US 2075111 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 30, 1937.
I40 WITN ESSES fiW'i/m I 'M M 'cRoss REFERENCE EXAMINER F. H. GULLIKSEN ET AL WIRE GUIDE CONTROL Filed Jan. 14, 1933 s Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTORS. Szep/ren A.S2ae e and Fin /1'.6'a [in sen.
A'TTOR'NEY 5 2 5 0 2 0 1 08085 REFERENCE HAMINER March 30, 1937. F. H. GULLIKSEN El AL 2,075,111
WIRE GUIDE CONTROL Filed Jan. 14, 1933 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 .Fzy. 3. 20/ I 206 25 4 i l 217 2 7 g 293 H4 WITNESSES: INVENTORS.
.% l Sfepfien AS22199? and E'rmHG'uIIi/Ksen.
- m... as,
Patented Mar. 30, 1937 WIRE GUIDE CONTROL Finn H. Gulliksen, Wilkinsburg, and Stephen A Staege, Pittsburgh, Pa... aasignors to Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company, East Pittsburgh, Pa., a corporation of Penn- 'sylvanla Application January 14, 193:, Serial No. 651,722
7 Claims. Our invention relates generally to the control of traveling webs to maintainthem in a desired thus result, and what is equally as detrimental, the useful life of the wire is materially shortened.
By the apparatus herein described and claimed 4 in the claims hereto appended, the edge of the web whether such web be a wire, felt, paper in a printing press, or any other web, is not subject to wear.
It is an object of our invention to provide electric control means whereby the travel of a web in a machine may be kept in a substantially definite path.
Another object of our invention is the provision of mechanical and electrical control means so arranged that the mechanical control means assume the control of the web if for any cause the electrical control means becomes inoperative or is deliberately made inoperative.
A further object of our invention is the provision of electrical control means whereby the web may be controlled to selectively follow one or the other of two parallel substantially adjacent paths.
A still further object of our invention is the provision of electric control means whereby a web of material may be made to follow a given path even though a portion of the control means .may have become inoperative.
Other objects and advantages of our invention will become more apparent from a study of the following specification and the claims appended thereto when considered in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, in whichl 'Figure 1 illustrates. more or less diagrammatically, electric control systems in combination with the .conventional mechanical web guide control;
Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic showing of a photoelectricsystem of control for maintaining a web of material in a substantially fixed path; and
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic showing of a modification of a photo-electric system of control such as illustrated in Fig. 2.
' Referring more particularly to Fig. l, where a system of control is shown for controlling the path of a web. I designates a guide roll which is but one, preferably the end roll, oi a plurality of rolls which may be shifted in angular position about the pivot point 58 by a conventional bearing shifting means shown at the left of the roll. The axis of the roll will thus take various angular positions with reference to a medium position. This shifting of the roll will eifect the movement of the web towards the right or towards the left as desired.
In normal operation for printing presses, winding machines and particularly in the art of paper making the web of material, which is usually a Fourdrinier wire, for some cause has the habit of moving from the right to the left and from the left to the right, namely, meandering back and forth thus shifting its path of travel. This shifting of the path of travel is a disadvantageous action of the web and may cause breakage of the web or may cause an improper margin between the printed matter and the edge of the paper in the printing press.
Adjacent the respective edges of the web I! are disposed a pair of rollers 3 and I8 spaced apart a distance a trifle greater than the width of the web and both rollers 3 and it are disposed equal distances from the desired path of travel of the web. A pair of palms l5 and ii are also disposed, at the respective edges of the web but are spaced a distance slightly greater than the distance between the rollers 3 and I8, and both palms are disposed equal distances from the desired path of travel of the web. It is thus clear that the web I'I, during its meanderings. will engage either of the rollersl and it before it will engage either of the palms l5 and IS.
The palms ii and I6 are mounted on a bar 4 which actuates a bell crank lever 5 and thus affects the movement of the left hand bearing 59 of the roller i in a well known manner. The palms l5 and ii are however also interconnected with a system of control whereby the operation of the machine provided with the con- .trol system may be arrested when the web has deviated from its desired path to an extent to engage either one of the palms l5 or I 6.
