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Publication numberUS2075853 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 6, 1937
Filing dateAug 8, 1930
Priority dateAug 8, 1930
Publication numberUS 2075853 A, US 2075853A, US-A-2075853, US2075853 A, US2075853A
InventorsKanolt Clarence W
Original AssigneeKanolt Clarence W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Projection of pictures for viewing in stereoscopic relief
US 2075853 A
Images(3)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

3 Sheets-Sheet l Mamme IIII vApril 6, 1937. c. w. KANOLTJ PROJECTION OF PICTURES FOR VIEWING IN STEREOSCOPIC RELIEF Filed Aug. a, 19:50

APrll 6, 1937- c. w. KANoLT PROJECTION OF PICTURES FOR VIEWING IN STEREOSCOPIC RELIEF Filed Aug. 8, 1930 s sheets-sheet 2 April s, 1937.A C, w KANQLT 2,075,853

PROJECTION OF PICTURES FOR VIEWING IN STEREOSCOPIC RELIEF Filed Aug'. 8, 1930 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 Patented Apr. 6, 1937l UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Application smut a. 193s, serial No. 413,934

40 Claims.

This invention relates to projection systems for exhibiting projected motion or still pictures in stereoscopic relief to observers throughout a wide viewing angle without requiring individual viewing means at or near the eyes of each observer. Furthermore, the invention provides systems which enable front projection `of the pictures as in ordinary motion picture practice, as well as improved rear projection systems.

In the systems of the invention images of the depthograph or parallax panor 1 typeare employed. An image of this type may be described broadly as a composite image containing interlineated views of an object ileld as seen A from amultiplicity of points of view. It may also be regardedas a composite image composed of a large number of adjacent narrow lineated panels, different panels representing different elemental portions of the object on which the camera is focussed, and a single panel containing a lineated image of a single elemental portion of said object as seen from a multiplicity of .points of view. These panels have been variously termed elemental panoramas, "panoramic strips. sets of strips", etc., and each of the panels may be considered as composed of strips or elemental strips" representing the various viewpoints. Preferably the composite image contains an inilnite number of individual views, corresponding to a continuously changing viewpoint. Images of this general character may be conveniently produced by apparatus such, for example. as is described in my U. S. Patent No. 1,882,648.

In the systems of the present invention an image of the parallax panoramagram type is projected onto a viewing screen containing a series of curved reflecting or refracting optical elements in registry with the panels of the -pro- 4 to distribute horizontally the iight rays forming each panel in such a manner that each eye of an observer sees slightly diiferent portions of each panel, corresponding to slightly diiierent views of the object. If these views are correctly related, the observer can then see a picture of the object in stereoscopic relief. Means are also provided for vertical planar diiiusion of the projected beams of lilht.

Systems have heretofore been proposed in which `a parallax panoramagram image is projected onto. a translucent screen, such as ground glass. in front of which is placed a lined screen composed of alternate transparent and opaque 55 vertical stripes. Buch a viewing nstem is very jectd image. The optical elements are designed ineiiicient, however, since the opaque stripes cut oil' a large percentage of the projected light, and also because the translucent screen diffuses light in all directions, some useful and some not, thereby wasting a large portion of the light which 5 does pass through the lined screen. Furthermore, the system is useful only for rear projection, which is contrary to ordinary motion picture practice. 'I'he present invention enables eliminating these ineiilciencies and also makes front projection of the'pictures possible. Certain rear projection systems are also disclosed which have several advantages over the one just decribed.

Parallax panoramagrams may be of two types,.- so-called stereoscopic" parallax panoramagrams and fpseudoscopic parallax panoramagrams. A stereoscopic parallax panoramagram will exhibit correct stereoscopic relief when viewed as a transparency with a lined screen suitably spaced in frontvof it. A pseudoscopic parallax panoramagram viewed in this manner, however, will present a reversed or pseudoscopic relief, that is, objects in the background appear `to be nearer than objects in the foreground and vice versa. This pseudoscopic eii'ect may be partly obscured psychologically by the inconsistencies it produces in the picture, but the lack of stereoscopic relief will be readily apparent. The diiference in the two types lies in the order of the strip elements forming each oi' the llneated panels. When the picture is positioned right side up and correctly oriented from left to right, each pancl'of a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram contains near its right margin strips corresponding topoints of view near the left end of the range of positions' from which views were taken, and contains near its left margin strips corresponding to the right end of this range. In the pseudoscopic parallax panoramagram the order of strips within the panels is reversed. A pseudoscopic parallax panoramagram may be viewed in correct stereoscopic relief by viewing it as a transparency with a lined screen placed behind it, rather than in front of it. On the other hand, with this position of the lined screen a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram will exhibit pseudoscopie relief.

