|Publication number||US2075036 A|
|Publication date||Mar 30, 1937|
|Filing date||Aug 26, 1935|
|Priority date||Aug 26, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2075036 A, US 2075036A, US-A-2075036, US2075036 A, US2075036A|
|Inventors||Henry L Hollis|
|Original Assignee||Henry L Hollis|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (38), Classifications (22)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
March 30, 1937. H.- HOLLIS 6 AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS AND PROCESS Filed Aug. 26, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 7 Ma a/"$5541:
March 30, 1937. H. L. HOLLIS 2,075,036 7 AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS AND PROCESS I Filed Aug. 26, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 I 1? 067? for ffezek yj, 170812;;
@Qla v Patented Mar. I 30, 1937 AIR CONDITIONING APPARATUS AND PROGESS Henry L. Hollis, Chicago, Ill.
Application August 26, 1935, Serial No. 37,839
This invention relates to an apparatus for conditioning air. It has for one object to provide means for cooling the air in a room or other enclosed space. It has for another object to provide means for dehumidifying su'ch air. It has for another object to provide a compact and readily movable apparatus for cooling and for de humidifying air. It has for another object to provide an air conditioning means in which no refrigeration mechanism is necessary. It has for another object to provide means for conditioning air without the use of refrigeration and including a cooling unit comprising a closed circuit, watercirculating mechanism. Another object isto provide in an air conditioning unit automatic controls operating to maintain constant and satisfactory operation of the mechanism as a whole.
Other objects will appear from time .to time in the specification and claims.
The invention is illustrated more or less dia-.
grammatically in the accompanying drawings, wherein:-
Figure 1 is a diagrammatic showing or flow sheet of the apparatus of the present invention in which only suflicient mechanism is shown to illustrate the operation of thedevice. It is to be understood that the mechanism illustrated herewith is shown diagrammatically.
Figure 2 is a diagrammatic showing illustrating a modified f orm;
Like parts are designated by like characters throughout the specification and drawings. In each of the figures, for purposes of simplicity of understanding, the mechanism has been separated and arranged inthe form of a flow sheet.
As shown in Figure 1, l designates the air intake from a source outside of the room, for example, outside or street air. The air passes through the conduit or intake I, to a second conduit 2 and is discharged into a spray chamber 3. It passes through sprays 4 and thence upward between the coils of a'heat exchanger 5 into a discharge conduit 6, passing a fan I and'through a final discharge conduit 8 to the outer air. I
All of the air entering from the outside through the conduit I does not pass into the conduit 2. Some of it is by-passed through a conduit 9 into one or the other of a pair of passages In which lead to dehumidifying units II, II. .Each unit comprises a dehumidifying portion 12 which may be of any suitable nature. Each dehumidifying unit also includes a coil I 3, l3 for apurpose to be described below. As shown in Fig. 1, the air from the conduit 9 is passing from the right hand conduit l 0 into the right hand dehumidifying unit H and is passing thence through a conduit ll into the conduit 6 and outward through the final discharge 8 to the open air.
It will be seenthus that the charge of air entering is divided and a portion of it passes 5 through the spray chamber, the heat exchanger and thence out, while a portion of it passes through one of the dehumidifiers. The purpose of this second portion of outside air is to carry ofi 10 moisture from the dehumidifier. It will be understood that a dehumidifier of the general type indicated contains some chemical or other substance capable of absorbing moisture from the air. It may contain what is known as activated aluminum oxide. After a certain amount of air has passed through the unit this dehumidifying agent will have absorbed all the moisture possible. The automatic control which will be described below then switches the .current of air entering from 0 the room so that it flows through the other dehumidifying unit and the first dehumidifying unit is then heated by the coil l3 and the outside air passing through it carries oft moisture and discharges it into the outer air. Thus the two dehumidifying units are alternately, by the auto- 4 matic mechanism shown, switched into and out of use and the unit which is out of use 'is reactivated so that it is ready for use when the other unit requires reactivation. That portion of the outside air which passes through the dehumidifying unit first carries off the moisture during the time that the coil is energized and thereafter, when the coil is no longer energized, continues to pass through the unit to eifect its cooling so that when it is thereafter again brought into use for dehumidifying it has been cooled sufiiciently.
