US 2075403 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 30, 1937. s. K. NESTER APPARATUS FOR DISPERSING MATERIALS Original Filed June 21, 1932 F/an mm M p. 1 Il 4 1 1 j M Y ma 3. w M r m n v, m M 5 a m a "M 7 f i '3 Z m r z w a Z? 7 U -2 2 M 1 4 4 3 a a a 2. w. a wmw w -H Em- M M F m z w w H. M M 4 5 a w w a W 5 Patented Mar. 30, 1937 Arman-ms non msransme m'raams Samuel K. Nestor, Geneva, N. Y., assignor to Geneva Processes, In'c.-, Geneva, N. Y., a corporation of New York Application June 21, 1932, Serial Nor 618,576
' Renewed May 26, 1936 3 Claims. (ci. 83-93)" This invention relates in general to colloid mills, and more particularly has reference to an apparatus for dispersing materials which melt or become soft'ata temperature above that at which 5 water boils.
Previous to this time, processes of this character'have been'pr'acticed in a closed system, and the pressure on the material operated upon has thus been maintained throughout the process, 10 through and including a final cooling step. The 'maintenance of a closed system throughout the process-is deemed undesirable, and it is the purpose of this invention to provide a process and apparatus for carrying on the operation specifled,'in" which the'pressure on the material is released prior to the cooling. 1 Although the products to be hereinafter described are obtained through an emulsiflcation method, it will be clearly-understood that the end product is not an emulsion but a dispersion of-.solids in-a liquid medium; that is, a colloidal suspension is produced. r
The materials which it is contemplated toemploy in accordance with this invention, as al- 25 ready stated, are of the character which melt or become soft at a temperature above thatat which water boils. Foremost among those principally contemplated for use in conjunction with this invention are sulphur, asphalt, waxes, etc. The end product is usable in cases where an emulsion or dispersion is desirable in place of the same material letdown with a. solvent; or where the material is desired in a finely divided state, equivalent to flne "grinding.
.The process provides forv adapting these materialsfto use, such as for example, the use of sulphur" in insecticides; rubber compounds, or pharmaceutical products; the use of asphalts,
waxes, resins, and so 'on, for-water-prooflng, im-
40 pregnating paper, textiles, and soon, or aspaints,
or water-prooflng material with or without combinationfwith' micayasbestos, and so on, or for- 'b' f in -intoi'difierent shapes and forms.
'f bbject-of this invention, therefore, is to pmvide 'afpmcess for persingzmaterials which melt or becomesoft' at a temperature above th t atwhich water' boilsi a becom'ei'softi' at atemperature above that at hich water-boils: sum another"01 119 17 of this: invention is to provide agprocessa for dispersing materials which melt or become soft at a temperature above that '55 at which water bells, and in which a pressure Another object of, thistinvention -is '.to provide. apparatus forzdispersing materials which melt placed upon the material operated upon is released prior to the cooling step.
' A-further object of this invention is to provide a process and apparatus for dispersing materials which melt or become soft at a temperature above that at which water bofils which may be carried on continuously.
With these and other objects in view, which may be incident to my improvements, the invention consists in'the parts and combinations to be hereinafter set forth and claimed, with the understanding that the several necessary elements comprising my invention may bevaried in construction, proportions and arrangement, without departing from the spirit and scope of the appended claims.
In order to make my invention more clearly understood, I have shown in the-accompanying drawing means for carrying the same into practical effect, without limiting the. improvements in their useful applications to the particular constructions, which for the purpose of explanation, have been made the subject of illustration. I
In the drawing,
Figure 1 is a front view, partly broken away, of my apparatus for carrying out my process of dispersing materials which melt or become soft at a temperature above that at which water boils;
Figure 2 is a-front fragmentary sectional view of a colloid'mill portion of my apparatus.
Referring more particularly by numerals to v the drawing-there is shown a colloid mill geni erally designated as I, having a plurality of kettles 2 and 3, connected jointly thereto for introducing the material between the rotor and stator surfaces thereof. The mill, as is better illuspower,v such as an electric. motor 4, mounted in -a housing 5, as shown in Figure 1, which is supported on legs 6.
' A frame is integrallyformed .on the motorwardly sloping faces Ill, formed. thereon, and
4 provided Withspacedfins 1 I. Internal jackets imam-provided within the faces Land an an- :nular flange i3-for receiving a rotorassembly. Theurotor ,l is keyed ;on the end of a shaft it which iscoupled to ashaft i5,- being the drive 'A n annular-flange It is for'med on the tenor the fins, ll for-receiving a' sleeve il in which the stator face 8 is adapted to be mounted. 'The trated in Figure 1, comprises a suitable source of Q &
sleeve I1 is formed with a lower annular flange l8 adapted to rest on the flange i6 for screwing thereon by bolts l9. The flange I6 is provided with flange 20, having bolts 2i extending there- 5 through for fixing the position of the sleeve I! thereon.