'Ihus with still pictures of either type. either stereoscopic or pseudoscopic relief may be obtained. depending on the position of the lined screen. When the pictures are to be projected,

, however, the systems heretofore proposed have required the use of parallax panoramagramaand have not been operable with pseudoscopic parallax panoramagrams. The present invention makes possible the use of either type, in projection systems.

stereoscopic pictures are also known of the type described in my U. S. Patent No. 1,935,471. These pictures are similar to those previously described but present changing aspects of an object both horizontally and vertically, and may be termed "diclinic to distinguish them from the type previously described which show changing aspects in one direction only, usually horizontally, and therefore may be termed monoclinic, The diclinic picture may be considered as comprising a number of vertical panels corresponding to those of the monocllnic pictures, each panel containing, in addition to the lineations representing a narrow portion of the object as seen from different horizontal positions, interlineated views of that particular narrow portion as seen from a multiplicity of different vertical positions, preferably an infinite number. Or, it may be considered as comprising .a large number of adjacent individual areas, each area recording a particular portion of the object as seen from different horizontal viewpoints and also from different vertical viewpoints, preferably continuously changing viewpoints.

The present invention provides means for exhibiting projected diclinic pictures in stereoscopic relief, as well as projected monoclinic pictures. With diclinic pictures the systems should be so constructed and adjusted that the reflecting or refracting optical elements of the screen register with the individual areas of the projected image both vertically and horizontally.

A better understanding of the invention may be obtained by referring to the accompanying drawings, which illustrate several embodiments `0 of the invention, and the following explanation thereof:

In the accompanying drawings:

Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic perspective view showing one form of projection system that may be used;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged face view oa portion of the projection screen oi' Fig. l;

Figs. 3 and 4 are edge views thereof, showing respectively convex and concave projecting portions;

Figs. 5 and 6 are diagrammatic plan views showing the optical system of Mug the convex and concave areas; f,

Fig. 'I is a diagrammatic perspective view showing the use oi a concave screen;

Fig. 8 is a face view of a slightly diilerent form of screen;

Fig. 9 is a top plan view thereof Fig. 10 is an edge view of the same;

Fig. 11 is a face view showing a modified form of the screen shown in Fig. 8;

Fig. 12 is a diagrammatic plan view showing the rear projection system using a lined screen:

Fig. 13 is a face view of a lined screen;

Fig. 14 is a face view of a screen carrying transparent areas or apertures;

Fig. l5 is a modification of the arrangement shown in Fig. 12;

- Fig. 16 is a diagrammatic plan view showing the 70 use of a ribbed transparent screen;

Fig. 17 is a face view of the screen;

A Fig. 18 is a face view of a screen carrying small lenses; and

Fig. 19 is a` diagrammatic plan view of another 75 form oi ribbed transparent screen,

Fig. 1 of the drawings illustrates a form of the invention which may be employed for the projection oi either monoclinic or diclinic pictures. The seats of a theatre are 'designated by the numeral I, while a projector 2 is shown behind the seats and over the same in the usual relation to project the pictures on the projectingy screen I. This screen carries a large number of small lightf diverting areas l, which are made either convex or concave, as shown in Figs. 3 and 4, and of a material of a high specular reflecting power, such as polished white metal. The spaces between these reflecting areas should be blackened, as designated by the numeral 5 in Figs. 3 and 4, to render them non-reecting. The areas 4 should be so numerous and so small that if each appears to the observer to reect a single point of light, they can together present an image having a useful degree of clearness. In the drawings, the relative size of these elements and the screen is exaggerated for the sake of clearness.

Fig. 5 illustrates an optical diagram of the system using a screen having the convex reflecting areas shown in Figs. 1, 2 and 3. The two eyes of an observer are designated in Fig. 5 by the numerals 6 and 'I respectively.

As the observer looks toward any particular reiiecting area, as for instance the area 4' in Fig. 5, he will see with his left eye 6 light from the projector 2 reflected at a position 8 on the reflector 4', and with his right eye 1 he will see light reflected from a slightly diilerent position 9 on this reflecting surface 4'.

