US 2076287 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
A ril 6, 1937. S, P, A NOLD 2,076,287
AUTOMOBILE HEATER Filed April 21, 1934 Patented Apr. 6, 1937 STATES PATENT OFFICE 5 Claim.
This invention relates to a heating apparatus for motor vehicles and more particularly to a steam heating system therefor utilizing the heated products of combustion and exhaust gases 5 from the vehicle motor.
Hot water heaters have been very generally employed for heating motor vehicles wherein hot water from the circulatory cooling system of the motor has been employed as the heating me- 10 dium, but such hot water systems have been found objectionable due to the delay in their operation while the water of the circulatory cooling system is being initially'warmed when the motor is first started. It has also been proposed 15 to use steam generated by the exhaust gases for heating purposes wherein a small quantity of water is permanently confined in the steam heating system or where such heating system is independent of and separate from the circulatory cooling system of the vehicle motor and therefore necessitates a separate water supply, or more or less constant attention on the part of the driver. i
In the present heating system, forming the 25 subject matter hereof, means is provided for substantially instantaneous generation of steam upon the starting of the motor by use of exhaust gases, for circulation through a radiator of conventional type but preferably of smaller size than to that ordinarily employed for hot water heating systems. The steam circulatory system is directly connected with the water cooling system of the vehicle motor whereby water is automatically supplied to the steam generator, and as the 9.5 steam pressure rises above a predetermined degree the excess water is automatically returned to the motor cooling system through a relief or blow-off valve. The exhaust gases are controlled in inverse ratio to the developed temperature by 40 being directed into more or less intimate relation with the steam generating unit or by-passed thereabout either manually or by automatic control means actuated by either steam pressure within the heating system or by a thermostatic 4 control device whereby a relatively balanced relation may be maintained between the heat radiation within the vehicle and the influence of products of combustion and heated gases upon the steam generating unit to thereby maintain a reiatively uniform temperature regardless of the motor speed.
The object of the invention is to improve the construction as well as the means and mode of operation of motor vehicle heating apparatus 55 whereby it will not only be simple and economical for manufacture, but will be more efiicient in use, automatic in operation, uniform in action, and unlikely to get out of repair.
A further and importantobject of the invention is to provide a heating apparatus for motor 5 vehicles which will be economical in its operation and which will be quickly responsive to motor operation and capable of generating heat quickly upon the starting of the vehicle motor.
A further object of the invention is to provide a steam heating system which will be universal in its application to automobiles and other motor vehicles such as tractors, trucks and the like of different manufacture.
A further object of the invention is to provide a steam heating system having but few parts and provided with safety means by which excess pressure will be automatically relieved back to the cooling system of the motor vehicle.
A further object of the invention is to provide means for automatically supplying water from the water cooling system of the motor vehicle to the steam heating apparatus, and for regulating such water supply in proportion to the require ment of the heating system.
A further object of the invention is to provide regulatory means by which a greater or less proportion of the heated products of combustion and exhaust gases from the vehicle motor may be employed for steam generation purposes in a relatively balanced relation with the temperature requirement.
A further object of the invention is to provide automatic control means actuated by the steam generation for regulating the supply of heated gases and products of combustion to the steam generating unit.
A further object of the invention is to provide adjustable temperature regulating means under control of the driver for governing the operation of the heating system.
A further object of the invention is to enable the temperature within the vehicle to be maintained substantially uniform regardless of the period of operation or speed of thevehicle and regardless of external atmospheric conditions.
A further object of the invention is to provide a motor vehicle heating system embodying the meritorious features and advantageous characteristics herein mentioned.
With the above primary and other incidental objects in view, as will more fully appear in the specification, the invention consists of the features of construction, the parts and combinations thereof and the mode of operation, or their equivalents, as hereinafter described and set forth in the claims.
Referring to the accompanying drawing wherein is shown the preferred but obviously not necessarily the only form of embodiment of the invention,-Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a conventional automobile motor, radiator, and heater unit illustrating the relation and disposition of the interconnecting and component parts of the pres- 0 ent steam heating system forming the subject matter hereof. Fig. 2 is a somewhat diagrammatic view of the heating system in a distended from for more convenient consideration. Fig. 3 is a detail view of the steam generating means and by-pass for products of combustion. Fig. 4 is a detail view of the automatic water supply and blow-oil valve. Fig. 5 illustrates a modification.
Like parts are indicated by similar characters of reference throughout the several views.