During normalmeanderings of the web, either the roller 3 or the roller l8, as the case may be, is engaged by the web i'l thereby aifecting the movement of the bearing before the palms l5 and ii are engaged. This controlling 'action can probably be best understood by a study of the sequence of operation of the entire control system. I
. If it be assumed that the web I! is travelling in the direction indicated by the arrow on the web, namely, that the main machine is operating, being driven by a suitable source of motor power not forming part of our invention and it also be assumed that conductors 2| and 26 are suitably energized from a source of alternating 5 current power, then an energizing circuit is established from conductor 2| through the primary winding 22 of the transformer 23, conductor 24, contact member 25 of circuit breaker i9 to the conductor 26. Since the primary winding 22 is 10 energized, the secondary winding 21 will be energized, thus energizing the conductors 28 and 29.
As a part of the control system, a source of direct current power is also utilized and this 5 source of direct current power is connected to the buses 43 and 41. Buses 43 and 41 being energized, a circuit is established from bus 43 through resistor 49, conductor 49, back contact members 50 of the control relay 9. back contact members 5| of control relay 9 and conductor 52, to the energized bus 41. Another circuit is established from the bus 43 through resistor 44, neutralizing coil 45 of the time limit relay TL and conductor 45 to the bus 41. The time limit 25 relay TL is also provided with a magnetizing coil 53 but since the back contact members 50 and 5| are closed, the magnetizing coil 53 is shunted and in consequence the time limit relay will not have operated at this stage of operation.
As the web IT meanders back and forth on the roll I, it will come in contact with either the roller 3 or the roller l9 if its meandering exceeds a predetermined value. If web ll makes 35 contact with roller 3, a circuit is established from the ground G through conductor 29, principal electrode of electric discharge device 1, control electrode 3|, resistor 33, roller 3. web I! to the bearing of the guide roll I and back to the 40 ground G. Since conductors 28 and 29 are energized, the establishment of the circuit between the roller 3 and web I! changes the bias of the control electrode 3! and thus causes the electric discharge device to break down. A break- 45 down of the electric discharge device I establishes a circuit from conductor 29, through the principal electrodes 30 and 34 of the discharge device I, the actuating coil 35 and the condenser 35 of the control relay 9 and conductor 31 50 to the energized conductor 23.
Operation of the control relay 9 establishes a circuit from the energized conductor 2i through conductor 33, actuating coil 39 of the magnetic device l2, conductor 49, contact mem- 05 bers 4| of control relay 9, and conductor 42 to the energized conductor '24. Energization of the coil 39 causes the movement of the bar 4 towards the left through the interconnecting link 51 and in consequence the left hand bearing of 60 the roll I is shifted in such a direction as to cause the web to travel to its central position, that is, towards the right and away from the roller 3.
Before the circuit for the control electrode 3! 65 of the tube I is interrupted at the roller 3, the
time limit relay TL will close its contact members 55 since the operation of the control relay 9 opened the shunt for the magnetizing coil 53 at the contact members 59. With the operation 70 of the time limit relay, a circuit is established from the energized conductor 39 through both of the centering coils l3 and I4 of the magnetic device l2, conductor 54, contact members 55 and conductor 59 to the energized conductor 24. As 75 long as coil 39 is energized the eifect of coils cross REFERENCE l3 and I4 will not center the bar 4. This is a desirable operation because the left hand bearing is to be shifted as long as the web makes contact at the roller 3. However, the instant the contact is broken at roller 3, the discharge at the discharge device I ceases and in consequence the control relay 9 is deenergized. Deenergization of the control relay 9 deenergizes the coil 39 and also shunts the magnetizing coil 53 of the time limit relay TL. After a comparatively short but predetermined interval of time, the contact members 55 move to open circuit position and deenergize the centering coils l3 and I4. However, since the coil 39 was deenergized a definite time previous to the deenergization of the coils l3 and I4, the bar 4 will be moved to its central position.
