US 2075373 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 30, 1937.
BUILDING MATERIAL Filed Aug. 5, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet l all.
INVENTOR. Jaim Tomec.
A TTORNE Y.
March 30, 1937. J. TOMEC BUILDING MATERIAL Filed Aug. 3, 1955 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 m. w m N I John Tomec. @MM/M.
ATTORNEY Figi? Patented Mar. 30, 1937 UNITED STATES BUILDING MATERIAL John Tomec, Trenton, N. J.
Application August 3,
My invention relates to building materials and particularly to constructions adapted to be embodied in products such as shingles, sidings, and the like for use on the exterior of a building or 5 in Wallboards, panels or the like for use on the interior of a building. My invention is also adapted for use as a base to which stucco, plaster, cement or composition materials may be applied in the construction of Walls, ceilings, roofs or io iioors which are built up in place.
'Building materials such as wall boards, shinh1 sies and tidings as well as built up roofs flooring have been produced heretofore in which there is a base member or backing to which. one
i5 or more layers of material such as cement, asphait or stucco are applied. The exposed sur@ :faces of suoli products in some instances are with or given, a design or appearance to simulate brick, stone, tile, or other comrentionai fr@ building materi While suoli noducts are made in great vam :tiety of 4forms from many different mate riale there is a 'tendency for the products to warp or for one or more layers to crack, peel off, or buckle clue to unequal expansion and' con 'traction of the layers oi. material. When products are secured in place diierencesin expansion and contraction, of the products themselves and the structure to which they are ap- ?c plied frequently cause strains in the material which result .in cracking, warping, Abuckling or peeling of the product. Furthermore such products are relatively expensive and any thiol:- ening ci one or more layers to reduce warping so and cracking serves to increase the weight, bulli K and cost of the product still further and does not always overcome the difculties inherent in such constructions,
In accordance with my invention these diffi- 40 culties and disadvantages in prior constructions are overcome and a light, durable and inex- 1 pensive product is produced. The products preferably comprise a plurality of layers which are r capable of limited movement with respect to a 4" base or backing or with respect to the structure to which they are applied. Further, my invention embodies novel methods and means for securing the surface or wear receiving layer to a backing or structure by which it is carried.
One of the objects of my invention is to proma vide a novel type of building material which is light, durable and inexpensive.
Another object of my invention is to provide 55 building material formed of a plurality o! lay 1935, Serial No. 34,510
ers which are capable of limited movement with respect to a base or supporting structure.
A further object of my invention is to provide a building unit embodying means serving to taire up differences in expansion and. contraetiou of portions of the unit.
Another object of my invention is to provide a novel form of retaining means by which cement, plaster, stucco, asphalt or other materials may be secured to a backing or support.
Stili another object of my invention is to re duce or eliminate warping, cracking and buckling of building units and the These and other objects and features oi my invention will appear from the following den scriptioo thereof in which reference is made to the accompanying 1figures oi the drawings Wi'ieren in illustrative embodiments oi my invention are shown.
in the drawings:
i is perspective a building unit ems bodyirig invention with parte thereof brom lien away;
2 is vertical sectional view ci? the cori struction illustrated in Fig. l teiten on the line Zwii;
Fig. il is e. perspective oi an alternative form. oi retaining means that may be used. in the coristructiori oi products embodying my invention;
Fig. 'i is a sectional View oi the construction of Fig. It teiten on the line tml;
Fig. 5 is a perspective o?? a further alternative form of product embodying my invention with parts broken away Fig. (i is a sectional view of my invention as used in .forming a built up structure such as a wall or roof;
Fig. 'l is a perspective of a lieizible construction embodying my invention with parts broken away; and
Fig. 8 is a vertical sectional view of a further alternative construction embodying my invention.
poses of illustration in Figs. 1 and 2 of the draw ings my invention is shown as embodied in a unit such as siding material or the like to be applied to the exterior of a building."V The unit com prises a base member or backing 2 which may be formed of any suitable material such as a pre formed sheet of paper, cardboard, plaster board, fiber board, cement-asbestos material, gypsum board or the like. The base may be of any desired weight or thickness and may be formed to give the product heat or sound insulating proper- In that form of my invention chosen for pur or to pro lstance u ve the ldre -crater in forni. relatively Wear rece ng .lie retaining means which t.. layer in the con- C, is formed ci a upper sheet il. IThese r periorations ill the' overlap or extend beyond perforations oi the lower sheet ging edges thus provided permit the und the edges of the apertures in the upper e" so as to hold the surface layer iirrnly or otherwise as desired. lhe second layer made the sheets il and G is secured in turn to the l in same or any other suitable manner to provide a unitary product. Preierably the retaining means or adjacent layers of the product are of a yielding or compressible nature and yet suficiently strong to provide adequete support for the surface layer. Typical. of such materials are cardboard, pulp board, iiber board, wire mesh or expanded metal constructions and the like.
