US 2076030 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Apnl 6, 1937. w. KAHLLENBERGER 2,076,030
INJECTION COMBUSTION POWER MACHINE WITH JET ATOMIZATION AND AUXILIARY CHAMBER Filed July so, 1950 Jig. 2
Patented Apr. 6, 1937 UNITED STATES INJECTION COIVEUSTION POWER MA- CHINE WITH JET ATOMIZATION AND AUXILIARY CHAMBER,
Wilhelm Kahllenberger, Augsburg, Germany, as-
signor to Maschinenfabrik Augsburg-Number; A. G., Augsburg, Germany, a corporation oi Germany Application July so, 1930, Serial No. 471,731' In Germany August 5, 1929 4 Claims.
This invention relates to internal combustion engines and more particularly to engines operating with fuel injection.
One object of the invention is the provision of an engine of this character in which a portion of the combustion air compressed during the compression stroke is entrapped in a reservoir chamber communicating with the combustion space so that, during the power stroke, an air stream will be directed transversely against a flow of the injected fuel.
Another object of the invention is the provision of an engine having a plurality of reservoir chambers arranged to direct a plurality of spaced air streams in different directions against a stream of the injected fuel.
Other objects and advantages of the invention will be apparent from the following description, the appended claims and the accompanying drawing, in which- Figs. 1 and 2 show one form of the present invention, Fig. 1 diagrammatically showing a section taken axially through the cylinder and Fig. 2 diagrammatically showing a transverse section through the cylinder;
Figs. 3 and 4 are diagrammatic axial and transverse sections of a modified form of construction showing reservoir chambers provided in the piston;
Figs. 5 and 6 show another form of the invention in which the combustion air reservoir is provided exteriorly of the cylinder;
Figs. '7 and 8 show a modification of the invention in which the fuel is injected radially in several streams, the air streams being directed towards the piston; and
Figs. 9 and 10 show still another modification of the invention in which the reservoir chambers are provided in both the piston and in the cylinder head.
Referring first to Figs, 1 and 2, it will be observed from the drawing that the engine is provided with a. cylinder and piston construction which forms a combustion space into which the fuel is injected by an injection nozzle b. The engine is of the two-cycle type, combustion air being drawn in or supplied just before compression starts. At or about the end of the compression stroke, liquid fuel is injected and is ignited by reason of the high temperature and pressure prevailing at that time.
On opposite sides of the injection nozzle b are the two reservoir chambers a which are in limited or restricted communication at all times 5 with the combustion space. When the piston moves out towards the cylinder head it compresses the combustion air in the cylinder, and at the end of the compression stroke the air in the reservoir chambers w-dwill be at substantially the same high pressure as that in the combustion space between them. During the time the piston moves downwardly on the power stroke the pressure in the combustion space will be less than the pressure in the reservoir chambers H and a plurality of air streams will be directed at an angle into the fuel stream so that a thorough mixing of the air and fuel will be obtained. The two streams of air c-c intercept the fuel stream at different distances from the fuel nozzle, and strike the fuel stream from opposite sides so that a very thorough and intimate mixture of fuel and air will be produced. Thus the time required for the combustion of the fuel will be quite long with relation to the time duration of the power stroke, but all of the fuel will be burned efiiciently due to the intimate mixture of fuel and air. It should be noted furthermore that the air streams do not force the hot combustion gases directly against the injection nozzle, as the fuel stream is intercepted some distance away from the nozzle and at an angle to the fuel flow, so that the nozzles are not unduly heated nor carbonized.
In Figs. 3 and 4 the reservoir chambers a are provided in the piston e, and so arranged that they strike the fuel flow at an angle of substantially 90 degrees at different distances from the fuel nozzle, and from opposite sides of the fuel stream.
As shown in Figs. 5 and 6, the fuel may enter the combustion space transversely of the cylinder axis from one side, while the air streams flow into the combustion space angularly with relation to the fuel stream, and from the opposite side of the cylinder. Thus a single reservoir chamber a is provided externally of the cylinder from which the various air streams f, g and in flow into the combustion space provided preferably by a recess or deep groove in the piston. the streams g and It being directed against the fuel stream (1 at a slight angle while the stream f is directed generally downwardly or towards the piston e. A single chamber (1. may be provided, or where the energy of the stream f differs materially from that of the streams g and h, a
dividing wall 1' separates the chamber into two portions, as shown, an orifice preferably being arranged in the wall 1'.
In Figs. '7 and 8 the air streams from the reservoir chambers a of the cylinder head are directed against the fuel streams and also against the descending piston, the fuel streams from the reservoirs which are located closest to the central axis of the cylinder being directed downwardly 5 towards the piston so as to intercept the radially flowing streams of fuel, while the air streams from the outermost reservoirs a are directed in a desired direction generally towards the fuel streams.
10 Figs. 9 and 10 illustrate how the outermost reservoirs a may be provided in thepiston, while additional reservoirs a are provided in the cylinder head closer to the' central axis of the cylinder. Each of the cylinder head reservoirs preferably 15 has two diverging passages which establish communication between the reservoir and the combustion space, so that a plurality of air streams flow from each of these reservoirs against two adjacent streams of fuel.
