Filed oct. 15; 1934 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Mar.l 2, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 10 Claims.
This invention relates to a well pumping apparatus.
An object of the vinvention is to provide an apparatus of the character `described to be used for pumping liquid from wells such as deep oil or Water wells.
Another object of the invention isV to provide an apparatus of the character described whereby the load of the column of liquid `may be balanced,
and an operating liquid utilized for the operation of the pump.
Another object of the invention is to provide an apparatus of the character described whereby gravity may be utilized to effect the down-stroke.
1,. or return-stroke, of the pump, and whereby counterbalancing equipment such as commonly used may be dispensed with, the balancing fluid being utilized as a shock absorber for retarding the down, or return stroke of the pump.
A further object is to provide a pumping apparatus of the character described whereby the pump rod will be actuated, on powerstroke, on a vertical line, thus preventing the side swinging motion of said rod, and whereby the rod, upon downward stroke, will be actuated by gravity alone and will not be forced downward by the apparatus, thus eliminating lateral or swinging movements of the rod on down-stroke.
A still further object is to provide a pumping apparatus of the character. described which is of such construction that a longer stroke is possible than wouldbe the case with pumping apparatus nowcommonly used.
A still further object is to provide pumping ap- 3, paratus whereby the working load may be readily ascertained and regulated. p
A still further object is to provide a pumping apparatus that is of very simple construction and that may be easily and inexpensively operated.
With the above and other objects in view, the invention has particular relation to lcertain novel features of construction, operation, and arrangement of parts, an example of which is given in this specification and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, whereinz Figure 1 shows a side elevation of the apparatus partly in section.
Figure 2 shows a vertical sectional view taken on the line' 2 2 of Figure 1. Figure 3 shows aplan View.
Figure 4 shows a fragmentary vertical sectional view of a controlling valve employed.
Figure shows a sectional view of said valve taken at right angles to the view shown in Figure 4.
v internally threaded, and corresponding inner cylthe respective relief por-ts 8 and 9.
(Cl. (S0-52) Figure 6 shows a cross-sectional view taken on the line 6--6 of Figure 2.
Fig. '1 shows an elevational View, partly in section taken on the line T-'I of Figure .1, and
Figure 8 shows anvelevational view, partly in section, and taken on the line 8--3 of Figure 1.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings wherein like numerals of reference designate similar parts in each of the iigures, the numerals I,- I, designate the side members of the support- 10 ing base, preferably formed of channel irons and at one end having the bed plate 2, all forming a suitable lsupporting framework. The well pipe 3, of the Well to be pumped, may extend up through the bed plate 2, and working in the well 15 is the conventional type of pump to be operated having the pump sucker rod 4, to the lower end of which the conventional traveling valve is attached in the usual way. Supported on suitable bases 5, 5, on opposite sides of the well are the outer stationary cylinders 6, '6, and the inner stationary cylinders 1, 1, the inner cylinders being preferably concentric with respect to the outer stationary cylinders 6. .The upper ends of the outer cylinders 6 are inwardly thickened and inders 'l are threaded through said inwardly thickened portions. The outer ends of both the cylinders 6 and l are closed excepting they have Fitted closely over the respective stationary cylinders 6 are the traveling cylinders I0, IIJ, whose upper ends are closed by the respective heads II, II. Mounted on the heads II is a walking beam preferably formed of the channels Ill,v which are suitably bolted together and which clamp the sucker rod 4 between them.
Within the cylinders 'l there are the pistons, as I3, which are attached to the respective pistonv rods I4. Each piston rod I4 works through va 0 central bearing in the outer end of the corresponding cylinder l and extends on through the corresponding .head II and between the channels I2 and is threadedv to receive the clamp nuts I5, I 6, whichclamp against the inner side of the corresponding head I I and against the upper side of the walking beam respectively, whereby the piston rods I4, as well as the walking beam, are clamped to the respective cylinder heads II.
The numeral i'l designates a storage tank 50 which is mounted on the supporting channels I, I, and which is equipped with the pop-off I, valve IB, and the. pressure indicator Illa.. 'I'he storage tank I'I will be partly lled with an Operating liquid as indicated at I8', and partly 55 iilled with a pressure fluid such as air under pressure.