If the web should move towards the right, engaging the roller l8, the bias of the control electrode 65 of the tube 5 is changed by the circuit from the ground G through the electrodes 64 and 65, resistor 66 and conductor 61, roller l3, web ll, and guide roll I to the ground G. The discharge device 6 is thus caused to break down. establishing a circuit for the coil 59 and condenser ll! of the control relay 8, through the principal electrodes 64 and 68 of the device 6 and conductor ll Operation of the control relay 8 closes the contact members 14, thus establishing a circuit from the energized conductor 38, through coil 12 of the magnetic device l2, conductor l3 and through contact members 14 to the energized conductor 42. Energization of the coil 12 actuates the bell crank lever 5 in an opposite sense than heretofore described and moves the roll I in such a direction as to move the web towards the left and away from roller l8. Since the control relay 8 also interrupts the shunt for the magnetizing coil 53 at the contact members 5| the action of the time limit relay TL and the recentering of the bar 4 will be the same as heretoi'ore discussed in connection with a deviation of the web I! towards the left.-
If for any reason the system of control heretofore discussed is not fast enough in its operation or if, because of defects in the web, the web moves either towards the right or towards the left faster than the correction affected by the movement of the bearing, the palm l5 or l6, depending on the direction of motion of the web. would be engaged, thereby establishing a circuit from the ground G, through the secondary 21, conductor 23, coil 50 of the circuit breaker l9, conductor 3| and the particular palm engaged by the web I! back to the ground G. The circuit breaker l9 is'caused to operate opening the circuit for the transformer 23 at the contact members 25 and also establishing a circuit at contact members 62 for the signal 53. The attendant is thus apprised of the trouble or improper operation of the machine and may thus stop the entire machine to make the necessary adjustments. Similarly, if for some cause, both the rollers 3 and i8 are engaged, contact members 15 and 16 are moved to circuit closing position, thus energizing the circuit breaker I9 and the signal 63 in a similar manner.
In the system of control shown in Fig. 2, photoelectric devices are utilized to control the path of the web and the contact rollers 3 and H! are dispensed with. The system of control shown in Fig. 2 may also be used in combination with the mechanical control for controlling the position of the bearing. for indicating excessive deviations, and for disconnecting the source of energy EXANHNER shown in Fig. 1. However, in most cases, the mechanical system of control may be dispensed with entirely because the modification shown in Fig. 1 in itself embodies safety features which make the mechanical control scheme all but superfluous.
when utilizing a portion of the safety features shown in Fig. 1 with the modifications shown in Figs. 2 and 3 their function remains the same. If the indicating or signalling means and stopping means of Fig. 1 are used with Figs. 2 and 3, their function remains the same.
In Figs. 2 and 3, if the web contacts palm I8 or I6, as the case may be, a circuit is established from the grounded conductor through the machine, the particular palm that may have been contacted by-the web, through actuating coil 80 of the circuit breaker I8 to the conductor I08, Fig. 2, or conductor 208, Fig. 3, depending upon the system with which the indicating and stopping means are used.
Assuming that the printing press or the paper machine, as the case may be, is in operation and the web 82 is traversing the rolls 80 and 83.
' The roll 83 may have fixed bearings 84 and 85 because it is well known that if the angular position of but one roll with reference to the ax s of the other roll is changed the web may be caused to move either towards the right or towards the left. Further, let it be assumed that the switches S and 26 are closed, thus connecting the energized buses I and I86 to the conductors III and I05, respectively. This operation establishes circuits for the lights I88 and III and a circuit from the conductor III through conductor I82,
through the primary windings I03 and I81 of the transformers T and T, respectively, and conductor I04 to the energized conductor I85. Energization of the two transformers obviously causes the two secondary windings H8 and I43 to place a certain .potential between the cathodes I20 and I44 and the control electrodes I23 and I41 of the respective electric discharge devices shown.
