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Publication numberUS2076472 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateApr 6, 1937
Filing dateFeb 26, 1936
Priority dateFeb 26, 1936
Publication numberUS 2076472 A, US 2076472A, US-A-2076472, US2076472 A, US2076472A
InventorsBernard London
Original AssigneeBernard London
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Building construction
US 2076472 A
Abstract  available in
Images(12)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

B. LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 26, 1936 llllillml I,|||||HIIlm-'minimun www 12 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEYS @9 pm 5 w37- B. LONDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION' 12 Sheets-Sheet 2 ilHll l w m Filed Feb. 26, i936 INVENTOR i 1a S www R L o M m m April 6, 1937.. l B, LONDON 2,076,472

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION v Filed Feb. 26, 195e 12 sheets-sheet s ATTORNEYS April 6, 1937. B. LONDON BULDING` CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 2e, 1956 12 sheets-Sheet 4 April 6, 1937. B.| oNDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION 12 Sheets-Sheet 6 Filed Feb. 26, 1936 T11?. E4. l, 7? 2/5, ,/75 2/,5 /73 Z6 W Rld ww. m0 .R l- OEL o 7V Zmd, A 4 m 6 l 2 m my@ ZJB 7N 7 U April 6, 1937 LONDON 2,076,472

BUILDING CONSTRUCTION v I y Filed Feb. 26, 1936 Y 12 Sheets-Sheet 7 25%( W25 l 125'# 125" l /27 /26 127 Bernard London ATTORNEYS Filed Feb. 26, 1956 l2 Sheets-Sheet 8 m mm f Md u M l .w @/A )V/ s .Y 7 0 u .w3 M l mw n rw ./I\ 7 0MMNNMHW M 3 z m W m m M M Ex/ ...mw 4 /1J. 5 .l 0 v .H u w l||||| V |||h| u, l N l u lll|| Ulu u u vivir WIW W W W W v v U .5 4 mw 1 1w@ 2 2 .m &0 [w Z o 2 4 4 m 4 Qo@ w8 m m m a a. z zw,

TTORNEYS AP 5, 1937. B. LONDON A BUILDING CONSTRUCTION l2 Sheets-Sheet 9 Filed Felb.v 26, 1936 lNvENToR er/z'ard 'Lona/011 i T if L L.

' April 6, 1937. B. LONDON 2,076,472 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 26, 1936 12 Sheets-Sheet 10 INVENTOR I Ber/iard London ATTORNEYS 6, go B LCNDON BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed Feb. 2e, 193s 12 Sheets-Sheet 12 RMMS mn ma .R WL m M e @created pr. 6, w3?

arrears l BUILDING consumen 53 Claims.

This invention relates to building construction.

This application is a continuation in part of my application Serial No. 23,669, entitled Building Construction,.iiled May 25, 1935.

One of the objects of this invention is to providea practical and inexpensive building con#v struction and to facilitate and expedite speedy and inexpensive fabrication vof building units or parts, the assembly thereof in practice, and the construction of a building in general. Another 'object is to provide practical and durable means of assembling, either in course of fabrication as in a factory or in the c ourse of construction work or erection in the field, component parts of my building construction.

Another object is -.to provide a strong, dependable, eficient, and yet inexpensive, `building-wall constructicn utilizing concrete and also to achieve such a construction in such a way as tov facilitate, eiiiciently and inexpensively, the incorporation therein, if desired, of heat insulating materials or constructions. I

Another object is to -provide a building construction embodying therein concrete with a reinforcement that is inexpensive, practical,` du` rable, of light weight, strong, and capable of being quickly and inexpensively embodied into the structure. Another object is to provide a concrete partition or wall structure capable of rapid and inexpensive construction in the field and in which may be embodied, if desired, any of a wide range of sheet materials for either interior or exterior surface finish thereof. or both, and

in which may be embodied dependable and efficient heat insulation means.

