US 2075688 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Fig/l ggz@ 9 Zi? A. E. ZDANSKY `ELLcTRomT1cAPPARATUS Filed Jan. lO, 1955 q! /15 x rlll'l March 30, 1937.
f. 8 @@w z Patented `Mar. 30, 1937 PATENT oFFlcE- ELECTBOLYTIC APPARATUS Arnold Ewald Zdanslxy, Berlin-Schonebers', Germany, assigner to Bamae-Mes'uin Aktienv gesellschaft, Berlin, Germany Application January 1o, 1935,' serial No. 1,225 2 claims. (Ci. aci-5) This invention relates to electrolytic apparatus for the decomposition of `water (or other liquids) of the type comprising a plurality of cell units assembled to a unitary structure after the fashion ofafilter-press.
The invention is particularlyconcerned with the circulation of the electrolyte in such an apparatus. This circulation is .essentialin order to cool the electrolyte, and to mix the water that is tobe decomposed uniformly with the electrolyte. The more intensively the circulation of the electrolyte proceeds, the more favourable is its effect on the electrclytic process, since it has beenascertained that too weak a circulation is accompanied by a rapid separationv of the electrolyte in the cathode, or anode, space. In general, the circulation is produced by me ns of circulation pumps, but this method has the drawback of intefering with the reliability of the working operations and (if increasing the expense ot thelprocess by the costof running the pmps. v
An attempt has therefore been made to set the electrolyte in motion by the dynamic action of the .eiiluent gases, and in order to bring about such a movement of theelectrolyte, there has been provided, in addition to the conduits leading the gases tol the receivers, other pipesleading from the receiverssto the bottoms of the cells. The entire system, receivers included, is illed with liquor. In operation, the liquor is set in motion, by the eiiluent gases, in such a manner that it is carried, with the gas, into the receivers, and led back to the bottom of the apparatus through the'additional pipes. The circulatorymovemenvt Aof the electrolyte thereby obtained is far too small for the electrolytic process and considerable separation still takes place; moreover, the cir- Aculation ceases entirely -as soon as the speciic gravity of the liquor in the individual cells prevents the entrance of the oncoming electrolyte, asthe result of increased back pressure.
The present invention brings about a particularly intensive circulation of the electrolyte sufficient for completelyv preventing separation of.
the electrolyte in the individual cells. Owing to the large quantities put into circulation by the application of the invention, adequate cooling vand uniform mixing of, the water used are also rendered possible. ,I
According to the invention, the increased circulation is obtained by leading the electrolyte from each separate cell into collecting mains common to all the cells and disposed directly above them through exceedingly short pipes provided for each cell, the pipes opening into the collectme mams at a higher level than that ofthe electrolyte' in -the mains. 'I'he arrangement is v such that the vdynamic action of the gases expels theliquor and gases freely into the collecting mains, and the electrolyte falls down on to the surface of the liquid. The gases, which are thus instantaneously separated from the electrolyte can be led away direct. From the collecting mains; the electrolyte is led back to tine cells through return pipes.
The amount of electrolyte in circulation can lo be controlled, at convenience, by suitably increasing or lessening the difference between the level ofthe liquid in the battery of cell units and the outlets of the projecting pipes.
In returning the" liquor, this may be passed 15 throughr a chamber located in the centre of the battery and provided with cooling means. The mixing of the distilled water' used can also be eifect d in said chamber.