Air within the room enters the system through the conduit l5 which communicates with a conduit l6 and a second conduit H. An adjustable control member I8 is positioned at the junction of the conduits I6 and I I with the conduit IS. A handle l9- and a quadrant 20 permit adjustment of the member I8'so that, any desired proportion of the entering air'may be directed to the conduits l6 and I1.
1 That portion of the room air which passes through the conduit l6 enters the left hand humidifying unit, which is in condition for dehumidifying and is cooled, and after leaving it passes through a conduit 2| and through the coils 22 of the heat exchanger 5, thence through a conduit 23, past a fan 24 and is discharged into the roomthrough the final conduit .25. That portion of the room air which enters the conduit l1, however, does not pass through the dehumidifier but passes directly into the coils 22, joining at that point with the air which has been dehumidifled and which is flowing through the conduit 2 and the undehumidified air follows the same course as, and is mixed with, the dehumidifled air.
The fans I and 24 are shown as driven by separate motors. This is a possible arrangement but ordinarily in a commercial installation the parts would be so arranged that the two fans would be driven by the same motor. As a matter of economy and compactness this is desirable, althoughnot essential. The water circulation may also .be accomplished by driving from the same motor. As here shown a motor 26 which drives the fan 1 is connected by a belt 21 to a pump 28 which is preferably a centrifugal or rotary pump of some type. 29 is a pan or basin suitable to contain water. It is preferably provided at one .end with a sump or depression Bil from which a pipe 3| leads to the pump 28. A pipe 32 leads from the pump and liquid is discharged through it and sprayed through the s'praychamber 3 by means of one or more spray nozzles 33. A float 34 is mounted within the pan 29 and arranged to float upon the liquid within'the pan. This float is adjustably positioned upon an arm 35 pivoted at 36 and carrying at its outer end a switch control link 31 which is slotted as at 38. The switch control link is arranged to move the part 38 of a switch. This switch by means of wires 40, 40, is
in communication with the wiring system of the installation. When the level of liquid within the pan 29 falls below a predetermined limit, due to evaporation, leakage or other cause, the float 34 moves downwardly sufllciently to move the link 38 downwardly and to break the switch connection by moving the member 38 out of contact with the member 39a oi the switch and so the circuit through the wires 40 is interrupted and the operation or the entire system is cut oil.
The automatic switching whereby the flow of air is caused to move alternately through the dehumidiiying units and whereby the coils within those units are energized and de-energized will now be described. While almost any suitable form of control may be used, it is convenient tor most purposes to use a time clock indicated diagrammatically at 4|. The time clock is arranged to operate the controls in relation to the dehumidifying units so that when one unit has been in use long enough to be exhausted it will be automatically cut out and the un-exhausted or reactivated unit will be automatically cut in. At the time that this occurs the exhausted unit will be re-activated by the energizing of the heating'coil within it, which drives of! the moisture, which moisture is discharged from the system by that portion of the outside air which passes through the dehumidiiying unit during its re-activation.
A valve 42 is positioned in a conduit 48 which communicates between the conduit l6v and the right hand dehumidifying unit.v A corresponding valve 44 is positioned to control passage through the conduit III which communicates between the conduit 9 and the left hand dehumidii'ying unit. A lever 45 moves the valve 44 and a lever 46 moves the valve 42. These levers are connected by a link 41. One arm of the lever 46 is connected to a second link 48 which is actuated to be moved back and forth bya solenoid 48. A spring 50 moves the solenoid out when free to do so and is compressed when the solenoid is energized.
A valve 6| is positioned at'the junction of the when open, conducts air from the right hand dehumidifying unit to the conduit 2|. A valve 53 is positioned at the junction of a conduit 54 within the conduit l4. When this valve is open, air may flow from the left hand dehumidifying unit, through the conduit 54, to the conduit H and discharge from the system. A lever 55 moves the valve 5| and a lever 56 moves the valve 53. These levers are connected by a link 51. A third lever 58, connected also to the valve 53, is connected to a link 59 which is moved in one direction by the solenoid 60 and in the other direction by the spring 6|.
Current for operating the entire system may be furnished by wires 62, 63. The wires 40 to the float control switch 39 may conveniently be cut in to the wire 63. The motor 26 is operated from the wire 62, 63, by wires 64, and the motor for the fan 21 issimilarly connected by wires-66, 61. One of the wires 62 is connected with the base of a wiper arm 68 of the time. clock 4|.