Another object is to provide a strong, efficient, light and inexpensive means for spacing and holding apart sheet materials to form portions of a building, or the like. and where and if desired to form with concrete poured in between thespaced sheet material a strong, light. and durable, yet inexpensive. reinforcement for the concrete. Another object is to provide a building construction of the above-mentioned character t which will lend itself to Wider variety or diversification of installation or interrelation as, for example, with certain other types of material of building construction or of wall surfacing and thus to provide a greater and wider range ofy fiexibility of use or application of certain building units o-f my invention. Other objects will be in part obvious or in part pointed out hereinafter.

The invention accordingly consists in the fea'- tures of construction, combinations of elements,.

and arrangements of parts as will be exemplified Bernard LondonrNew York, N. Y. .y Applieatioin February 26,I 1936, Serial No. 65,7%

(Cl. l2-1.6)

in the structure to'be hereinafter described and the scope of thev application of which will be'indicated in the following claims.

In the accompanying drawings, in which are shown certain of various possible embodiments of my invention, all by way of illustration,

Figure 1 is a horizontal sectional view on an enlarged scale through a wall. such as an outside wall showing certain features of my invention as carried out when it is desired to embody, in constructing the building, means such as poured congcrete;

Figure 2 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of a. spacing and reinforcing element em-v ployed in the construction of Figure 1; 4

Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view through an outside wall showing certain features of construction of the latter and of a preferred method oi assembly thereof in actual practice;

Figure 4 is a perspective view o n an enlarged scale of another form of spacing and reinforcing element;

Figure 5 is a top plan View of a building unit embodying sheet metal outer elements with appropriate spacing means;

.Figure 6 is a similar view showing another mode of assembly thereof;

Figure 7 is a horizontal sectional view showinga wall construction embodying one form of reinforcing spacer and related sheet members;

Figure 8 is a front elevation of the structure of Figure 7 with the front sheet member broken away, substantially `as seen along the line 8 8 of Figure '7;

Figure 9 is a view like that of Figure 8, showing a modied form of construction;

Figure l0 is a view like Figure 7 showing another form of attachment of sheet members to the reinforcing spacer;

Figure 1l. is a horizontal sectional view of a wall construction including features such as those of Figures -1 and 2 with some modication and showing also the relation of the Wall to, for example, a'doorframe and a windowframe:

Figure 12 is a. vertical sectional view on an enlarged scale as seen along the line 12--12 of Figure 11; i

Figure 13 is a horizontal sectional view of a wall construction showing another vform of attachment of sheet members to the reinforcing spacer;

Figure 14 is an elevation as seen along the line lll-I4 of Figure 13;

Figure 15 is'a vertical sectional view as seen along the line IE-IB of Figure 13;

Figure 16 is a plan view of certain sheet material used in my construction showing one form of slotting thereof;

Figure 17 is a transverse sectional view thereof as seen along the line iI-I'i of Figure 16;

Figure 18 is a view like Figure 16 showing a dierent form of slotting;

Figure 19 is a view like that of Figure 16 showing another form of possible slotting;

Figure 20 is a sectionalview as seen along the line 20-20 of Figure 19;

Figure 21 is a view like that of Figure 16 showing another possible form of slotting;

Figure 22 is a sectional view as seen along thev line 22-22 of Figure 21;

Figure 23 is a plan view of a sheet material like that of Figure 21 with certain sheet metal means related thereto;

Figure 24 is a sectional view thereof as seen along the line 24-2I of Figure 23;

Figure 25 is a sectional view like that of Figure 24 showing a modified form of construction;

Figure 26 is a view like that of Figure 24 showing another possible form of construction;

25 Figure 27 is a vertical sectional view of a partition wall construction;

Figure 28 is a horizontal sectional view thereof as seen along the line 28-28 of Figure 27;

Figure 29 is a vertical sectional view of a mold- 30 ing or coving which may be related to the partition wall structure of Figure 27;

Figure 30 is a horizontal sectional view of a wall construction embodying a modified form of spacer construction;

Figure 31 is a vertical sectional view as seen along the line :il-3| of Figure 30;

Figure 32 is a vertical sectional view as seen along the line 32-32 of Figure 30;

Figure 33 is a horizontal sectional view of a wall construction showing a possible mode of construction for assembling sheet members to spacer members;

Figure 34 is a vertical sectional view thereof as seen along the line 34-34 of Figure 33;