A pair of photo-electric cells I26 and I48 is disposed adjacent the edges of the web and a pair of lights I09 and III is disposed to cooperate with the respective photo eiectric cells. The arrangement and spacing of the lights and photo-electric cells are such that light falls on both of the cells when the web is travelling in the desired path. However, if during operation the web deviates from its desired path, intercepting the light falling on either of the photo-electric cells. the bias on the respective control grid I23 or I41. as the case may be. is changed and the particular electric discharge device afi'ected breaks down to establish a circuit for the control relay associated therewith.
If it be assumed that the web travels towards the left, intercepting the light passing from the source of light I09 to the photo-electric cell I26. the'biason the control grid I23 is changed and in consequence an energizing circuit is established from the transformer T, through conductor 8, the principal electrodes I20 and I24, conductor I21, resistor I28, actuating coil I20 of control relay I 3| and conductor I30 to the transformer T. Operation of the control relay I3I causes the opening of its upper contact members to deenergize the transfer relay I34, should it be energized,
and'causes the closing of its lower contact members I35. Closing 'of the lower contact members I35 establishes a circuit from conductor Ill through contact members I35, actuating coil I36 of the transfer relay I33 and conductor I31 to the energized conductor I05. Transfer relay I33 establishes its own hold-in circuit through back contact members I38 of relay I32 and contact members I39.
With the operation of the transfer relay I33 the contact members II4 are moved to open circuit position, thereby causing the deenergization of the motor 88 in a manner more explicitly stated hereinafter. Operation of the transfer relay I33 also causes the energization of the directional contactor R, by a circuit which extends from conductor IOI, through conductor I40, contact members I and actuating coil I42 of contactor R to conductor I06.. With the closing of the directional contactor R, the motor 89 is energized from conductor 9i, contact members 52, field winding 92', the motor armature and the starting resistor shown to the conductor 9i The bearing 86 is thus moved, through the reduction gear 88 and worm 81, so as to move the web towards the right.
As the bearing 86 is shifted with reference to pivot 8| the web 82 moves toward the right,
thereby ceasing to intercept the light falling on the photo cell I26. The instant the web has moved towards the right by an amount sumcient to permit the light to fall on the photo-cell, control relay I3I is deenergized. However, deenergization of the control relay I3l does not at this stage of operation stop the movement of the web towards the right, since the transfer relay I33 remains energized through its holding circuit through the contact members I38 and I39.
As the web moves toward the right, the light falling on the photo-cell I49 is intercepted and the bias on the control grid I41 is suitably changed. In consequence, the right-hand discharge device establishes a circuit from the transformer T through principal electrodes I44 and I48, resistor I60, actuating coil iii of relay I32, andconductor I62 to the transformer T. Operation of the control relay I32 causes the deenergization of the transfer relay I33 by the opening of the contact members I38 of relay I32, so that the directional contactor R is deenergized. Further, closing of the contact members I53 of relay I32 establishes a circuit from conductor IOI through contact members I53,'actuating coil I84 of the transfer relay I34. and conductor I88 to the energized conductor I05. The transfer relay I34 is thus actuated, causing the energization of the directional contactor L, by
the energization of coil II6 thereof through con- I3I and I32 may be suitably deenergized and the direction of operation of the motor 89 maybe manually determined by shifting the switch II5 back and forth to successively energize either the directional contactor R or the directional contactor L by the circuit through conductor I I2 and contact members H3 and H4.
In the modification shown in Fig. 3, provision is made to protect the equipment generally by a system of control which provides for the movement of the web along a certain path until, say, one of the lights fail and then the web is shifted slightly and is moved along a path parallel-to the first path and removed a short distance from the original path. 1
Assuming that conductors 2M and 206 are suitably energized and that the two transformers T and T' shown are energized. Further assuming that the switches 268 and 2l5 are also closed so that the lower control circuit per se is suitably energized. From the first assumption, it will be apparent that the lights 235 and 236 are energized and that the electric discharge devices provided with a grid bias circuit embodying the two resistors 238 and 239 and two condensers 240 and 2, respectively, are also suitably energized.