The sleeve I1 is externally threaded for receiving a threaded ring 22 having handles 23 mounted thereon. The stator surface 3 is integrally formed on a sleeve 24 having an integral top portion 25, and providing a jacket 26. The sleeve 24 carrying the stator surface 8 is formed with ,a top peripheral flange 2'! adapted to rest on the ring 22 mounted on the sleeve l1, and flxed thereon by nuts 23 secured on the bolts 29 seated in the top of the sleeve II.
It will be seen from the foregoing, that the stator surface 8 may be vertically and horizontally adjusted with respect to the rotor I. By
loosening the nuts 28 and rotating the ring 22, the sleeve 24, carrying the stator, may be raisedstator surfaces is adapted to be introduced through a line 30 having a threaded end for screw- 30 ing in the central aperture provided in the top 25 of the sleeve 28, carrying the stator surfaces.
The colloid mill thus cursorily described; excepting the dimensions of the rotor and stator surfaces for practice of my present process, is
fully disclosed and-claimed in my co-pending 'application Ser. No. 478,212, flied Aug. 27, 1930.
In accordance with the present invention, further, a Y-connection 3| is screwed on the inlet line 30 having lines 32 and 32' extending therefrom for connection to the kettles 2 and 3, which are provided with tapered ends 33 and 33', through elbows 34 and 34' and valves 35 and 35'. A conventional telescopic or flexible coupling 30' is interposed in the inlet line 30, to allow 'for vertical adjustment of the stator.
The kettles 2 and 3 are, as, is better shown in connection with kettle 2, provided with integral internal jackets 36 communicating with inlet and outlet steam lines 31 and 38, and 31' and 38'. The kettles are also equipped with closures 39 and 39' secured on the top rims thereof by 'nuts fill screwed on bolts 41 flxed in the rims thereof. Pressure gauges B2 and 42' are mounted in the closures. mounted on each closure and connected to suitable sources of current, having the drive shafts thereof M extending through center apertures in the closures and packing glands 45. A plurality of blades 26 are mounted on the shafts. These bladed shafts are adapted to provide a-suitable agitating mechanism. Manifestly, however, any other type of mechanism may be substituted, if found desirable.
While the colloid mill described herein is peculiarly adaptable to carrying out my present process,
it will be distinctly understood that my invention is in nowise restricted to application with this mechanism only, but is susceptible of practicewith any other suitablemachine.
In carrying out my process, the material to be operated on, such as sulphur, asphalt, wax, resin, etc., is adapted to be placed in the kettles 2 and 3 with water. There may be ,added to this mix any desirable stabilizer; In the case of sulphur,
the stabilizer may be a suitable gum,
I equal temperature.
Electric motors. 43 and 43' are also There may beused all varieties of stabilizers, such as soap, gums, starches, caseins, dextrin, ,and so on, or combinations of these. It will be distinctly understood that the invention is in no wise limited to any particularstabilizer formula for any particular mix operated upon.
For acting on sulphur, it has been found'that 60% sulphur and 4% gum and 36% water makes a very good sulphur dispersion. Higher concentrates do not tend to act as well, and lower co'hzfniirates than 50%, are not commercially prac- However, another typical formula for the dispersionof sulphur in accordance with my process may be sulphur 50%, dry casein in solution form 1%a%,water48 The mix of the material to be dispersed, together with the water and a stabilizer placed in the kettle, is adapted to be brought to a temperature which will melt or liquefy the ingredients ilaghrough circulation of steam in the jacketiof the ettle.
The containers may be filledwith the mix within an inch of the top when heat is supplied to raise the contents to approximately C. so that the water in theinixture produces a pressure of 25 to 30 pounds. This acts automatically, and after the mixture has been kept at the above mentioned temperature for a sufllcient time, under agitation by the rotation of the bladed shafts in the kettles, the'valve is opened, and the 'pre-mix from one kettle is allowed to flow to the mill.
During the heating step, the mixing paddle is kept running so that a fairly thorough mix is made of the melted solid and the ,water containing the emulsifying or dispersingagent.
The temperatures and pressures used are such as to raise the boiling point of water to temperature which is equivalent to that which is necessary to make liquid the material being operated upon. v
In some cases, such a temperature could go beyond that necessary for improvement of the flnal product. It is in no wise desired to place any limit on the amount of temperature .and pressure employed.