Figure 35 is a view like that ofl Figure 34 showing a modied form of construction;

Figure 36 is a view-like Figure 3 showing the manner in which certain features of my inven tion may be assembled for reception of poured concrete;

Figure 37 is a vertical sectional view showing a ooring and ceiling construction;

Figure 38 is a vertical sectional view showing the relation of the floor and ceiling construction of Figure 37 to a wall;

Figure 39 is a plan view as seen from the top of Figure 36 but showing also how the construction may be carried around a corner;

Figure 40 is a side elevation partly insection,

for example as seen along the line 40-40 -of AFigure 36, showing certain details of the construction and also means for spacing the reinforcing spacer members;

Figure 41 is a sectional view on an enlarged scale as seen along the line 4I-4I of Figure 40;

Figures 42 and 43 are, respectively, vertical sectional views, on an enlarged scale, like that of Figure 4l, showing possible modified forms of transverse spacer members for the reinforcingspacers;

Figure 44 is a top plan view of a building unit construction;

Figure 45 is a view of a modiedform of building unit construction as seen from the top there. '75 of, for example;

Figure 46 is a vertical sectional view as seen along theline 46-46 of Figure 45;

Figure 47 vis a sectional view like that of Figure 46 showing a modified form of construction;

Figure 48 is a transverse sectional view of a sheet material out of which certain .parts of my construction may be made;

Figure 49 is a front elevation showing an adaptation of parts of the structure of Figure 48;

Figures 50 and 51 are sectional views of possible forms of corner constructions;

employed in the corner structure of Figure 2.'

Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views in the drawings.

Referring now rst to Figure 1, I have there shown in horizontal section a wall construction having a portion 60 thereof constructed like the building units disclosed in my application Serial No. 752,969,1led November 14, 1934, now Patent" No. 2,039,601 or as is described in my co-pending application Serial No. 23,369, filed May 25, 1935, or embodying structural features later described herein and shown more particularly in Figures 45, 46 and 47. The portion'li comprises inner and outer sheet members 6I and 62 made, as described in my above-mentioned applications, of any suitable material and they may', for example, be cast or formed of materials like cement, materials such as are used in tiles and including glaze, any other appropriate material capable of fabrication into the sizes and shapes desired, such as asbestos composition, ilberboard, so-called sheet rock, plasterboard, maze-wood, cardboard, sheet metal, or the like, or they may be cut or sheet stone, marble, or the like; they are preferably dimensioned as to length and breadth to give any desired size of ultimate building unit, the dimensions illustratively being like those set forth in my above-mentioned applications.

Interposed between the spaced slab-like members 6| and 62 is a cellular construction generally indicated at B3 and as illustrated in Figure 1 it is of a construction such as is fully described and shown in my application Serial No. 23,369, though, as indicated above, it may take the form of the cellular structure of my application Serial No. 752,969, or the form later described herein, or, so far as certain other features of my invention are concerned, it may take any suitable or desired form. The parts 6I, 63 and 62 are secured together as described in my aforesaid application and achieve advantages of structure and action as therein fully described; it might be noted that among the latter advantages are inexpensiveness of construction, lightness of weight, speed of assembly, heat insulation, soundproofness, fire resistance, and the like.

To the outer member t2 there is secured in any suitable manner or integrally formed therewith a suitable number of vertically extending two.

I then provide for each building unit 60 a sheet member 66 of preferably substantially the same area as the member B2 thereof; sheet member 66 may be of any of the materials above-mentioned ao'rama tile, marble, glass, ceramics, composition board,

etc., and it has secured to it or integrally formed therewith a suitable number of vertically extending dovetail members 6l and .69 spaced to correspond with the spacing of the dovetail members 64 and 65 etc. of the building unit t6.

l0 I then provide spacers illustratively taking the form as is better shown at '69 in Figure 2. vThe spacer 69 is preferably made of lsheet metal thus lending itself to speedy and inexpensive fabrication and it has other features giving it substantial 1 5 strength and rigidity.

For example, it has a central strip-like portion which is stamped or formed as at 'il preferably along its median or center line to bulge out of the plane of the central portion 10, thereby giving .20 the lengthwise extending portion l0- 1i adequate strength and resistance to bending.