If the projector throws upon the screen a stereoscopic picture of the usual monoclinic kind, with the picture strips in the image in exact registry with the vertical rows of reiiectors on the screen 3, the image which the observer sees with his left eye 6 will be made up of a large number of vertical picture elements all forming part of a picture with a single view of the objects photo-y graphed. That is, the left eye 6 sees only a narrow vertical strip of each panel of the projected parallax panoramagram, and the aggregate of these strips together present the objects photographed as seen from a single viewpoint. Similarly, the observers right eye will see another view of the objects as they would appear from a slightly different position, since the right eye 1 sees a different vertical strip of each panel of the projected image. If the view seen with'the right eye is one that would be seen from a. position to the right, rather than to the left, of the position of the left eye view, the picture will appear stereoscopic to the observer.

It will be seen from Fig. 5 that a second observer to the left of position 6, 1 will see two images reected from slightly separated points on element I to the left of points 8 and 9. The projected strips reilected to this second observer by element 4' and the other screen elements in the same vertical row will be in the same panel of the projected parallax panoramagram as those seen by the rst observer butwill represent the particular portion of the object` as seen from a position somewhat to the left of the position from which the strip elements seen by the ilrst observer were photographed. Similarly, an observer to the right of the rst observer will see strips of a given panel taken from positions somewhat to the right of those seen by the ilrst observer.

Thus the screen elements 4 present to slightly different horizontally separated viewpoints, for example, the two' eyes 8 and 1, slightly different portions of each panel of the projected parallax panoramagrarn, and therefore slightly different component views of the projected composite image, and the particular portions seen by a given observer depend on his horizontal position. It will also be noted that each vertical row of elements 4 presents to a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint continuously different elemental strips oi' the panel which registers with it,

`and therefore the aggregate of the elements l present continuously` changing component views of the composite image. consequently the component views, are stereoscopically related, an observer will see the projected picture in stereoscopic relief. l y

From Fig. 5 it will be seen that the viewing angle within which `observers can see the picture stereoscopic relief will be determined by the reriius of curvature and length of arc of the elements I, provided the projected panel is the same width as elements 'i and in precise registry therewith. Although precise registration is desirable, Aiepartures therefrom may still yield a useful stereoscopic elIect.

Fig. 6 is a similar optical diagram showing the application of the invention to concave reflecting areas i instead of the convex areas -4 of Fig. 5. y

As the observer looks toward any concave re-4 flecting area i0, he will see with his left eye B light from the projector 2 reflected at a position il on the reflector i0, and with his right eye 1 he will see light reflected from aT slightly different position i2 onthe reilector Il. In this case, the point of reection I I, from which the left eye receives light, is to the right of the point i2 from which the right eye receives light. This is the reverse of the diagram presented in Fig. 5.

With the same stereoscopic image projected upon the screen I, shown in Fig. 5, and upon the screen 3 shown in Fig. 6, one of them, depending upon the type of stereoscopic image, will present to the observer an image which-is correctly stereoscopic, while the other will present an image which is pseudoscopic, in which the stereoscopic effect is reversed and objects which should appear in the foreground appear further back than objects which should be in the background.

Whether the reilectorsshould be made convex outward or concave outward to give the correct result will depend upon the type of apparatus used in producing the image on the film or plate used in the projector, forV ii' convex ribbed or grooved mirrors were employed,as set forth in my former'. applicationl Serial No.- 462,006,` filed June 18, 1930, now Patent No.' 1,882,648, granted October 1l, 1932, the reflectors of the projecting screen 3 or I' should be concave, and if the ribbed mirror of the Iproducing apparatus carries concave grooves, the reectors of the screen shouldv be convex, as shown in Fig. 5. 'I'he image produced by the use of convexly ribbed rnirrors yin the taking apparatus. of Patent No. 1,882,648, is the type termed a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram, while the image produced with concavely ribbed mirrors is the type termed a pseudoscopic"V parallax panoramagram Thus the screen of Fig. 5 is employed with^pseudoscopic parallax panoramagrams and the screen of Fig. 6 is employed with stereoscopic parallax panoramagrams.

It will be noted in Fig. 6 that the light'rays projected onto element I! cross in front of the element after reflection therefrom. Therefore each element of screen I' may be considered as forming a real image of the projection lens of pro- :lector 2'. Similarly, in F18. 5 it will be noted If the strip images, and

' whole screen was curved.

that if the reflected rays from each of the convex elements l were extended behind the screen they would intersect, and therefore each element may be considered as forming a virtual image' of the projection lens. Thus the reflecting areas of screens 3 and 3' may be considered as elemental image forming means which utilize the projected rays imp'nging thereon to form'real or virtual images, as the case may be. of the projector lens for each panel of the projected image.