A ypical embodiment of the invention is il- 2o lustrated on the accompanying drawing, .whereon:- Y
Fig. l shows the apparatus in part-sectional elevation;
Fig. 2'represents a section through a. single cell, 25 l on the line A-B of Fig. l; and
Fig. 3 represents a section through the central chamber of the apparatus on the line C-D of VFig. 1.
n The apparatus consists of a number of ad- 30 Jacently' disposed cells, each omposed of. the cell frame I WithAbuilt-in diap agm 2 and the electrode 5 faced by the cathode 3 and ano'de I. The latter are secured to the mainelectrode 5- by means of bolts 6. Each cell carries, at the 35 upper end, a pipe 1 on the oxygen side, and a. pipe 8 onth'e hydrogen side which pipes open to mains sections -9 and I0. Each cell also has a lower section I I (Fig. 2)r communicating with the cell frame by means of a nozzle pipe I2. In the middle of the apparatus, between vthe cells, is an isolated central chamber I3, the cross section of which is shown in Fig. 3. It is provided with two gas-collecting chambers I4 and I5, having lateral bores I6 and Il and gas-outlet pipes I8 45 and I9. The central chamber I3 is also provided A,with a central structure 20, to which (on the right and left) are Iattached two liquor-compensating contains a4 partition 2E, extending nearly tothe bottom, and a cooling coil 21.
` Assembly is eiected by setting the chamber I3 in the centre, and then the several adjoining electrodes and cells, on the bottom tie rods 3|, insulators 31 being interposed. Thev complete block is pressed together between` heavy 'end plates 28, 29, by means of the nuts 33 and the additional tie rods 3U. Dished springs 32 are provided to take up expansion. The end plates are provided with insulated bores, and the entire batl tery of units is mounted on insulators 34'.
Through the juxtaposition of the several cell frames l, and therefore of the secticus 9, I0, two tubular passages or mains closed by the end walls 28, 29, are formed above the cell frames and communicate with the central chamber I3 through the openings I6 and Il. The juxtaposition of the pipe sections II forms a passage which communicates with the central chamber I3, by way of the openings 25, and is also closed, at the ends, by the plates 28, 29.
The space Il of the central chamber I3, and the laterallyl adjoining passage or main formed by the sections 9, serve for collecting the oxygen. In a. corresponding manner, the space I5 of the central chamber I3 and the laterally adjoining passage or main formed by the sections I0 serve for collecting the hydrogen. The oxygen is led away through the branch I8, and the, hydrogen through the branch I9. The passage formed by the sections Il serves for the return of the electrolyte, and the supply of the water used from the central chamber I3 to the various cells of f the apparatus, by way of the small pipes I2 belonging one to each cell. The eiective apertures of these small pipes are varied (preferably by means of stops) according to their distance from the central chamber, thereby enabling equal quantities of electrolyte to be suplied to all the cells.
In operating thev apparatus, the central chamber andthe several cells are filled with electrolyte to the level S. The mouths 35 of the pipes 1, and the mouths 36 of the pipes 8, opening into the "mains sections 9 and Ill respectively, are
ona higher level than the surface S of the electrolyte, Consequently, the-gases formed during the electrolysis and issuing through the pipes 1 and 8", carry the electrolyte with them and allow it to falL-after the. manner of a gushing spring,
on to the surface S of the liquid in the mains 9, I0. The electrolyte flows thence to the central chamber I3, is cooled by the coil 21 and returns to the several cells through the passage formedntby the pipe sections II, and through the small pipes I2. Thus, as indicated by the arrows, the'eilectrolyte circulates through each h alf of the apparatus, and the circulation is assured by the higherVlevel of the outlets 35, 36 fromeach cell, as cinpared with the surface S of the liquid.
I claimz- 1. In electrolytic apparatus, for the decomposition of water or other liquid, the combination of a plurality of individual cell units assembled together and presenting collector mains for the evolved gases, conduits leading from the cells and opening into said mains above the level of the electrolyte therein, said collecting mains being located immediately above the cells and said conduits being accordingly very short to ensure substantially unhindered expulsion of the electrolyte from the cells with the evolved gases, a cooling chamber in communication with said mains, cooling means in said chamber, and con duits leading from said/cooling chamber to the cells.
2. Apparatus as claimed in claim 1, wherein said cooling chamber is disposed centrally between the assembled-cell units and has an inlet branch for the water or liquid to be decomposed.
ARNOLDv EWALD ZDAN SKY.