At appropriateintervals along its length the member 69 is cut or slit transversely and the resultant pairs of members are bent alternately in opposite directions out of the plane of the portion 1U; thereby are formed pairs 72-13 of arms directed to the right as seen in Figure 2 -and spaced vertically therefrom are pairs of arms 'I4- 15 extending to the left of the plane of portion 10, etc. These various arms are, furthermore, bent again as shownto provide extreme end portions 16 inclined to each other and spaced apart to substantially mate with the angles and spacing ci the inclined vettical races of the dove- `tails 64-65 etc. of the `buildingunits B0 and dovetails lil-63. etc. of the outer sheet members 66.

The sheet members 5I and 62 and the cellular material S3 are shaped, at the edges-of the building units, to interiit, as shown clearly at the left portion of-Figure l, the 'cellular portion 63 of adjacent units being repeatedly reentrant so as .to interlock or inteilt. f Accordingly, having assembled a suitable number of building units Gil in, for example, the manner described in my above-mentioned applications, I then assemble to the exterior thereof a corresponding number of sheet members 66 (Figure l) utilizing spacer members 69 to interengage with the respective dovetails., resulting in the relation better shown in- Figure 1 and thereby mechanically and securely holding the member or members 66 parallel and in accurate alinement with each other and with respect .to the interiltted wall units 60.

Into the space thus provided between the wall v'units and the sheet members 65 I now pour concrete or other appropriate plastic material indi cated at 'il in Figure l. Material il is-of a thickness commensurate with the spacing between the wall units and the sheet members 66 and that, of course, may be made whateve'r it is desired by correspondingly constructing the spacers 69. 'The poured concrete bonds itself to the wall units 65 and also to the sheet members 66 and,further more, interlockswith the various dovetails on both the outside sheet members 66 and on -the building units 6B for, it will be noted, the alter. natearrangement of the pairs of gripping arms of the spacer 69 (Figure 2) insures a free flow of the concrete into interlocking interengagement with the thereby exposed portions of the various dovetails.

By suitably selecting the material of which the 75 external sheet members 66 are made, as already illustratively set forth above, the external face of the wall is neat and smooth and requires no patching up or surface finishing, as is the case with present-day methods of pouring concrete structures, where the forms are subsequently removedand the impressions left by the forms, usually of timber, in the exposed surfaces.l of the concrete have to be gone over or otherwise surfaced or finished. Furthermore, unless specially treated kconcrete is soft and'porous but with my invention and by appropriately selecting the ma terials of the external sheet members, the latter make the wall structure externally waterproof and waterfresistant, and capable o withstanding rough. wear and also the elements.

The resultant construction is one that embodies numerous of the advantages of concrete, the latter, it being noted. being wellreinforced by the spacer and reinforcing members 69, the latter having also the effect of increasing the load-carrying capacity of the resultant structure.

The external wall finish has been just mentioned above and as for the remainder of the wall, as made up by the building units 6G, the latter give thereto such important advantages as those noted above. not the least of which is desirable heat inof the sealed or cellular construction 63, the building units 60 may take the form shown in Figure 44 in -which the outer and inner sheet members 62 and 6I have interposed therebetween a repeatedly-and alternately reentrant, illustratively,

corrugated. sheet member 18 whose waves, curvatures, alternations cr corrugaticns are of a depth commensurate with the spacing that is desired to be maintained between the outer and inner sheet members 62. 6I. Sheetmember 68 is fabricated of any suitable material, for example, such of the materials earlier mentioned as lend themselves .to

such fabrication. The three parts 6l, i8 and 62 are secured together in any suitable manner, preferably along the lines of tangency thereof, as by metallic tie members, nailsjstaples, screws, rivets, wire, or the like, as indicated at 89, land a preferred manner of securing them together is by way of a preferably water-insoluble cement 19 applied where and as shown in Figure 44, thereby to coact with the respective sheet members throughout substantial areas. The cement employed may be such-as those mentioned in my above-mentioned applications.