The viewing angle of the system of Fig. 6 will be determined by the same considerations applicableto Fig. 5, and the concave elements of Fig. 6 also will function to present to a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint "continuously different component views of the composite image registering therewith.

In Fig. l the screen 3 has the reflecting areas l arranged in a plane surface, while in Fig. 'l the screen Il' as a whole is concave, and is curved in two directions, although it may be curved `in one direction only if found desirable. In this way the vvarious parts of the screen may be rendered more nearly perpendicular to the direction of sight oi' most of the observers in a theatre with a moresatisfactory result. If desired, the screen as a whole may be made plane, while the reflecting areas around the periphery may be tilted at .such angles as would be given them if the If the small reflecting areas of the front projection screen were in the form of vertical ridges, such as is illustrated in Figs. 16 and 19 for rear projection screen, the observer would receive light reflected from the screen only over a narrow horizontal zone, the position of which would depend upon the relative positions of the observer and the projector. The other parts of the screen would appear dark and would not present an image. For this reason, vertical rows of areas having vertical as well as horizontal curvature are employed, for if the curvature of these areas is suillcient some point of each reflecting area will be inclined at such an angle as to reflect `light from the projector to the observer, and the observer will be able to see the image over the whole illuminated area of the screen.

If the picture projectedl is a diclinic one, the pattern of the reflecting areas of the screen should be the saineA as the pattern ofthe screen or reflector or lens used in the producing of the diclinic pictures, such as described in my Patent No. 1,935,471, and the elements of the projected image should register with the reflecting areas of the screen.

Inathe type of screen illustrated in Figs. l to 7, the reflecting areas are represented as being approximately circular` or elliptical in outline. In Figs. 8, 9 and l0, these reflecting areas il are rectangular in outline' and curve both vertically and horizontally in convex shape. As shown in Fig. 9, the vertical rows of reflecting surfaces may be considered as vertical cylindrical mirrorlike surfaces, each of which is horizontally ribbed,

as shown in Fig. 10, to provide the necessary ver- 'tical diffusion. As`,shown in the drawings, the

. portions of the projected panel registering with each element so that the aggregate of the elements distribute horizontally the rays forming the strips of ltheir respective registering panels so as to present to slightly diiIerent horizontally separated viewpoints difIerent strips of each panel, and therefore different component views of the composite image. The vertical curvature, however, when monoclinic pictures are projected, merely serves to diffuse vertically the light rays forming the strip elements of the lineated panels so that an observer can see the entire vertical extent of the screen, and so that .observers at diiierent elevations with respect to the screen can still see the projected picture.

It will be noted thatsince the reilecting elements oi Figs. 1 to l0 are regularly curved, the vertical diffusion is a controlled diffusion in vertical planes, rather than a random diffusion in all directions such as is produced by ground glass. That is, rays of light impinging on the reecting elements which are in a vertical plane before diffusion will lie substantially in a vertical plane after diffusion. Thus the projected rays of light forming images of the strip elements will be diffused in substantially vertical planes. This may be termed vertical planar dinusion, and is advantageous not only because it emciently distributes the projected beam of light but also because, in the case of front projection screens such A as are illustrated in Figs. 1 to 10, a random'diffusion in all directions would destroy the stereoscopic effect produced by the'controlled horizontal distribution of the rays forming the strips of thev projected panels. The reilecting areas may have variousother shapes and arrangements, as for instance, being staggered, as shown sat I5 in Fig. 11, if desired, and in fact any suitable arrangement may be provided as desired. `However, the arrangement of reecting areas should correspond with the arrangement used in producing the pictures.

The arrangement shown diagrammatically in Fig. 12 is the previously known rear projection system mentioned hereinbefore. This system employs a projector I6, from which the picture is projected upon a translucent screen I1 arranged behind a viewing screen I8. 'I'his viewing screen is of the character known as a lined screen, comprising vertical opaque lines or strips I9 separated by narrow transparent areas or openings 20.. This screen I8 is spaced slightly from the translucent screen I1 and the strips of the stereoscopic image should be registered with it.