It will now be apparent that, in accordance with this invention, the time required for the complete combustion of the fuel may be quite substantial and thus the ignition noises of fuel injection engines are reduced. Due to the fact 25 that the air streams sweep by the fuel streams at different places, and in different directions, there is a simultaneous distribution of the air over the entire fuel stream or flame area and a very good intermixing of air and fuel results.
30 The energy required for temporarily trapping the air in the reservoir chambers will be much less where a number of these chambers are provided, and the fuel consumption will be very economical, for the lost energy required in forcing the combustion air into the reservoir must be of greater degree if the distance the air stream must penetrate the fuel zone is long, as would necessarily be the case if only one stream of air were directed against the fuel. If the air stream 4 is aligned with the fuel stream and directly against it, it will be necessary to provide sufficient energy of the air stream to penetrate the entire length of the airless zone of fuel. But in accordance with the present invention a plurality of air 45 streams may be provided striking a fuel stream at various points and from different directions so that the distance each single air stream must travel is quite short, and the required energy consumed in storing the air in the various cham- 50 hers is comparatively small. As the air streams strike the fuel stream at a distance from the nozzle, and in a generally transverse direction, the nozzle will not be unduly heated nor carbonized. Moreover it will be apparent that where 55 the air streams are directed downwardly towards the descending piston the area of active combustion will increase as the size of the combustion chamber increases. Where the air streams are directed transversely of the cylinder axis and not 60 in a direction generally towards the piston, a space of comparatively large size would probably be formed, which could only be swept imperfectly by a single stream of air directed transversely.
While the methods herein described, and the 6 forms of apparatus for carrying these methods into effect, constitute preferred embodiments of the invention, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to these precise methods and forms of apparatus, and that changes may 70 be made in either without departing from the scope of the invention which is defined in the appended claims.
What is claimed is: p 1. In an internal combustion engine operating 7 with fuel injection, a cylinder, a piston having a centrally located transversely extending depression defining a part of the combustion space, fuel injection means positioned substantially at the cylinder wall and in line with said depression for injecting the entire charge of fuel into said depression and across the top of the piston in the form of a stream, air storage chamber means communicating with said combustion space only through a plurality of restricted passages out of direct alinement with the fuel stream, one of said passages being inclined downwardly from the air storage chamber means toward the top of the piston and directed in ch non-alignment with the stream of injected f el as to avoid a direct injection of fuel into sai passage. another of said passages opening into said combustion space substantially at the cylinder wall onposite said fuel injection means out of alinement therewith, the air storage chamber means being arranged to feed a plurality of angularly related streams of air through said passages at spaced points into contact with the fuel mixture in the combustion space to provide prolonged and controlled combustion.
2. In combination in an injection engine, a cylinder and a piston operating therein, a combustion chamber non-cylindrical in shape overlying and opening freely at its central portion into the working portion of the cylinder during the working stroke of the piston, said chamber extending substantially to the cylinder wall along one dimension and having a lesser cross dimension than that of the cylinder bore to leave an inwardly extending shoulder over the piston periphery, an injection nozzle located at the side of the cylinder and arranged to inject fuel across the top of the cylinder through said non-cylindrical combustion space, and an air storage chamber positioned in said shoulder and opening into the combustion chamber through a restricted passage and otherwise unconnected to said combustion chamber, the axis of said passage extending toward the combustion chamber in a convergent. direction with respect to the direction of travel of injected fuel to avoid direct injection of fuel thereinto, said passage being arranged to discharge its air into the fuel mixture within the combustion chamber to provide prolonged and controlled combustion.
3. In an internal combustion engine operating with fuel injection, a cylinder, a piston operating therein, a combustion space within the cylinder and above said piston, a passage opening into said combustion space, a fuel injection nozzle positioned within said passage and arranged to inject the fuel jet into said combustion space above the piston and in a direction transverse to said piston, one or more air storage chambers having air-flow connection with said combustion space and otherwise unconnected to said combustion space, each such air-flow connection comprising a restricted passage having its axis out of direct alinement with the axis of the fuel jet, whereby the air streaming back from each air storage chamber into the combustion space during combustion blows therefrom angularly against the fuel stream and not directly toward the fuel nozj zle outlet.
4. In an internal combustion engine operating with fuel injection, a cylinder, a piston operating therein, a combustion space within the cylinder and above said piston, a passage opening into said combustion space, a fuel injection nozzle positioned within said passage and arranged to inject the fuel jet into said combustion space above the piston and in a direction transverse'to said passage means, whereby air streaming back from piston, an air storage chamber connected with said air storage chamber through said air passaid combustion space only by an air-flow connecsage means into the combustion space during tion consisting of restricted passage means, said combustion blows therefrom angularly against 5 fuel nozzle and restricted passage means being the fuel stream and not directly toward the fuel 5 relatively arranged so that the axis of the fuel nozzle outlet. iet is out or direct alinement with said restricted WILHEIM KAIfliI-ENBERGER.