Another form which the building units 60 may take is shown in Figures 45 and 46 in which another mode of achieving a sealed air cell or cellular structure is shown. Here areshown the inner and outer sheet members 62 having interposed between them two corrugated sheet members 80 and BI spaced from one another, members 80 and @I being otherwise like the member i8 of Figure i 44, with, however, smaller corrugations.

The crests of member 8l are slotted as at 8|a and in the same plane the troughs of membe1s il!)- are slotted as at 80a (see also Figure 46). Into these slots Sile-Bla, all alined and in the same plane, is received a strip-like sheet member 82 (Figures 45 and 46) shaped as is better shown in that are received in the slots and the curved line -portions thereof are shaped to be seated into the corresponding troughs o f the waved or corrugated members 80-8I. A suitable number of members 82 are interposed between the corrugated members 80-8i in a direction transversely to the axes of the corrugations thereof, and in Figure 46 three such members 82 are shown; they thus act to space the members 80-8l and also to sub-divide the space therebetween into chambers;

The members 80-8|, however, are also slotted intermediate of the slots 80 and 8|; thus, the crests of member 80 are slottedas at 80b (see also Figure 46) and preferably in the same plane the troughs of member 8`| are slotted as at 8ib to receive strip-like sheet members 83 and 84, respectively, member 83 having a straight edge 83b that seats against the sheet member -62 and having a juxtaposed edge shape-d as is better shown in the right-hand portion of Figure 45 by the broken and closed chambers, cells, or lair pockets.

The various parts are held in assembled relation by any suitable cement, thereby also sealing the various cells and chambers. When made of a suitable heat non-conducting material, heat transmission through the resultant wall structure or building unit, by conduction, is effectively minimized or negatived by reason of the long paths of flow which the heat must take in passing from one sheet member 82 to the other sheet member 5| or vice versa (see Figure 46), each possible path of flow being very materially greater than the shortest straight line distance between the two sheet members. heat insulation are some of those mentioned in my above-mentioned applications.

The construction of Figures -46 also lends itself readily to the use of sheet metal, as is indicated in Figure 47, which is a fragmentary sectional view like that of Figure 46; here the members, which in'Figure 46 are the members 82, take the form of sheet metal members 85 which are provided with prongs or ears` 85-81 which are oppositely bent over after passage through the slots 80a (or 8 ial as the case may be) and thus the members 85 facilitate assembly and the securing together of the various parts. In like manner the members 83 and 84 of Figure 46 may be made of sheet metal and similarly provided with bendable ears that are bent over after passage through the slots in the corrugated members. Though metallic parts are employed in the modification of Figure 47, it will be noted that any path of heat flow that includes such members includes, however, a substantial length of path through the insulating or heat non-conducting material of the corrugated members 80 and 8|, and thus it is still possible to achieve satisfactory heat insulation.

The building unitsor wall portion 50 of Figure 1 may, it will thus be seen, also take other forms, illustratively those of Figures 44-47, and

it is with such constructions as these that I may Other advantages in interrelate poured concrete with reinforcing spacers and with exterior sheeting, as was described in connection with Figures 1 and 2 but which may take certain other forms according to other features of my invention.

For example, instead of utilizing a plurality of spacer members 68, as shown in Figures 1 and'2, I may employ a unitary reinforcing spacer construction, such as is shown in perspective in Figure 4, wherein a portion of one of these members, generally indicated by the reference character 80, clearly appears as to its structural features.I

Member is made of sheet metal of any suitable or appropriate gage or thickness or character and because of certain features of its construction a relatively light gage of sheet metal may be employed. Its construction is such as lends itself to ready manufacture, as by way of a suitable press operating, for example, in successive steps or stages to give the initially plane sheet metal the desired features of shape and construction. It is shaped to have a number of vertically extending column portions, of which 4 are shown, at 8|, 82, 83 and 84, in Figure 4 by way of illustration, each comprising a rib R pressed out of the plane of the plane face pol:- tions F, being in general'similar toI the parts 'I0-'ii of Figure 2 already described.