When space behind the screen I8 is limited, it may be desirable to project the image from the projector I6 to the screen I8'by reilection in one or more mirrors 2|, as shown in Fig. 15. If the picture to be projected is diclinic, the screen I8 or I8' should be replaced by one having corresponding small transparent areas'or openings 22, as il- `lustrated in Fig. 14, the screen being designated by the numeral 23.

Instead of the lined screen I8, a screen may be employed of the character shown in Figs. 16 and 17, and which screen is designated by the numeral 24 and is of transparent material, having on its iront face a number of vertical magnifying ribs 25. These ribs may also be described as lenticular light-diverting elements. The rear surface 26 of this ribbed screen 24 may be rendered light diffusing, and the image projected directly upon this surface or the image may be projected upon a light diilusing surface placed adjacent the rear of thescreen 24.

The 'mage on the surface 26 should be approximately inthe focus of the cylindrical lenses 25 formed by the ribbed surface. Such lenses will present a more nearly perfect focusing of the light if the rear surface 26, instead of being plane, as in Fig. 16, is made up of convex ribs 21, shown in Fig. 19, each concentric with one of the ribs on the front face and having such a radius of curvature, depending upon the refractive index of the material, as to give the best focus. For ordinary materials this radius of curvature is greaterl than that of the front surfaces.

If the picture to be projected is diclinic, the ribbed screen 24' or 24, shown in Figs. 16 and 19, should be replaced by one having small lenses 28, as shown in Fig. 18. Each of these' lenses or lenticular elements may have a cross section like the cross section of the ribs shown in Fig. 16 or in Fig. 19. Even when the picture is monoclinic, the use of the screen like that shown in Fig. 18, in which there are small lenses arranged in vertical lines, has an advantage over the use of the ribbed surface of Fig. 16 or 19, for if the rear surface of the screen 24 or 24 does not diffuse thoroughly the light that falls upon it from the projector, the ribbed screen will tend to present to the observer bright illumination in an area in line between the observer and the projector, and low illumination at some other points. The use of the small lenses of circular or similar shape will produce more nearly uniform illumination. Since convex lenses and concave mirrors both form real images, it will be noted that the rear projection system employing the lenticulated screen of Fig. 18 will function in a manner similar to that of the front projection system of Fig. 6. The light-diverting elements of both systems may be considered as forming real images of the projection lens. The horizontal curvature of the lenses will horizontally distribute the rays forming the panels of the projectedimage, and the vertical curvature will diffuse the rays forming the elemental strips of the panels in Vertical planes.

I claim:

1. The combination with a screen having a large number of small curved reilecting elements, of a single projector having a lm carrying a composite picture for projection, said picture being divided into elements representing different aspects of the objects shown in the picture, the projected images of said elements being in registry with the reecting elements of the screen.

2. The combination with a screen having a large number of small elements, each ot said elements being approximately spherically curved, of a single projector having means for projecting a composite image on said elements, said image having elements representing different aspects of the object vshown in the picture, said projector and screen being arranged for approximate registry of the projected images of said picture elements with the elements of the screen.

3. The combination with a screen having a large number of minute elements, each of said elements being approximately spherically convex, of a single projector adapted to project a composite picture on said elements, said picture having elements representing vdiirerent aspects of the objects shown in the picture, said projector and screen vbeing arranged for registry of the projected images of said picture elements with the elements of the screen. y

-4:. 'Ihe combination with a screen having a large number of minute elements, each of said elements being approximately spherically concave, of a single projector adapted to project a composite picture on said elements, said picture having elements representing different aspects of the objects shown in the picture, said projector and screen being arranged for registry of the projected images of said picture elements with the elements oi' the screen.

5 5. The combination with a screen having a large number of minute spherlcally curved elements forming the surface thereof, of a single projector adapted to project a composite picture on said elements, said picture having elements repre- 10 senting different aspects of the objects shown in the picture, said projector and screen being arranged for registryl of the projected images of said picture elements with the elements of the screen.

6. The combination with a screen having a 15 large number of minute elements, each of said elements being approximately convex, of a single projector adapted to project a composite picture on said elements. said picture having elements representing different aspects of the object shown 2@ in the picture, said projector and screen being arranged for registry of the projected images of said picture elements'with the elements ofthe screen. y

7. The combination with a `screen having a 25 large number of minute curved elements forming a surface thereof, of a single projector adapted to project a composite picture on said elements, said picture having elements representing different aspects of the object shown in the picture,

30 said projector and screen being arranged for registry of the projected images of said picture elements with the elements of the screen.

8. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, means to project an image of a 535 stereoscopic parallax panoramagram, and means utilizing the light rays which form separated portions of a panoramic strip of said image to form a real image of said projecting means.

- 9. In a system for producing pictures in stereoco scopic relief, a plurality oi' elemental image forming means arranged side by side to constitute a viewing screen, and means to project a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram upon one side of said screen, each elemental image forming means 45 functioning to form a real image of said projecting means.

10. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, a plurality of elemental image forming means arranged side by side to consti- 50 tute a viewing screen, means to project a stereoscopic parallaxpanoramagram upon one side of said screen, each elemental image forming means lfunctioning to form a al image of said projecting means, and means to cause planar diil'u- 55 sion of the elemental light beams forming said real images.

11. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, a plurality of elemental lenticular elements arranged side by side to constitute a a viewing screen, anda projecting lens to project a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram upon said elements, each element utilizing the light from said projecting lens to form a real image of said lens. l

65 12. In a system for producing pictures in ster- .eoscopic relief, a plurality of elemental lenticular elements arranged side by side to constitute a viewing screen. a projecting lens to project a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram upon said ele- 70 ments, each element utilizing the light from said projecting lens to form a real image of said lens. .and means to cause planar diffusion of the elemental light beams forming said-real images.

13. In a system for producing pictures in ster- 75 eoscopic relief, means for projecting a stereo- 5 scopic parallax panoramagram, means for individually viewing separate portions of each panoramic strip from a given horizontal direction. and means for causing vertical planar diffusion of the projected elemental beams of light repre- 5 senting elemental strip images of said panoramagram.

14. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, a motion picture film having a plurality of stereoscopic parallax panoramagram pictures printed thereon, means for projecting strip images of said panoramagram pictures, a

viewing screen upon which said images are projected, comprising means to control the direction of horizontal transmission of the light rays forming different portions of the'panoramic strips, and means for causing vertical planar diffusion of the projected elemental light beams representing strip images of said panoramagram pictures.

15. In a system for producing pictures for viewao ing in stereoscopic relief, means for projecting stereoscopic strip images of an object upon a viewing screen, said screen having horizontally positioned means for causing vertical diffusion exclusively of the elemental light beams representing strip images of said object, and vertically positioned means for causing horizontal diiusion exclusively of said elemental beam, whereby pictures may be viewed in stereoscopic relief.

16. The method of projecting images visible in stereoscopic relief which comprises projecting an image of a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram. deviating the light rays which form elemental portions of each panoramic strip so that they all pass to and through a point in space close to said image, and viewing said rays after they pass through said point.

17. In a. system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, a plurality of elemental concave mirror-like reflecting surfaces arranged side by 4g side to constitute a viewing screen, and a projecting lens to project a stereoscopic parallax panorama'gram upon said elements, each element utilizing the light from said projecting lens to form a real image of said lens.

i8. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, a plurality of elemental concave mirror-like reflecting surfaces arranged side by side to constitute a viewing screen, a projecting lens to project a stereoscopic parallax panoramagram upon said elements, each element utilizing the light from said projecting lens to form a real image of said lens, and means to cause planar diffusion of the elemental light beams forming said real images. y

19. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, means for projecting pseudoscopic strip images of an object, and means upon which the projected pseudoscopic strip images arereceived and made visible in. stereoscopic relief.

20. In a system for producingimses for viewing in stereoscopic relief, means for projecting an image comprising sets of stri each strip of a set corresponding to the appearance of an elemental portion of an object from a different point of view from that of another strip and the different sets representing different elemental portions, the strips ofeach set being pseudoscopically positioned. and means upon which said image is projected so constructed and arranged ,7o that an image of said object is ma'd'e visible in stereoscopic relief.

21. In a system/.forpnoducing images for viewing in stereoscopic relief, means for projecting an image comprising sets of strips, each strip of u a set corresponding to the appearance of an elemental portion of an object from a diierent point of view from that of another strip and the different sets representing different elemental por- .5 tions, the strips of each set being pseudoscopically positioned, and a plurality of convex cylindrical mirror-like surfaces arranged side by side upon which said image is projected, the sets of strips registering with the convex surfaces re- 10 spectively.

22. In a system for producing images for viewing in stereoscopic relief, means for projecting an image comprising sets of strips, each strip of a set corresponding to the appearance of an elemental portion of an object from a different point of view from that of another strip and the different sets representing different elemental portions, the strips of each set being pseudoscopically positioned, a plurality of convex cylindrical mirror-like surfaces arranged side by side upon which said image is projected, the sets of strips registering with the convex surfaces respectively, and means to diiiuse elemental portions of the projecting beam in planes parallel to the axes ci the cylindrical surfaces.