The wiper arm is moved by the'time clock mechanism or otherwise and contacts a curved contact 69. From this contact 69 a wire 10 leads to one pole of the solenoid 49. A wire 1| leads from the other pole of the solenoid 49 to the wire 63 and thus when the wiper arm 68 is in contact with the member 69 the solenoid 49 isenergized, the link 48 is moved to the left within the solenoid; the spring 50 is compressed and valves 42 and 44 are moved to the position shown in Figure 1. The solenoid 60 is connected by a wire 12 to the wire 10 and by awire I3 to the wire TI and thus it is energized at the same time as the solenoid 49. Energizing of the solenoids thus moves the valves 42, 44, 5|, and 53 to the position they occupy in Fig. 1. When the time clock carries the wiper arm 68 so far that it clears the member 69, the solenoids are de-energized, the springs- 58 and 6| are free to expand and the valves are then moved from the positions shown in full lines to the dotted line positions and flow 01 air is reversed with respect to the dehumidifying units.
A short contact member I4 is positioned to be contacted by the wiper arm 68. 'It is connected by a wire 15 with one pole of the coil l3 and the circuit is completed by a wire 11 which connects with the other pole of the coil l3 with the wire 1|. When the wiper arm 68 is in contact with the member 14 the 0011- I3 in the right hand dehumidifying unit is energized andthat unit is heated to vaporize the moisture which it has diametrically opposite the member 14. It is connected by a wire 19 to one pole of the coil l3 at the left hand dehumidiiying unit. The opposite pole of this unit is connected by a wire 8| to the wire II. The operation of energizing this coil is the same as that above described for the coil' l3.
The form of the device shown in Figure 2 is in many respects similar to that shown in Figure 1 and it diilers from that just described principally in the control of the movement of the room air. In the form of Figure 1 the room air is dehumidified and cooled, while in the form of Figure 2 the room air is merely cooled. A further difference between the two forms lies in the fact that in the form of Figure 1 the outside air is not discharged into the room but is used only in the heat exchanger to cool the room air which passes through the coils of the heat exchanger and is used in carrying off the vaporized moisture from the dehumidifying. units, while in the form of Figure 2 some of the outside air, after having been dehumidified, passes into the room air and moves with it through the cooling coils of the heat exchanger and is discharged with it into the room.
90 is the intake from the outside air. .The air is drawn through this intake conduit by a fan or blower 9|; A portion of it passes through the conduit 92 into the spray chamber 93 which is generally the same in detail and operation as the spray chamber 3 above described. This then passes upwardly through the heat exchanger 5, through the conduit 94 for discharge to the outside.
is flowing from the left hand dehumidifying unit 5 99 through the conduit I00, into the conduit 94 and it is being discharged to the outerair. Thus the conduit 99 is being re-activated and the air passing through'it is carrying oif the moisture and will serve to cool the conduit. With the wiper arm 68 in the position shown in Figure 2, the coil I3 of the unit 99 is energized and this unit is being re-activated. The left hand unit 98 is not heated and it is serving to dehumidify air which enters it through the conduit 90. The air from the unit '98 cannot pass into the conduit I for discharge into the outer air because theconduit IOI which'leads from it to the conduit I00 is closed by the valve I02'and the air, therefore, must pass outward through the conduit I03 into the main conduit I04 through which the room air enters and the air from the conduit I03-thus joins and mingles with the air from the conduit I04. A fan or blower I05 draws air through the conduit I04, passes it .through the coils 22 of the heat exchanger and discharges it again into the room through a discharge conduit I06. I
The air from the heated dehumidifying unit 99 is prevented from passing into the room air by the position of the valve I01.
The valve I02 being positioned at the junction I of the conduits I00 and IN controls the passage of air through those conduits and the valve I01, being positioned at the junctionoi the conduits I03 and I08 controls the passage of air through those conduits; The valves I02 and I0! have attached to them levers, respectively, I09 and I I 0 which are joined by a link III. A second link H2 is attached to'the solenoid H3.
occupied in Figure 2, the valves are moved to the Another portion of the outside air passes When the solenoid moves in one direction to the position full line position. When the solenoid is deenergized the spring H4 is free to move it in the reverse direction and through the linkage shown the valves-are then moved to the dotted line position toreverse the flow of air. As in the case of the form of the device shown in Figure 1, the time clock 4| controls the movement of the valves and the energizing of the solenoid and of the coils. The contact units I4 and 18, which control the coils, are much shorter than the unit 69 which cpntrolsthe solenoid and thus the coils are energized for only a relatively short portion of the time that the valves occupy any onesetting.