Referring to the accompanying drawing, I indicates a conventional type of automobile motor of which 2 is the exhaust manifold and 3 the usual exhaust pipe leading therefrom. The motor I is provided with the usual cooling system wherein water is circulated about the motor cylinders and thence through the usual radiator 4 which is connected to the motor by the water hose connections 5 and 6.
Located within the vehicle body is a radiator unit I which may be of any usual or conventional form, such, for example, as the tubular radiators ordinarily employed with hot water heating systems except that for the present purpose such radiator unit may be of much smaller size than those employed for hot water heating systems. Associated with the exhaust pipe 3 for the heated products of combustion is a steam generating unit comprising a coil of pipe or tubing 8 which may be disposed about the exterior of the exhaust pipe 3 as illustrated in Fig. 5, but is preferably enclosed directly within the exhaust pipe where it is subject to direct action of the exhaust gases. Steam circulatory conduits 9 and I0 interconnect the steam generating coil 8 with the radiator Tinto a circulatory system. The steam conduit I0 is which permits the circulation of steam or condensate in only one direction, to wit, from the radiator I back to the generating coil 8 from which 5 the superheated steam passes through the conduit 9 to the radiator 1. Thus there is provided a circuitous system wherein the steam heated in the coil 8 by the exhaust products of combustion from the vehicle motor passes thence through 55 the conduit 9 to the radiator 1. During the circulation of the superheated steam through the ra diator I its heat isjissipated within the vehicle body and the cooled or condensed steam and water are returned thence through the conduit I0 60 back to the generating coil l I for regeneration.
In order that the steam circulatory system may be at all times supplied with sufiicient water an interconnecting conduit I2 is provided between the steam circulating system and a suitable 65 source of water, such as the water cooling system of the vehicle motor. As illustrated in the drawing, this connecting conduit I2 interconnects the return conduit III of the steam heating system at a point between the check-valve II and the 70 steam generating coil 8 with one of the water conduit connections 6. It is obvious, however, that this interconnection may be made at difierent points of the respective steam and water circulating systems. Included in the interconnecting 75 conduit I2 is a double acting check-valve l3,
provided with a check-valve II simple form of which is illustrated in Fig. 4. This double acting check-valve I3 is responsive to fluctuations of relative pressures in the respective steam and water circulating systems, whereby when the internal pressure within the steam circulating system falls below that 01' the water system, water will automatically flow from the cooling system of the vehicle motor into the steam heating system to insure an ample supply of water thereto. Such water supply is prevented by the check-valve II from'flowing through the conduit I0 and so flooding the radiator 'I. The steam conduit 9 is elevated at I above the water level of the radiator 4 and the cooling system of the motor I so that the water supply may not back through the conduit 9 into the radiator I. As it is customary in cold localities to intermix antifreeze substance with the water of the motor cooling system, the present interconnection of the heating system therewith whereby water is supplied to the heating system from the motor cooling system insures sufllcient such intermixture of water and anti-freeze substance to prevent freezing oi the steam heating system when the vehicle is idle. Upon starting the motor I, the products of combustion immediately come in contact with the steam generating coil 8, and the temperature of the water contained therein is raised very rapidly without the necessity of waiting until the body of water within the circulatory cooling system of the .motorhas become heated as is the case with hot water heating systems. The generating coil 8 being subject to the hot blast of the motor exhaust, steam is generated almost instantly and the circulation of the heated steam is initiated through the radiator I and back to the generator coil. As the pressure within the steam circulating system increases to or beyond a predetermined degree, the pressure is relieved and excess water is blown oil from the steam heating system back to the water cooling system of the motor. Such discharge of excess water occurs through the connecting conduit I! which thus accommodates an alternating flow, first of water supply from the engine cooling system to the steam heating system and thence in reverse direction when excessive steam has been generated back to the cooling system.
In Fig. 5 there is shown a modification wherein the inter-connecting conduit I 2 is provided with a simple form 01' check-valve I 4b, permitting flow of water in one direction only, to wit, from the cooling system to the conduit III of the steam heating system. In such case, a second conduit I2a. is provided which may communicate with any portion of the steam circulating system and which contains a spring safety or relief-valve Ila which permits the escape of excessive steam pressure from the circulatory system back to the cooling system of the vehicle motor, carrying with it excess water.
While separate supply and relief. conduits, as illustrated in Fig. 5, are quite practical and may be used with equal facility, for simplification of the' system and to minimize the parts a single conduit is preferably used for both purposes and provided with a double acting check-valve as illustrated in Fig. 4. The form of valve shown in Fig. 4 is for illustrative purposes onlyand consists of a casing or housing I5 having therein a valve seat I 6 engaged by a reciprocatory valve member II which is provided with guide wings I8 and an axial bore I 9. This valve member I! is urged to its seat I6 by a helical spring 20 of sumcient tension to resist the desired maximum aovaaa'r steam pressure of the steam circulating system.