The sheet metal intervening these vertical column portions 8|, 82, etc., is slit or cut horizontally to form a considerable number of strap-like horizontal connecting portions which are pressed or bent alternately out of the plane of the co1- umn members 8|, 82, etc. Thus, in Figure l4, thereis an upper row of strap-like connectors 85, 80 and 81, shaped to have inclined wings W1 and VW joined at their outer and inner ends by a Across-piece C, they latter having preferably a rib R1 pressed therein.

The next row of strap-like connector portions has the latter extending to the opposite side of the plane of the column portions 8|, 82, etc., and the illustrative three connector portions appear in Figure 4 at 88, 88 and |00, each comprising portions W1, C, R1 and W2, as above described.

The next horizontal row comprises the connector parts |0I, |02, |03 extending to the same side of the plane of the column parts as do the connector parts 85, 88, 8l, the next horizontal f' row comprises the connector parts |04, |05, |06 extending to the same side of the central plane as do the parts 88, 88, |00, and so on, it being noted that the parts W1, C, R1 and VW of all of the connector parts that extend in vertical rows are respectively alined; these parts 88, |04, etc., parts 85, |0i, etc. form two vertical rows, one to each side of the central plane, and so on.

At its vertical ends the member 80 terminates preferably in such a way as to interfit with another member 80 that may be alined with it edge to edge to form a continuation. The members 80 may be made of any suitable size or dimension; illustratively, the spacing center to center of the column portions 8|, 82, 83, etc. may be on the order of ilve inches or so, the vertical dimension or width of the connecting strap-like members, such as member or 88 or |05 may be on the order of two inches, and hence' the spacing between the horizontal rows is of a like order. Each one of these connecting strap-like members may protrude from the central plane by a distance on the order of two inches. making the thickness of the member 80 on the order of four inches. Member Sil'may be of any desired vertical and horizontal dimensions depending upon the specific character of application thereof and within the range of feasible or commei-cial construction out of plain sheet metal; illustratively each member Sli may be several feet in height and several feet in width; if desired, they may be made of dimensions commensurate with those of, the individual building units 6I, as to length and breadth.

Also, and if desired, the members 90 may be made without the ribs R1 of Figure 4 and in Figure 5 such a construction ofthe member 90 is shown, the portion C being devoid of the rib R1. In eithercase I employ the member 90 to make up a building unit preferably for the reception of concrete and in Figure 5 such a unit is shown comprising the member @Il with sheet members H0 and Hi, each on one side of the member 90 2o and resting ilatwise against the faces C of the latter, to which they are respectively secured in any suitable manner. Where the members I Ill, Iii are made of sheet metal, this securing may be effected as by Welding, as is indicated in Figure 5 at H2; or I may employ rivets H3 (Figure 6) where the sheet members liti and i il are of a material to permit their use,such as sheet metal, berboard, and like relatively tenacious composition sheets or other appropriate material. Where I employ rivets, the latter may be arranged in any desired geometrical, decorative or other ornamental or attractive scheme or arrangement as may be permitted by the avail- `ability of faces C of the interposed spacer and reinforcing member et.

Where the construction is 4thus made unitary, as in Figures 5 and 6,'the three-part construction may be prefabricated in suitable units of appropriate size and shipped for installation and ,lo ise on the job in a manner more fully described a er.

Of the wide variety of commercially available non-metallic sheet materials, of which a number are illustratively mentioned above, I mayand I, preferably do employ other means for securing such sheet members to the respective sides of the spacer and reinforcing member 50. Illustratively,l

the faces C ci the member 9G, turning now to Figure f1, are preferably plane and there are struck up two alined tongues I it and il 5 (see also Figure 8), extending vertically, but bent away from each other at their outer ends, thus in plan view (Figure 7) to give the general eiect of the shape of the letter 4T. The member d@ thus ap pears with vertical rows of alined T-shaped projections lill-H5, the rows being horizontally spaced.

Now the sheet members to be related to the `member 98, shown in Figure 7 at H6 and Ii'i, are provided with slots or grooves i I8 correspondingly spaced horizontally and preferably T- shaped in cross-section, as is better shown in Figures 16 and 17, slots H8 being preferably of slightly lesser dimension than the T-shaped tongues iid-lid.