In the form of the device shown in Figure 2, only one solenoid is used. Its operation is generally the same as that described for the operation of a solenoid in connection with Figure 1. Thus solenoid I I3 is connected by a wire H5 to the wire 03 and at its other pole it isconnected by a wire II6 to the contact member 69.
The use and operation of my invention are as follows:
In both of the forms of the device, no direct refrigeration such as a refrigerating coil and the necessary mechanism is used. Outside air is drawn into the system and is passed through a spray of liquid, preferably water. Some cooling of the air takes place due to the evaporation at this point. The cooled air passes from the spray about the coils of a heat exchanger and is discharged into the outer air. Air from the room or other enclosed space is drawn into the system, passes through the coils of the heat exchanger and is thus cooled and redischarged into the room.
In one form of the invention. there is no mixing of the air from the outside with the room air and the room air is dehumidifled before being cooled. that is to say-the room air passes through a dehumidifying co l before passin to the heat exchanger for cooling. In the other form of the invention, the room air is no directly. dehumidified but is merely cooled. 'It is,
however. mixed with a certain variable quantity 7 of dehumidified outer air. the mixture of the dehumidified outer air with the room air passing through the cooling coil.
. In both forms of the invention dehumid fyin units are provided and automat c means is arranged for reactivating them at necessary intervals and for carrying off moisture discharged from the dehumidifying air as a result of the reactivation and also for cooling the reactivated unit after reactivation is complete.
1. The method of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises setting up two relatively independent currents of air, one of outside air,
the other of inside air, cooling said outside air.
dehumidifying said inside air and cooling said dehumidifled ins de air by said cooled outside air.-
2. The method of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises setting up two relatively independent currents of air, one of outside air,
the other of inside air, cooling said outside air.
dehumidifylng said inside air and cooling 'sa d dehumidlfied inside air by said cooled outside, air, by-passing a portion of said outside air for use in reactivating a dehumidifying unit.
3. The process of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises the following steps, setting up a circulation of air from outside said space, cooling said air, setting up a circulation of airwithin said space, dehumidifying said air,
cooling said inside dehumidifled air by said first mentioned cooled outside air, redischarging said dehumidifle'd and cooled air into said space and 5 redischarging said outside air.
4. The process of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises the followingisteps, setting up a circulation-of air from outside said space, cooling said air, setting .up a circulation of air within said space, dehumidifying" said-air; cooling said inside dehumidified'air-by said first mentioned cooled outside air, redischarging said dehumidified andcooled'air into said space and.
and cooled air into said room, andutilizing a portion of said outside air to assist in reactivating a dehumidifying unit of said system.
6. The process of treating the air in a room which comprises the following steps,-setting up a confined circuit of outside air, cooling said confined circuit, by-passing a portion of said outside air selectiv'elyto one of a-plurality of dehumidifying'units, setting up a circuit of inside air, cooling said air by means of said cooledoutside air and redischarging said cooled air into said, room. r "IL The process of treating the air in a room which comprises the following steps,-setting up a confined circuit of outside air, cooling said confined circuit, by-passing a portion of said outside air selectively to one of a plurality of dehumidi fying units, setting up a circuit of inside air, de- 40 humidifying said air, cooling said air by means of said cooled outside air and redischarging said dehumidified cooled air into said room.
8. The process of treating air in a room which comprises the following steps qsetting up a controlled enclosed current of outside air, cooling said air and redischarging a portion of said air to the outside, by-passing a portion of said outside air, dehumidifying s'aid by-passed outside air, setting up a current of inside air, mixing it with said bypassed outside air, cooling the two together and redischarging them into said room. I
9. The process of treating air in a room which comprises the following steps,-setting up a controlled enclosed current of outside air, cooling said air and redischarging a portion of said air to the outside, by-passing a portion of saidoutside air, dehumidifying said by-passed outside air, setting up a current of inside air, mixing it-with said by-passed outside air, cooling the two together and redischarging them into said room, selectively by-passing a portion of said outside air to cooperate in reactivating a dehumidifying unit.