There is a pump I S, which, in the present instance, is shown operatively connected to a suitable motor 2l, preferably an electric motor. There is a balanced valve mechanism comprising the cylinder 2l in which the spaced piston valves 22, 22, are fitted. These valves are fastened on to the piston rod 23 whose upper end is pivotally connected to the outer end of the lever 24. 'Ihe inner cnd of this lever is pivotally connected to a suitable bracket 25 which is shown as being clamped around the air pump cylinder 26 hereinafter referred to.
The lever 24 is formed with a yoke 21 which is clamped about a coil spring 28. This spring surroimds the sleeve 29, which is connected io the walking beam I2 by means of the cross bar 3l. The sleeve 28 is mounted to slide on the guide rod 3| whose lower end is anchored to the supporting framework. On the sleeve 28 are the spaced upper and lower collars 32, 33, which are .adjustable thereon. Upon the up stroke of the pump, the lower collar 33 will strike the lower end of the spring 28 and actuate the lever 24 and the valves 22 upwardly, and upon the down stroke of the pump the upper collar 32 will strike the upper end of the spring 2l and actuate the lever 24 and the valves 22 downwardly, said spring 28 acting as a bumper or shock absorber. 4
Leading out from the storage tank I1, beneath the liquid level, is the line 34 which is connected into. the pump I8, and leading out from said pump casing is pressure line 35 which enters the cylinder 2| of the balanced valve mechanism. leading out from said cylinder 2| there is a pressure line 36 which has the branches 31, 31, which are connected into the lower ends of the inner stationary cylinders 1. When the valves 22, 22, are in their lower position, the pressure lines 35', 3i, will be in communication, as illustrated in Figure 4, and the operating liquid will be supplied to said inner stationary cylinders. When the valves 22, 22, are in their upper position, the liquid flowing through the line 35 will be diverted from the line 35 and the line 35 will be placed in communication with the return line 33 which is connected into the upper end of the cylinder 2| and is also connected into the line 34 entering the casing of the pump I8. When the balanced valve mechanism is in this position, that is, in the position shown in Figure 5, the liquid in the inner stationary cylinders 1 may return through the branches 31 and the pressure line 38 into the cylinder 2| beneath the lower valve 22 and thence through the relief line 3l back into the line 34. This returning liquid may enter the pump I9, the excess liquid being returned into the tank I1. With the balanced vve mechanism in the position indicated, that is, in the position shown in Figure' 5, the liquid being pumped by the pump Il will iiow idly through the pressure line 35, and cylinder 2|, and the return line 38 back to the pump.
Incorpated into the line 33 there is the valve seat 4I which may be controlled by the manually operated needle valve 4I. 'Ihe flow of the returning liquid to the storage tank I1 from the cylinders 1, and consequently the speed of pump operation, may be controlled by this valve 4I.
As hereinabove indicated, there is an air pump having the cylinder 28 in which the plunger 42 is mounted to reciprocate. This plunger is attached to the plunger rod 43 which is extended up between the walking beam channels I2 and up also through the cross-bar 38, said bar and channels being clamped between the nuts 44, 45, which are threaded on to plunger rod 43. An air pressure line 46 leads from the lower end of the pump cylinder 2i and enters the storage tank I1 above the liquid level therein. Incorporated into the pressure line there is a back pressure valve 41 and an air regulator 48. This regulator is of conventional construction and may be set to permit a predetermined pressure in the tank, the air from the pump thereafter escaping to free atmosphere through the relief valve 48a. As the walking beam I2 moves up and down, the air pump will be operated to replenish the pressure iluid in the tank I1, in case the pressure thereof should become reduced below the required pressure.
Pivotally mounted on opposite sides of the head of the cylinder 2| are the upstanding arms 49, 49, whose upper ends are connected by a coil spring 50. Mounted on the upper ends of these arms 49 are the rollers 5I, 5|. On the valve rod 23 there is an accelerator head 52 whose upper end and lower ends are tapered. Upon up-stroke of the pump, when the collar 33 engages the lower end of the spring 28, the lever 24 and the rod 23 will be moved upwardly, as hereinabove explained, and when the head 52, upon its upward movement, passes the centers of the rollers 5|, the pressure of said rollers against the downwardly tapering lower end of the head will cause an accelerated upward movement of the rod 23 and the valves 22; and, reversely upon downstroke of the pump, when the collar 32 strikes the upper end of the spring 28, the lever 24 and rod 23 will be moved downwardly, and when the head 52 passes center, relative to the rollers 5|, upon its downward movement, the pressure of said rollers against the upper end of the head 52' will cause an accelerated downward movement of the rod 23 and the valves 22, thus causing a quick and positive movement of said valves in each direction.