Accordingly, the sheets i l-l l 'l (Figures '7 and 8) may be secured to the reinforcing and spacer member a@ by sliding one relative to the other so that'the alined tongues lili-I i5 snugly and tightly enter the T-shaped slots H8, the assembly resulting in what is shown in Figure 7.

Under some circumstances, it may be desirable to arrange these parts for interrelation by sliding them together horizontally rather than vertically, 75 and in such case the T-shaped tongues llt-I I5 Yextend horizontally of faces C ratherthan vertically, as in Figures 7 and 8, and in Figure 9 this horizontal relation is shown, the horizon-y tally extending T-forming prongs or tongues being shown at illab and HB. In such case the slots H8 in the sheet material extend horizontally or if the spacing is `appropriate the sheet members of Figure 'l' are simply turned through 90 and then interrelated with the T-forming tongues. i

Where desired, the sheet material may be given T-shaped slots or grooves extending in both horizontal and vertical directions, as is indicated in Figure 18 in which a sheet member H8 appears with vertical T-shaped slots I le and horizontal.

'If-shaped slots H9 intersecting them; though in Figure 18 the spacings are the same so as to form a series or squares it is to be understood that the spacings between the vertical slots and the spacingsbetween the horizontal slots need not be the same but may be diierent to meet the requirements of constructions of the spacer members 90 in which the T-forming prongs or parts might be arranged in rows of .different spacings; for example, the vertical rows of Figures 'l' and 8 may be spaced differently from the spacing of the horizontal rows of T-forming members of Figure 9. In such case, the sheet member llta of Figure 18 serves both contingencies.

' Thus, the three-part structure, -like that of Figure 7, may, ii' desired, be prefabricated or may be assembled on the eld or on the job. However, to facilitate such assembly and to avoid having to slide the several parts, in course of assembly, relative to one another throughout their entire length or lengths, a matter which might on the field entail some disadvantages, I may employ other structural interrelations, illustratively that shown` in Figures 13, le and 15. Turning first to Figure 13, the spacer member 9o is again shown but with the plane parts C thereof c provided with a rib R2 which, instead of 'being arcuate, as shown in Figure 4, is angular, as shown in Figure 13; in'- its two faces the rib R? is provided with substantially rectangular holes i2@ and itl (Figure la). in order to permit the insertion therethrough of hook-shaped tongues l 22 and lit, respectively, of a central V-shaped rib R3 that mates with the rib R2 of a sheet metal member iid. suitably and `rigidly secured to the sheet member iii.

Member i255 extends throughout the length oi the sheet member till, there being a number of vthem secured thereto and parallel to each other,

being spaced (Figure 13) to correspond with the spacing center to center of the vertically alined parts or rowsI C of the member @d The members |26 may be secured to the sheet material il? by oppositely bent prongs or tongues tatie and ld interlocked with the slotsv iid, the latter being preferably T-shaped, as above noted, and in each case and preferably the cppositely directed tongues, when they enter the slots, act like saw teeth to undercut the side walls of the slots and thus securely interengage the sheet material.

The other sheet member il@ (Figure 13) is similarly provided with members E24. Accordingly, having initially erected the member a@ in verticalposition, the sheet members i l and lil, with their spaced members I2@ provided with the .hook-shaped tongues |22-l23fmay be quickly and speedily assembled to the member Sii (see Figures le and 15) bycausing all of the hookshaped tongues i22-I23 to passy through the Yholes |20 and i2irespectively, in the parts C and then by moving the sheet member downl spacer members where they take the form 'of the members I9 of Figures 1 and 2 as above described, I may adopt the structural features shown in Figures 30 and 32. Referring first to Figure 30,

there is there shown a single spacer member of v l a construction generally similar to that shown in Figure 2; it has the same central plane portion 10 reinforced by the rib 1|, as in Figure 2, and projecting therefrom are the arms 12-13 in one level and arms 14, 15 in a diiferent level,

the pairs of arms alternating as was the case with those of Figure 2.

The ends of these arms, however, are each provided with oppositely bent prongs or tongues and |25" (Figure 30) similar to the tongues 25 |24* and |24b above described in connection with Figure 13 and like the latter they are adapted to interengage with the sheet material in suitable slots in the latter.