At the control circuit it will be apparent that an energized circuit is established from conductor 209 through conductor 210, neutralizing coil 2 of time-limit relay 22!, and neutralizing coil 2l2 of the second time-limitrelay M9, and resistor 2l3 to the energizing conductor 2. If it be assumed that the machine is in operation, as heretofore explained in connection with the discussion of the modifications shown in Figs. 1
and 2, and that the lights 235 and 236 are suit-- ably energized, as is apparent from an inspection of the drawings, then if the web is in the proper position and, at the time under considera tion, is shifting or meandering towards the left and the light falling on the photoelectric cell 234 is intercepted, the control relay 242 will be energized.
That the web will, in the absence of other influences, move toward the left, is apparent from the fact that the motor armature 225 will normally rotate in such direction that the web will be shifted toward the left if switch 222 is kept in the position shown. With switch 222 in the position shown, a circuit is established from conductor 209 through conductor 2| 1, armature 218 of time-limit relay 2l9, armature 220 of timelimit relay 221, switch 222 and actuating coil 223 of directional contactor L to the conductor 2. A motor circuit is thus established from the conductor 209, through resistor 224, armature 225, field winding 226 and contactor 221, to the conductor 2H and the motor shifts the bearing 236 to cause the web 282 to move toward the left.
opened. It is thus apparent that on reverse operation a discharge path will be established for the magnetizing coil 246 before the contact members 244, for energizing the magnetizing coil 246 are moved to open-circuit position.
Attention is called to the circuit established from conductor 209 through conductor 248, contact members 249 of the lower time-limit relay 2i9, and the actuating coil 250 of the directional contactor R to conductor 2. The motor 225 for shifting the bearing 286 of the roll 280 will.
thus be energized from conductor 209 through resistor 224, armature winding 225, field winding 292, and contact members 292 of the contactor R to the conductor 2 and the left-hand bearing of the roll will be so shifted that the web will move towards the right.
For the circuits established as just discussed, the web 282 will shift towards the right by an ductor 2 I 4.
amount just sufiicient to permit the light from the light source 235 to fall on the photo-cell 234. When this happens the control relay 242 will be deenergized, closing the contact members 241 an instant before the contact members 244 are opened, thereby establishing a shunt circuit for the magnetizing coil 246, of the time limit relay 219. The time-limit relay 2I9 will thus remain in its energized position for a predetermined interval of time, depending upon its adjustment. After the interval of time has elapsed, the back contact members of time-limit relay 2l9 are closed, thereupon establishing a circuit for the directional contactor L an instant after the energizing circuit for the directional contactor R has been interrupted at the contact members 249. The web will thus be shifted towards the left until the web again intercepts the light passing from light 235 to light sensitive device 234 and causing the motor to again shift the bearing 286 so that the web is shifted towards the right.
The cycle of operation heretofore discussed is repeated indefinitely, so that the left edge of the web 282 is maintained in line with the beam of light at the left side of the machine. If, for any reason, the light 235 fails, the control relay 242 remains energized, whereupon the contact members 244 thereof remain closed, thereby causing the contact members 249 of relay M9 to remain closed, so that the motor, through the directional'contactor R, continues to operate and shift the web 282 towards the right by an amount suiiicient that the light passing from the light 236 to the photo-cell 231 is intercepted, whereupon the control relay 252 is energized, closing the contact members 254, 255, and opening the contact members 256 thereof. Closing of the contact members 254 does not cause the operation of the time-limit relay 22l because the contact members 253 are held open by the control relay 242. However, since the control relay 252 also opens the contact members 245, the time-limit relay 219 is deenergized, and after a predetermined interval of time, the motor operating the bearing 286 is energized to shift the web towards the left. This is accomplished by the circuit from conductor 209 through conductor 2|1, armatures M8 and 220, switch 222 and actuating coil 223 of the directional contactor L to the energized con- The directional contactor L being thus energized, causes the motor 225 to operate in such a direction as to shift the web towards the left. However, as soon as the light passing between light 236 and light sensitive device 231 is not intercepted, the contact members 245 close, therebycausing the closing of the contact members 249 and 292 and the opening of the circuit for the actuating coil 223 at the back contact members of 'the time-limit relay 2|9. The web will thus be shifted towards the right until the light is again intercepted at the photo-cell 231.