The surface layer il may be formed oi a plastic or other composition the nature of which will depend largely upon the character of the product to be produced. When forming a rigid sheet or unit the layer d may be formed of cement, plaster, stucco or other setting material applied in a plastic condition so that it will dow into and through the openings i@ in the upper sheet 8 and into the rear of the edges of the openings so as to provide an expanded or overhanging retaining portion extending beneath the upper sheet of the retaining means.
Products embodying my invention may be formed as flexible or semi-rigid sheets or units comparable with asphalt saturated felt products by the use of a suitable surface layer which may be formed of a composition such as linoleum, bitumen, pitch or asphalt and may have granulated slate or the like embedded or incorporated therein. The exposed surface of either flexible or rigid constructions may be embossed or otherwise formed to give the desired appearance and may be made to simulate brick, stone, shingles or the like as needed or preferred. The embossing operation also serves to force the material of the surface layer through the perforations in the sheet E and into contact with the base member especially when the location of the depressed areas and perforations coincide.
As shown in Figs. 3 and 4 the retaining means may be formed by providing relatively large apertures or openings I2 in the lower sheet I4 and smaller openings I6 in the upper sheet I8. Each of the openings i6 thus overhangs the edges of the corresponding openings I2 in the lower sheet 75 on all sides thereof. The openings I6 are thereformed ci suitable coI Y cross cited, et.. or roughened to receive plaster or stucco. up in manner i secured in place on l or buil Thereafter l meisten the surface and layer of stucco or pia-ster surface.
if the roughened layer il@ formed to simulate a matte bi struction it may be used directly without the finish layer 22 so that the same unit can be used throughout the building both inside and out and the desired inish applied as desired to any sur- :face or portion to give an attractive and suitable appearance.
In Eg. 6 oi the dra-Wings, l have illustrated a construction adapted for use in forming a built up floor, Wall or roof. The base layer Zilli may be wooden sheeting, tar paper, building paper or the like Whereas the retaining means ib may be any of those shown or described in connection with Figs. l, 2 or i or of any other suitable or preferred construction. The surface layer 2li may loe a suitable bituminous cement or concrete mixture, a linoleum composition or other material adapted for use on iloors, walls or roofs to give the necessary or desired wearing characteristics and appearance.
The construction of Fig. 7 is designed for use as siding, roofing and the like and embodies a backing @il oi light paper, saturated felt or the like. The retaining means comprises two layers 32 and 34 whereas the surface layer is made up or" the composition 36 having granular material embedded therein. As shown the edges of the material may be formed to provide a suitable overlap by constructing the edges 38 of the backing 3U and the lower layer 32 of the retaining means so that they project beyond the adjacent edge of the upper layer 3d of the retaining means and the surface layer 3G.
The opposite edges 40 of the upper layer 34 of the retaining means and the surface layer 36 extend beyond the adjacent edges of the lower layer 32 and the backing 30. The units may thus be laid with the edges overlapping and secured by pitch or cement or by pressing the parts together so as to cause the upper and lower layers of the retaining means to be rmly bonded togather.
In each of the forms of my invention described it will be noted that the material or composition of the surface layer is not bonded directly to the base member or backing so that limited relative movement of the surface layer and of the backing can take place and any strains which would otherwise cause warping, cracking or buckling of the products are taken up by the retaining means and are not transmitted to the other elements of the construction. Thus for example it is possible to produce light and inexpensive products with a suitable thin sheet of material as a backing and to use cardboard or expanded metal as the retaining means, securing aovasvs the retaining means to the hase by staples, adhesive or cement. il. suitable surface layer of an entirely different character from the base can then he applied to the retaining means, and any expansion or contraction lthereof will be relieved hy compression or nexing of the relatively light and ilexilole retaining means, In this way a durable product is provided and warping or cracking thereof is reduced or eliminated altogether. The difficulties inherent in heavier, and more expen-s sive products are thereby overcome and a very lnexpensive, light Weight product produced.
In the form of my invention shown in Fig. ii oi the drawings, the construction is simplliied hy .forming the hase d'2 of the material with a corrugated or indented surface and using only a sheet i4 of perforated material with the opening it therein located alcove the indentations or corrugations it in the hase. ln this way a space is provided beneath the edges of the openings into which material of the surface layer 5d may extend. The hase may he formed oi' plaster hoard or the like or may he made oi saturated ielt 'to provide either a iiexiloie or rigid product. it should however, have suiiicient body to insure the presence of spaces beneath the edges of the openings it during formation of the sheet or until the surface layer has heen applied thereto.