The valve member I1 is in turn provided with a valve seat at the mouth of its bore II for engagement of a suitable check-valve II which, in the 5 present instance, is illustrated as a ball-valve limited in its movement relative to its seat in the end of the valve member if by a transverse pin 22. Such valve interposed in the interconnecting conduit it permits water to freely flow from the cooling system of the motor I through the conduit it and thence through the bore I! of the valve ill and past the ball-check 2i whenever the motor is at rest and the steam pressure within the heating system has fallen below the fluid pressure of the water within the circulatory cooling system of the motor.
Upon starting the motor the back pressure of the steam generated within the coil 8 acting against the ball check-valve 2| will force such 20 ball against its seat in the extremity of the valve member if and so close the passage is against the escape of steam and of water from the heating system until the steam pressure has been raised to sufficient degree to overcome the resist- 25 ance of the spring 20. Such excessive steam pressure acting against the ball check-valve 2| and valve member it will unseat the latter from its seat it against the tension of the spring 20 and allow the excess pressure and with it excess water 30 to be blown oil? from the steam circulating system through the conduit I2 back to the water cooling system of the vehicle motor. Thus the supply of water to the circulatory system is automatically regulated to afford a relatively large supply of water at the beginning of the steam circulating and heating operation, but enabling the circulation of superheated dry steam after the steam generating and heating system has been set in operation. 40 While the heater coil a may be disposed exteriorly around the exhaust manifold 2 or the exhaust pipe t, as before mentioned it is preferably inserted within the exhaust pipe for direct engagement of the heated products of combus- 45 tion. However, for the purpose of controlling the steam generation, especially after the motor is in operation, means is preferably, though not necessarily, provided for by-passing the products of combustion or a variable portion thereof 50 around the generating coil. To this end the coil t is preferably embodied in a section of exhaust pipe which may be inse'rtable in the exhaust conduit of any vehicle motor, which section is provided with separate passages 24 in one of which the coil 8 is located while the other passage 24 affords a by-pass around such cell. A dampervalve 25 is provided which may be oscillated from one position to another to completely or partially close either of the passages 24 and thereby divert r the heated products of combustion to greater or a less extent into contact with the heater coil it or away therefrom.
As illustrated in the drawing, the damper valve 25 is pivoted for swinging motion from side to 5 side and is adapted at the extreme limits of its range of movement in one direction to close entirely the exhaust passage M containing the steam generating coil 8 and leave entirely'open the by-pass passage, while at the opposite limit 70 of its range of, adjustment the by-pass is closed and the products of combustion are diverted into intimate relation with the heater coil.
The pivotal shaft of the damper valve 25 carries a rock arm 2s connected by a reciprocatory 75 actuating wire M with a control lever 28. This control lever 28 may be manually operated if desired. However, it is preferably automatically adjusted. To this end, there is provided an expansion chamber 30, one side of which comprises a flexible diaphragm ll and which chamber is in communication with the steam circulatory system, In the present instance, the expansion chamber at is connected with the steam conduit 8 at a point adjacent to the heater I. The
flexible diaphragm SI of this automatic control device, bears upon a plunger 32 which in turn en-' gages the lever 28 to oscillate the lever and thereby adjust the damper valve 25 to divert the products of combustion away from the steam generating coil as the steam pressure within the heating system increases. This movement of the control lever 28 is effected against the yielding resistance of a tension spring 32 which tends to return the lever 28 and thereby adjust the damper valve to partially close the by-pass of the exhaust pipe section 23 to increase the influence of the products of combustion upon the heater coil. Thus the influence of. the heated products of combustion upon the steam generating unit is controlled in direct ratio with the pressure of the generated steam, which, of course, is the temperature controlling factor. As the steam pressure, and consequently the temperature, decreases an increased proportion of the products of combustion will be directed onto the steam generating coil, and to the contrary as the steam pressure, and with it the temperature, rises more products of combustion will be diverted through the by-pass around the heater coil. By this means an equilibrium \or balanced relation is established and maintained between the steam pressure or temperature and the heating inilu ence of the products of combustion so that the temperature may be maintained uniform regardless of the motor speed. To vary this uniformly maintained temperature, there is provided an adjusting screw 33 by which the tension of the spring}? may be increased or relieved thereby changing the pressure at which the lever 28 may move to adjust the control valve 25.