For example, theoretically, sulphur becomes liquid at 1 13 0.; nine pounds gauge pressure, which is nine pounds above atmospheric pressure, raising the boiling point of water to an The invention, as stated, is not confined to these exact temperatures and pressures, and each may be higher. In the table of absolute pressure, pounds per square inch atmospheric pressure is 14.7; therefore, nine pounds above that is approximately twenty-four pounds absolute pressure. 1
In all other substances acted upon the same treatment may be carried on according to the different temperatures at which they become liquid, and to which the boiling point may be raised, and the pressure regulated. When the material has been brought to a proper heat, the mill I previously heated by circulationv of steam through the jackets provided therein is set'running and the valve, for example, the valve 36, from one of the mixing kettles is opened for-the flow of material between the rotor'and. stator surfaces in the mill through'the inlet line'30.
By using a rotor and stator properly adjusted as to clearance and as to breadth of working surfaces the material is emulsified in the.ciearance at the top end of the rotor, and as it passes down through the clearance, themessure is' released, causing the material to harden, instantaneously, into a colloidal dispersion.
By .the time the-emulsion or dispersion has passed completely through the clearance, the
pressure has been released in the natural course, and the exterior phase is at such a temperature that the interior phase is completely hardened and'does not coalesce.
Experiments in running the material with rotors and stators of different thickness has demonstrated this theory to be true. With a thin rotor the materialdoes not have a chance to solidify before leaving the mill, so that it comes out in a sticky mass which immediately coalesces. By using a thicker rotor it is found that this does not occur, and that the material is ejected from the mill in the form of a very fine suspension, passing down the surface it between the blades ii for collection.
In the course of my process, there is little, if any, vaporization of the water, and the sulphur or other material hardens immediately, producing a fine dispersion which does not range over cerned, are obtained with sulphur for example,
whether it is ground cold as a solid or whether it is emulsified hot as a liquid to become a solid on While I have shown and described the pre-' ferred embodiment of my invention, I wish it to be understood that I do not confine myself to the precise details of construction .herein setforth, by way of illustration, asit is apparent that many changes and variations may be made therein, by those skilled in the art, without departing from the spirit of the invention, or exceeding the scope of the appended claims.
1. In an apparatus for dispersing materials having a melting point higher'than that at which a liquid in which the dispersion is to be efiected boils, a jacketed kettle for heating a mix of the materials with the liquid under pressure, an
agitator operating in the kettle, a colloid mill comprising rotor and stator elements having working surfaces between which the mix is adapted to be passed in a thin filni, a pressureconduit between the kettle and themill so that the mix is delivered to the input side of the working ao'm ios surfaces at the pressure in the kettle, jacketing means for the stator element, the rotor and stator surfaces being dimensioned and spaced to effect a dispersion of the materials in the liquid while maintaining the heated mix at a pressure that will retain the materials in liquid form, and a discharge chute into which the output from the working surfaces directly discharges, said chute being open to the atmosphere and permitting immediaterelease of-the pressure on the mix after passing between the working surfaces of the colloid mill so that there shall be a quick solidification of the material when it leaves such surfaces.
2. In an apparatus for dispersing materials having a melting point higher than that at which a liquid in which the dispersion is to be efiected boils, a jacketed kettle for heating a mix of the materials with the liquid under pressure, an agitator operating in the kettle, a colloid mill comprising rotor and stator elements having work- 7 ing surfaces between which the mix is adapted to be passed in a thin film, a pressure conduit between the kettle and the mill so that the mix is delivered to the input side of the working surfaces at the pressure in the kettle, jacketing means for the stator element, the rotor and stator surfaces being dimensioned and spaced to efiect a dispersion of the materials in the liquid while maintaining the heated mix at a pressure that will retain the materials in liquid form, and a plurality of discharge chutes into which the output from the working surfaces directly dis charges, said chutes being open to the atmosphere and permitting immediate release of the pressure 'on the mix after passing between the working surfaces of the colloid mill so that there shall be a quick solidification of the material when it leaves such surfaces.
3. "In an apparatus for dispersing materials having a melting point higher than that at which a liquid in which the dispersion is to be effected boils, a jacketed kettle for heating a mix of the materials with the liquid under pressure, an 'agitator operating in the kettle, a colloid mill commaintaining the heated mix at a pressure that will retain the materials in liquid form, outwardly and downwardly sloping discharge chutes into which the output from the working surfaces directly discharges, said chutes being open, to the atmosphere and permitting immediate release of the pressure on the mix after passing between the working surfaces of the colloid mill so that terial when it leaves such surfaces.
SAMUEL K. NESTER.
' there shall be a quick solidification of the ma-