The size of the hase may he varied as desired and can conveniently he made in sizes to he applied either to the floor ci a room or to he used as shingles upon a roof. The sheet 44 may he rnade of very thin sheet metal to give strength and iire resistant properties to the product. At the same time the product may be flexible due to the iiexiloility of the sheet material. If preerred the sheet may loe made of paper, cardv hoard, or other material as desired and the surface layer may loe made of a plastic setting material to produce a rigid product or of a exible material such as asphalt, rubber or other suitable material with or Without slate or granular material thereon.
As shown in Fig. 8, the surface layer may loe continuous as shown inthe portion A and may loe plaster, stucco or other material. The surface layer may in the alternative be formed as in the portion B of Fig. d to give a stone or tile edect wherein the parts lit and 5t of the surface layer are of different color or composition and an. intervening portion lit is provided which may he ush with the suriace ci the parts 52 and t4 hut of a different color or appearance to simulate mortar or cement. Further the portions of the surface layer may he embossed orotherwise formed as shown at 5t in the portion C of Fig. t to give other decorative effects as desired.
This type or' product is not only relatively in= expensive to produce hut can be made very rapidly and easily to provide a Wide range of attractive and useful products.
While I have illustrated and described certain typical embodiments of my invention as applied to building units and built up constructions it should be clearly understood that my invention is capable of use in a great variety of forms and may embody any of a great variety of materials. For this reason I do not wish my invention to be interpreted as limited to those forms thereof specifically referred to herein except as deilned by the claims.
l. Building material embodying two sheets each formed with openings therein, the openings in one sheet having the edges thereof overlapping the edges of the openings in the other sheet and a plastic layer of vvear receiving niaterial applied to and covering the suriace of one sheet only and extending through the openings in said sheet and into the openings in the other sheet.
2. Building material comprising a hacking, tivo layers or material carried by said hacking and each formed with openings therethrough, the openings in one sheet having the edges thereof overlapping the edges of the "openings in the other sheet and material applied to one of said sheets extending through the openings therein and into the openings in the other sheet and ooniined therein icy said hacking.
3. Building material having embodied therein two sheets oi material each of which has open ings ieri/ned therein, said sheets heine; positioned with the edges of the openings in one sheet overs lapping the edges of the openings in the other sheet and material applied to one of said sheets extending through the openings therein and into openings in the other sheet and extending behind an edge oi the openings in the rst sheet and a sheet ci hacking rnaterial enclosing the openings in said second sheet and covering material extending into the openings therein.
Building material in the forno of a iiat sheet adapted to loe used as wall locardor siding material having embodied therein two sheets of material each ol which has openings formed there in, said sheets loeing positioned with the edges of the openings in one sheet overlapping the edges of the openings in the adjacent sheet and plastic material applied to one sheet extending through the openings therein and into the openings in the adjacent sheet and expanded into interlocking relation Withthe edges of the openings in the ilrst sheet and a sheet oz hacking material secured to said other sheet and enclosing the openings therein.
5. Building material comprising a thin layer of hackingl material having two sheets of material carried by said hacking and each formed with openings therethrough, the openings in one sheet having the edges thereof overlapping the edges of the openings in the other sheet and a. wear resisting layer carried hy one of said sheets and extending into said openings.
o. Building material comprising a, backing formed of paper, two sheets of material substantially heavier than said hacking to which said hacking is secured, each of which sheets has openings iorrned therein, said sheets heing positioned with the edges o the openings in onev sheet overlapping the edges ci the openings in the other sheet and plastic material applied to one sheet extending through the openings therein and into the openings in the adjacent sheet and expanded into interlocking relation with the edges of the openings in the nrst sheet.
7. A structural unit comprising two apertured layers of material, the openings in said layers being in communication and those of one layer being smaller than those in the other, material applied to that layer having the smaller openings extending therethrough into the openings in the other layer.
8. Building material comprising a sheet formed with openings therein and an overlying member having smaller openings therein communicating with the openings in said sheet and a plastic layer of Wear receiving material applied to one sheet extending through the openings in said sheet and into the openings in the other sheet.
9. A rigid building unit comprising a backing, two layers each formed with openings therein,
the openings in one sheet having the edges thereo overlapping the edges of the openings in the 5 other sheet and a layer of cementitious material applied to one layer and extending into the' openings in the other.
10. A building unit comprising a base member, a sheet of material overlying said base mem- 10 ber and formed with openings therein, means on said base member providing spaces beneath said openings extending beyond the edges thereof and aorasvs