23. In a system for producing images for viewing in stereoscopic relief, means for projecting an image comprising sets of strips, each strip of a set corresponding to the appearance of an elemental portion of an object from a different point of view from that of another strip and the different sets representing different elemental portions, the strips of each set being pseudoscopically positioned, and means comprising a plurality of light deviating elements arranged side by side, upon which said image is projected,

lthe sets of strips registering with said elements respectively and each element being so constructed .and arranged as to make the pseudoo scopically positioned strips of the set projected thereon appear as strips stereoscopically positioned.

24. In a system for producing images in stereoscopic relief, means comprising a projection lens for projecting an image of a pseudoscopic parallax panoramagram, and a screen upon which said image is projected so constructed and arranged as to form a virtual image of said projection lens for each elemental panorama of said image.

25. In a system for producing pictures in stereoscopic relief, means comprising a projection lens for projecting an image of a pseudoscopic parallax panoramagram, a screen on which said image is projected, and means embodied in said screen at each elemental portion of said image,

light rays from which are necessary to be seen by an observer to constitute a visible picture of the object of which said pseudoscoplc panorama- 60 gram is representative, each of said elemental portion means forming virtual images of said projection lens which virtual images are visible to an observer looking at the screen from each of a plurality of positions on the viewing side of said screen transverse thereto and' one ot said virtual images formed by each of said means being simultaneously visible from each of said plurality of positions.

26. In a system for producing pictures exhibit- 7o ing stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for projecting a composite image containing inter- `lineated views of an object field from different points of view, and means for receiving said projecting image so constructed and arranged as to 75 present to slightly diilerent horizontally sepa- 27. In a system for producing pictures exhibit.-

ing stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for projecting a composite image containing a multiplicity of views of an object field from different points of view, and viewing means positioned to receive the projected composite image so constructed and arranged as to present to slightly different horizontally separated viewpoints different component views of the projected image, said viewing means comprising small elements with vertical curvature adapted to vertically diffuse the projected beam of light.

28. In a system for-producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, a composite image containing views of an object field from different points of view, means for projecting said composite image, and a viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image having thereon small light-diverting elements in substantial registry with the elements of the projected image, said .light-diverting elements having both vertical and horizontal curvature and being adapted to present to slightly different horizontally separated viewpoints views of said composite image representing the object field as seen from horizontally separated viewpoints.

29. In a system for producing pictures exhibitlng stereoscopic relief, in combination, a composite image containing a large number of panels representing different parts of the object to be shown, each panel containing elements representing the corresponding part of the object as seen"V from different poi-nts of view, means for projecting said composite image, and a viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image comprising light-diverting elements in substantial registry with said panelsl so constructed and adapted as to horizontally distribute the rays forming the elements of said panels to present stereoscopically related views of the objects to slightly different horizontally separated view points, and means for causing vertical planar diffusion only of the projected beams of light.

30. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, a composite image containing a large number of panels representing different parts of the object to be shown, each panel containing elements representing the corresponding part of the object as seen from a substantially continuously changing point of view, means for projecting said composite image, and viewing means comprising small curved light-diverting elements positioned in substantial registration with the panels of the projected image, said light-diverting elements having such curvature as to present to a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint continuously changing stereoscopically related elev ments of said panels and to vertically diffuse the rays of light forming said elements.

31. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for projecting a composite image containing a large,

number of panels representing different parts of the object to .be shown, each panel containing elements representing the corresponding part of the object as seen from different points of view. and a viewing screen comprising small light-diverting elements constructed and positioned to substantially register with the panels of the projected image, said-light-diverting elements having both vertical and horizontal curvature and being adapted to present stereoscopically related component views of said composite image to an observer.

32. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for projecting a composite image containing a multiplicity of views of an object iield from dif.- ferent points of. view, and a front-projection viewing' screen positioned to receive the projected image, said viewing screen comprising means for presenting to slightly different horizontally separated viewpoints different component views of the projected image.

33. In a system for producing pictures exhibitl5 ing stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for projecting a composite image containing a multiplicity of views of an object field from diiferent points of view, and a front-projection viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image 2c and adapted to exhibit component views of said image throughout a viewing angle, said screen comprising means for presenting to a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint within said viewing angle continuously different component views of the projected composite image.