.the failure of both lights, both directional contactors will, of course, be energized, but since the motor is a splitfield-series motor, it will not operate, but will merely be connected across the line with the two field windings 226 and 292' acting in opposition to each other.
From the modification disclosed in Fig. 3, it
5 is obvious that if switch 222 be shifted to the dotted-line position, the method of operation will be changed slightly, namely, initially the right photo-cell 231 will be utilized and if the light 236 should fail, then the web will be shifted to- 10 wards the left and operate on the left side until the light 236 has been replaced. It should be apparent that the system of control shown and described in Fig. 3 may be utilized in combination with the conventional mechanical methods 15 of shifting the bearing 286 now utilized, or in combination with palms l5 and I6 and the circuits associated therewith and when so combined, provide an added safety feature to prevent any shut-downs, which of necessity are dangerous 2 and expensive in the paper making industry.
Applicants are, of course, aware that those skilled in the art, after having had the benefit of the teachings of applicants invention, could devise other circuit diagrams and control sys- 25 tems for accomplishing the desirable results described in this invention, but applicants wish only to be limited by the pertinent prior art and by the scope of the claims appended hereto.
We claim as our invention:
1. In a control system for a machine operating on web material, the combination of, photoelectric means disposed adjacent each edge of the material, control circuits subject to the control of said photo-electric means and web-shift- 35 ing means, coacting with said control circuits,
for maintaining one edge of said web adjacent one photo-electric means and means, responsive to a partial failure of said control circuits, controlling said web-shifting means for shifting said 40 web of material so that its other edge is maintained adjacent the other of said photo-electric means.
2. In a control system for a machine operating on webs of material that are subject to 45 meander from a desired path of travel, a plurality of rolls for supporting and causing a web of material to travel in a given direction, photoelectric means disposed adjacent the edges of the web, lights disposed to normally act on said 50 photo-electric devices but which cease to act on said photo-electric devices when the web meanders to a position to intercept the light passing to said devices, and means responsive to the operation of said photo-electric devices for caus- 55 ing the axis of one of said rolls to be disposed at an angle to the axes of the other rolls to thus shift the web back to the desired path of travel.
3. In a control system for a machine operating on web material to move the web in a certain direction, in combination, web shifting means for causing the web to shift to and fro transversely of the general direction of motion of the web by a small amount, and electronic means, responsive to a predetermined shift of said web, adapted to control said web shifting means to cause the web to followa given path, said electronic means including control means responsive to the failure of a part of said electronic means to cause said web to shift to and fro a small amount to thus follow another given path.
4. In a control system for a machine operating on web material to move the web in a certain general direction, in combination, web shifting means for causing the web to shift to and fro a small amount transversely of the general direction of motion of the web, and electronic means disposed adiacent the edges of the web and responsive to a predetermined transverse movement of the web to control said web shifting means whereby the web is caused to follow a desired path of travel, said electronic means including control means, responsive to a failure of a part of said electronic means at one edge of the web, to cause said web to shift to and fro a small amount to thus follow a path parallel to the first path but still within the range of the desired path.
5. In a control system for a machine operating on web material to move the web in a certain general direction, in combination, web shifting means for causing the web to shift to and fro a small amount transversely of the general direction of motion of the web, and electronic means comprising two groups, each group having a plurality of elements, one group being disposed at one edge of the web and the other group being disposed at the other edge of the web, said electronic means being responsive to transverse movements of the web and adapted to control the web shifting means whereby the web is caused to follow a desired path of travel, said electronic means also including control means responsive to the failure of any number of the elements of one group of said electronic means to cause the web to shift to and fro a small amount to thus follow a path parallel to said first path but still within the range of the desired path.
FINN H. GUILIKSEN. STEPHEN A. STAEGE.