Leading out from the storage tank I1 above the level of the operating liquid, there is an air pressure line 53 which separates into the branches 54, 54, and said branches enter the lower ends of the stationary outer cylinders 6 through the inlet ports 55.
The operation of 'the apparatus is as follows:- An operating iluid, such as oil, is placed in the storage tank I1 in the required amount. The set collars 32, 33, are adjusted for the desired length of the stroke. The choke valve or needle valve 4I should then be partially closed. Air should then be pumped into the storage tank I1 until the outer cylinders Il begin to rise. The apparatus is thus balanced. The pump I9 should then be started. When the pump I 9 is started iluid is pumped out of the tank I1. This will reduce the pressure in the tank I1 and the pumped liquid will cause the cylinders Il to move on up to upper position under the pressure of the pumped liquid. When this liquid pressure is relieved by the reverse movement of the liquid control valves, the cylinders I8 will move back down to the original position. This pump is equipped with a pressure gauge 56. The relief valve I8 should be maintained closed'until the air pressure, as indicated by the gauge Isa has built up in accordance with the load pressure as indicated by the gauge 5i, and the relief valve I8 should be set to open at a slightly less pressure than the maximum pressure indicated by the gauge 56. In actual operation, the pressure of air in the tank I1 must be somewhat less than the pressure of the operating fluid delivered from the pump I9, and indicated by the gauge 56, upon powerstroke in order to insure thereturn of the pump rod on down stroke.
Assuming that apparatus has been adjusted as above described, upon downward stroke of the Walking beam the set collar 32, upon striking the absorber spring 28, will reverse the position of the lever 24, moving it and the valves 22 downwardly into the positionshown in Figure 4. During this downward movement and prior to Said actuation of the balanced valve mechanism, the operating fluid will be 'returned from the inner stationary cylinders 1 through the lines 31, 3G, and through the cylinder 2| and return line 39 to the pump I9 and any excess operating liquid returning through the line 34 to the tank I1. When the down-stroke has effected the downward movement of the valves 22, the pressure line 35 leading from the pump I9 will be connected through the lines 36, 31, into the innerV stationary cylinders 1 beneath the pistons I3 lifting said pistons, and the outer cylinders IIJ, as well as the walking beam I2 and the sucker rod 4, thus causing an up-stroke or discharge stroke of the well pump. The down stroke of the well pump willbe effected by gravity, the sucker rod 4 moving in approximately a straight line and the load will be cushioned,or counterbalanced by the lluid' pressure in the outer cylinders I0, as well as by the resistance of the liquid beneath the pistons I3, the lower ends of the cylinders 1 beneath the pistons I3, upon downstroke, being in direct communication with the tank I1 through the pipes 31, 36, the cylinder 2|, and the pipes 39 and 34.
It will be observed that the walking beam AI2 q moves up and down vertically so that there will be no side-swinging, or swaying of the sucker rod 4. Any loss of pressure of the pressure fluid in the storage tank I1 will be replaced, and a uniform pressure maintained, by the air pump hereinabove described, which is operated also by the walking beam I2.
The number of strokes a minute may be regulated by adjusting the choke valve 4I and this, in turn, regulates the ow of the liquid returned from the inner cylinders 1 to the storage tank I1 upon ,down-stroke of the pump.
The drawings and description disclose what is now considered to be a preferred form of the invention by way of illustration only, While the broad principle of the invention lwill be defined by theappended claims.
What I claim is:
1. In combination a storag'etank for containing an operating liquid and a pressure fluid, a reciprocable member adapted to be connected to the sucker rod of a pu'mp -in a well, means for taking the operating liquid from the tank and alternately applying the liquid to, and relieving the same from, the reciprocable member whereby said sucker rod maybe alternately elevated and permitted to descend by gravity, means for applying the pressure fluid from the tank to constantly tend to balance the load on the sucker rod and means operable by a reciprocable part of the apparatus for increasing the pressure of said fluid in the tank.
2. Apparatus of the character described comprising a storage tank for containing an operating liquid and a pressure fluid, a reciprocable member adapted to be connected to the operating rod of a. pump in a well, means arranged to be actuated by said liquid to impart an upward, or power, stroke to the rod, means including a pressure pump for taking liquid from the tank and applying the same, under pressure, to said liquid-actuated means, means for by-passing all of the operating liquid from said liquid actuated means around the pressure pump into the tank to permit the rod to descend by gravity, and means for regulating the relief of the liquidto control the rate of speed of such descent.