10. In combination, in an air treating system, for treating air in a room, a spray chamber, meansfor creating a liquid spray within it, a heat exchanger, means for drawingoutside air to the spray chamber, for passing it through the heat exchanger and for discharging it to the outside, a dehumidifying unit, means for drawing air into it for dehumidifying it therein, for moving it to Y the heat exchanger and for discharging it into the room.
11. In combination, in an air treating system,
75 for treating air in a room, a spray chamber,
means for creating a liquid spray within it, a heat exchanger, means for drawing outside air to the spray chamber, for passing it through the heat exchanger and for discharging it to the outside, a dehumidifying unit, means for drawing air into it for dehumidifying it therein, for moving it to the heat exchanger and for discharging it into the room, and means for reactivating the dehumidifying unit.
12. In combination, in an air treating system for-treating air in a room, a spray chamber, means for creating aliquid-spray within it, a heat exchanger means for drawing outside air to the spray chamber, for passing it through the heat exchanger and for discharging it to the outside, a plurality of dehumidifying units, automatic means for controlling the movement of air to move air to one of said units to dehumidify it therein, and for moving it thence to said heat exchanger and for discharging it into the room, and automatic means for selectively reactivating said dehumidifying units.
13. In combination, in an air treating unit, cooling means, a plurality of dehumidifying means, means for drawing outside air into the cooling means to cool the latter, means for drawing inside air into the dehumidifying unit for cooling it and for discharging it from the system and automatic means for selectively controlling the passage of air to one of said dehumidifying units and for reactivating a unit when not in use.
14. The method of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises setting up two relatively independent currents of air, one of outside air, the other of inside air, cooling said outside air, passing said inside air through a dehumidifying unit and dehumidifying said inside air and cooling said dehumidified inside air by said cooled outside air, reactivating said dehumidifying unit by heating, and by-passing a portion of said outside air through said unit for use in reactivating said dehumidifying unit.
15. The process of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises the following steps, setting up a circulation of air from outside said space, cooling said air, setting up a circulation of air within said space, passing said inside air through a dehumidifying unit and dehumidifying said air, cooling said inside dehumidified air by said first mentioned cooled outside air, redischarging said dehumidifled and cooled air into said space and redischarging said outside air, reactivating said dehumidifying unit by heating, and by-passing a portion of said outside air through said unit for use in reactivating said dehumidifying unit.
16. The process of treating air in a room which includes the following steps: Setting up a confined current of outside air, cooling said air, setting up a circulation of room air, passing said room air through a dehumidifying unit and dehumidifying said room air, cooling said room air by said cooled outside air and redischargin'g said dehumidified and cooled air into said room, re-
activating said dehumidifying unit by heating, and utilizing a portion of said outside air to assist in'reactivating said dehumidifying unit.
17. The method of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises setting up two relatively independent currents of air, one of outside air, the other of inside air, cooling said outside air, passing said inside air through a dehumidifying unit and dehumidifying said inside air and cooling said dehumidified inside air by said cooled outside air, reactivating said dehumidifying unit by cooling said inside dehumidified air by said first heating it to drive 011 moisture, bypassing a portion of said outside air through said unit to carry ofi said moisture, and cooling said unit after the moisture has been driven ofi by-further bypassing a further portion of said outside air.
18. The process of treating air in an enclosed space which comprises the following steps, setting up a circulation of air from outside said space, cooling said air, setting up a circulation of air 10 within said space, passing said inside air through a dehumidifying unit'and dehumidifying said air,
mentioned cooled outside air, redischarging said dehumidified and cooled air into said space and redischargi'ng said outside air, heating said dehumidifying unit to drive 012 moisture to reactivate it, bypassing a portion of said outside air through said unit to carry off said moisture, discontinuing said heating and cooling said unit byfurther bypassing of outside air therethrough.
' my L. HOLLIS
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|U.S. Classification||62/92, 62/271, 62/97, 62/94, 62/310, 62/311, 96/127, 95/120, 95/92, 62/91, 62/314, 62/121, 62/309|
|Cooperative Classification||Y02B30/16, F24F2003/1458, F24F2003/144, F24F3/14, F24F2006/146, F24F3/1411|
|European Classification||F24F3/14, F24F3/14C|