From the above description it will be apparent that there is thus provided a device of the character described possessing the particular features of advantage before enumerated as desirable, but which obviously is susceptible of modification in its form, proportions, detail construction and arrangement of parts without departing from the principle involved or sacrificing any of its advantages.
While in order to comply with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to structural features, it is to be understood that the invention is not limited to the specific features shown, but that the means and construction herein disclosed comprise the preferred form of several modes of putting the invention into effect. and the invention is therefore claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the legitimate and valid scope of the appended claims.
Having thus described my invention, I claim:
1. In a heating system for motor vehicles having a motor and a source of water supply, a steam circulatory system including 'a radiator unit, a steam generating unit associated with the exhaust manifold of the motor, a steam circulatory conduit leading from one end of the steam generator unit to the radiator and a return conduit leading from the radiator to the opposite end of to the system in response to a lower pressure in the system than in the water supply, means responding to an increase or decrease in the physical characteristic the steam for decreasing or in increasing, respectively, the heat exchange relation between the products of combustion discharged through the motor exhaust conduit and the steam generating unit, and an automatic control device permitting return of excess water from the steam circulatory system to the source of water supply under influence of steam pressure generated therein above a predetermined amount.
2. In a heating system for motor vehicles having a motor and a source of water supply, a steam circulatory system including a radiator unit, a
steam generating unit associated with the exhaust manifold 01 the motor, a steam circulatory conduit leading from one end of the steam generator unit to the radiator and a return conduit leading from the radiator to the opposite end or the steam generator, additional circulatory connections between the steam circulatory system and the source of water supply through which water is automatically supplied from the source 01' water-supply tothe steam circulatory system and automatically discharged back thereto under influence of pressure difierential, the water flowing from the higher pressure to the lower pressure, variable by passing means for directing the exhaust products of combustion in more or less intimate relation with the steam generating unit to decrease the generation of steam with an increase of steam pressure and vice versa.
3. In a heating system iormotor vehicles hav- 49 ing a motor and a water supply tank, a radiator unit, a steam generating unit' having at least a portion thereof below the water level of the supply tank, and steam circulatory conduits connecting opposite ends of the steam generating unit with the radiator unit and conversely, connecting means between the source of water supply and the steam circulatory system through which water is automatically supplied therefor preparatory to generation 01 steam, saidconnecting means supplying water to the system in response to a lower pressure in the system than in the water supply, an exhaust conduit from the motor having therein separate passages for exhaust products of combustion communicating with the motor with 65 one of which passages the steam generating unit is associated, and a variable cutofl device tending to direct the exhaust products of combustion alternately through the respective passages. the cutofl' directing the exhaust products of comtion between the a s nears-a e physical characteristic of the stea and directing the products of combustion into the other passage when the physical characteristic of the steam increases.
4. A heating system for a motor vehicle having a motor and a water cooling system for the motor, including a steam generating unit heated by the products of combustion discharged from the motor, a radiator unit and a pair 01 circulatory conduits interconnecting the steam generating unit and radiator unit into a steam circulatory system, one of said conduits extending from the outlet end or the steam generating unit to the radiator, the other conduit providing a return e from the radiator to the opposite end of the steam generating unit, a water supply connecsteam circulatory system and the water cooling system of the motor joined to said system at the conduit forming the return passage. a check valve in the conduit forming the return passage from the radiator to the steam generator located between that portion of the return passage extending from the radiator to said supp y connection preventing flow in said returnpassage in a direction from the generator to the radiator, a portion of said conduit extending from the outlet or the generating unit to the radiator unit being elevated above the water level of the water cooling system of the motor preventing flooding of the steam circulating system.
5. A steam heating system for a motor vehicle. having a motor and a water circulatory cooling system therefor, a steam circulatory system including a steam generating unit subject to the heating influence of the exhaust products of combustion from the motor, a radiator unit and steam circulatory conduits interconnecting opposite ends of the generator to the radiator units, characterized by an automatic fluid exchange interconnecting means between the steam circulatory system and the water circulatory cooling system of the motor, operable in response to fluctuations or pressure in the steam circulatory system in relatlon with those of the water cooling system, the water flowing from higher pressure to lower pressure, and means for varying the heating influence of the products of combustion from the motor upon said generating unit, said last mentioned means including an expansion chamber communicating with the steam circulatory system and an adjustable deflector connected thereto controlled by the expansion and contraction of the chamber to decrease the heating effect of the products of combustion upon the steam when expanded due to an increase of the physical characteristics thereof.
SAMUEL P. ARNOLD.