34. L,In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for projecting a composite image containing a multiplicity of views of an object field from y30 different points of view, and a front-projection reflecting viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image having curved light-diverting mirror-like elements in substantial registry with the elements of the projected image and adapted i to present to slightly diierent horizontally separated viewpoints different component stereoscopically related views of the projected image.

35. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, means for 40 projecting a composite image containing interlineated views of an object field from 'different points of View, and a front-projection viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image. said viewing screen comprising a plurality of 45 light-diverting elements in registry with the elements of the projected image adapted to present to slightly ditrerentvhorizontally separated viewpoints diierent component views of the projected image, and means for vertically diffusing the Dro- 50 jected beam' of light. A

36. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, a composite image containing interlineated views of an object field from diierent points of view, means 55 to project said composite image, and a iront-projection viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image having a multitude of small horizontally and vertically curved reiecting elements `in substantial registry with the elements of the 60 projected image and adapted topresent to slight- 1y diierent horizontally separated viewpoints different stereoscopically related component views of the projected composite image.

l 37. In a system for producing pictures exhibit- 65 ingv stereoscopic relief, yin combination, a composite image containing a large number of panels representing different parts o f the object to be shown, each of said panels containing elements representing the corresponding part of the object as seen from different points of view, means for projecting said composite image, and a frontprojection viewing screen positioned to receive panoramagram image, means for projecting said image, and a front-projection viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image comprising light-diverting elements in substantial registry with the panels of said projected image forexhibiting component views of said projected image throughouta viewing angle, said elements being so constructed as to horizontally distribute the rays forming said panels to present to a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint within said viewing angle continuously different stereoscopically related elements of said panels, and meansfor vertically diffusing the -rays i'orming said panels. v

39. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination, a parallax panoramagram image, means for projecting said image, and a front-projection viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image having thereon vertical rows of small curved mirror-like reiiectlng elements positioned in substantial registry with the panels of the projected image for exhibiting component views of said projected image throughout a viewing angle, said reflecting elements having such horizontal and vertical curvature as to horizontally distributev the rays forming said panelsto present to a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint within said viewing angle continuously diiierent stereoscopically related strip elements oi said panels and to vertically distribute the rays forming said panels.

40. In a system for producing pictures exhibiting stereoscopic relief, in combination. a composite image containing a large number ofpanels representing different parts of the object to be shown, each of said panels containing elements representing the corresponding part of the object as seen from different points of view, means for projecting said composite image, and a viewing screen positioned to receive the projected image comprising small refracting lens-like elements in substantial registry with the panels of the projected image for exhibiting component views of said prpjected image throughout a viewing angle, said lens-like lelements having such horizontal and .vertical curvatures as to horizontally distribute the-rays forming said panels to present to. a continuously horizontally changing viewpoint Within said viewing angle continuously different stereoscopically related strip elements of said panels and to vertically distribute the rays forming said panels. Y

CLARENCE w. KANoL'r.

, ing stereoscopic relief, in combination, a parallax

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2542789 *Jan 3, 1945Feb 20, 1951Jr Adelbert AmesViewing apparatus for stereoscopic representation of pictures
US2618198 *Nov 22, 1947Nov 18, 1952Eastman Kodak CoProjection screen
US2631496 *Aug 8, 1947Mar 17, 1953Rehorn Miles PStereoscopic viewing method and apparatus
US2661651 *Jul 22, 1949Dec 8, 1953Stipek Johann FranzProjection of stereoscopic pictures
US2716919 *Dec 3, 1948Sep 6, 1955Gordon Beard ErnestPicture projecting systems and screen therefor
US2804801 *Nov 23, 1951Sep 3, 1957William T SnyderProjection screens
US3279313 *May 18, 1964Oct 18, 1966Internat Product Design And ReProjector screens and method and apparatus for using same
US3501230 *Nov 7, 1966Mar 17, 1970Robert J JohnstonThree-dimensional display system
US5483254 *Dec 28, 1993Jan 9, 1996Dimensional Displays Inc.Device for forming and displaying stereoscopic images
US5696625 *Aug 12, 1994Dec 9, 1997Malifaud; Pierre Leon A.Distributor for electromagnetic radiation, particularly a projection screen
Classifications
U.S. Classification352/43, 352/61, 353/7, 359/459, 359/463
International ClassificationG03B21/56
Cooperative ClassificationG03B21/56
European ClassificationG03B21/56