3. Apparatus of the character described comprising a storage tank for containing an operating liquid and a pressure iluid, a reciprocable member adapted to be connected to the operating rod of a pump in a well, means arranged to be actuated by said liquid to impart an upward, or power, stroke to the rod, means for taking liquid from the tank and applying the same, under pressure, to said liquid-actuated means, means for relieving the operating liquid from said liquid actuated means to permit the rod to descend by gravity, means for regulating the relief of the liquid to control the rate of speed offsuch descent,
and other means for utilizing the pressure fluid to retard such descent.
4. In combination an inner stationary cylinder,
an outer traveling cylinder telescopically related to the inner cylinder, means on the outer cylinder for connecting the same to a pump rod, a piston in the inner cylinder connected to the outer cylinder, means for alternately applying an operating liquid to, and for relieving the same from, the piston whereby the outer cylinder and pump rod connected thereto may be alternately elevated and permitted to descend and other means for maintaining a substantially uniform pressure uid in the outer cylinder.
5. In combination a. pressure tank for containing an operating fluid, a reciprocable member adapted to be connected to a rod of a pump in a well, a pressure conduit through which said fluid may be applied to the reciprocable member to elevate the same, a pressure pump connected to said conduit for so applying the fluid, a relief conduit through which the pressure uid may be relieved from said reciprocable member and bypassed around the pressure pump directly into the tank to permit the' member to descend, a
by-pass return conduit, a .valve mechanism controlling said conduits, and automatically operable to alternately permit the application of the pressure fluid to,v and relieve the same from, said member and said valve mechanism being arranged to simultaneously relieve such pressure and to permit the return of the relieved pressure fluid and the pumped pressure fluid into the pressure conduit.
6. In combination a pressure tank for containing an operating uid, a reciprocable member adapted to be connected to a rod of a pump member and said valve mechanism 'being arranged to simultaneously. relieve such pressure and to permit the return of the relieved pressure uid and the pumped pressure fluid into the pressure conduit, a valve means for manually controlling the ilow of the relieved uid through said relief conduit.
7. In combination, a storage tank containing an operating liquid and a iluid under pressure, a cylinder, a piston in the cylinder connected to the sucker rod of a well pump, means including a pump for taking the operating liquid from the tank and alternately applying the liquid to, and relieving the same from, the piston whereby the piston and sucker rod may be alternately elevated and permitted to descend, said means having a conduit through which all of the relieved liquid may be returned, around the last mentioned pump, to 'the tank.
8. In combination, a storage tank containing an operating liquid and a uid under pressure. a cylinder, a piston in the cylinder, connected to the operating rod of a well pump, means including a liquid pressure generator for taking the liquid from the tank and alternately applyi lng the liquid to and relieving the same from the piston whereby the piston and rod may be alternately elevated and permitted to descend, said means having a conduit which by-passes the generator and is connected into the tank and through which the pressure in the tank may freely react, through the relieved liquid, to retard the descent of the piston.
9. In combination a pressure tank for containing an operating iluid, a reciprocable member adapted to be connected to a rod of a pump in a well, a pressure conduit through which said fluid may be applied to the recprocable member to elevate the same, a pump connected into said conduit for so applying the fluid, a relief conduit through which the pressure Iiuid may be relieved from said reciprocable member and by-passed around the last mentioned pump directly into the tank to permit the member to descend, a by-pass return conduit, a valve mechanism controlling said conduits and automatically operable to alternately permit the application of pressure to and to relieve the same from said member and said valve mechanism being arranged to simultaneously relieve such pressure and to permit the return of the relieved pressure iiuid and the pumped pressure iiuid into the tank.
l0. In combination, a storage tank containing an operating liquid and a iluid under pressure, a cylinder, a piston in the cylinder connected to the sucker rod of a well pump, means including a pressure pump for taking the operating liquid from the tank and alternately applying the liquid to and relieving the same from the piston, whereby the piston and the load of the pump carried thereby may be alternately elevated and permitted to descend, said means having a conduit through which the relieved liquid may be by-passed around the pressure pump and returned to the tank solely by the weight of the load.
LOYD E. HUTCHISON.