. 'This sheet material shown in Figure 30 at |25 and |21, is, however, provided with slots or grooves cut or molded therein in any suitable manner, the slots being parallel and appropriately spaced and each having a shape such as is better shown in Figure 32 in which a single slot |21 appears in elevation and is shown to comprise alternate portions |21* and |21b of the same `depth but of different widths; thus, slot portions |21L are narrow, being somewhat less vin width than the width of the pronged ends Inl-|20", as viewed in Figure 30, while the slot portions |21 are of slightly greater width than these pronged portions.

` Furthermore, these slot portions are of substantially the same length as the dimension of `the arms 12, 13, 14, 15 in the direction of the central ribbed portion 10 thereof.

Accordingly, in assembling the sheet sections |20 and |21 with respect to the spacer construc-V I tion, the pronged ends of the arms are simply seated into the wider slot portions |21, into which they are easily received, whereupon the sheet or sheets and the sheet metal spacer member are given a relative movement in the direction of the length of the slots |21, thereby forcing the prongs or tongues |25's-i25b into the material of the sheets, causing them to undercut their way into the substance of the sheet material, this relative movement proceeding throughout a distance equal to the length of a slot portion |21. The ,60 prongs or tongues act like saw teeth and cut themselves a path so as to form ultimately with the slot portions |21* what is virtually a T-slot, but it will be noted that the relative movement I necessary to achieve assembly is but a very.small 65 one. Thus, assembly is greatly facilitated either in course of fabrication or in the field. Figure 32 being a section along the line 32-32 of Figure 30, the above described interrelations of the parts are shown in full lines and in broken lines.

In Figures 30 and 31 I have shown also how I may make the sheet metal spacer and reinforcing member of lighter sheet metal and still achieve substantial strength or how I may strengthen the spacer constructions already above-described. 15 Thus, I may stamp or emboss ribs |20 (Figures 30 and 3l) in each of the arms, thereby giving them greater'strength' and rigidity.

Furthermore, the central rib portion 10 may be strengthened and reinforced by a sheet metal member |20 shaped to interflt with it along its length, as shown in igures 30 and 3l, being similarly arcuate where ribbed lengthwise. and to quickly and dependably secure them together I may spot 'weld them or I may provide in the part 10 suitable holes ,|30 (Figures 30 and 3l) and press or stamp out of the member |29 tongues |3| shaped with respect to the apertures |00 to be easily received therethrough and 'to take in back of the rib parts'10.

Of course, with all of the above described arrangements of assembling the sheet material to the reinforcing and spacer construction or metal core, the subsequent pouring of the concrete, as is preferred procedure, into the spaces between the sheet members and the spacer construction insures a ilnal and solid securing together of the entire construction, for thereby the cement or concrete becomes bonded to the spaced sheet members and securely holds them together, the spacer construction reinforcing-the concrete and permitting the thickness of the concrete layer to be made much less than would otherwise be the l case.

In Figures 33 and 34 I have shown another mode of interrelating the reinforcing spacer means and the sheet'members and illustratively the spacer construction preferably takes the form of that shown in Figure 4 `and above described in full. The sheet members |4| and |42 have secured. to them corrugated strips |43 and |44, respectively, these strips being made of any suitable material, such as those of the materials above mentioned for the composition of the sheet members themselves as lend themselves to a configuration such as that of the strips of Figure 33.

For example, these strips may be sawed or cut out of a large'sheet of corrugated composition board, the width of the strips being equal to or slightly less than the spacing between successive horizontal rows of projecting portions of the spacer construction; illustratively, this spacing may be equal to the vertical spacing between the parts 80 and |04 of the structure of Figure 4 or the vertical spacing between alternate pairs oi arms of the spacer structure of Figure 2.

Furthermore, the coniiguration of the strips |43, |44 is such that the troughs therein occur at spacings equivalent to the spacings horizontally between the vertical rows of projecting parts of the structure of Figure 4 so that there is one trough, for example, for each of the parts 00, 90, |00, etc., of Figure 4. Where the spacer of Figure 2 is employed, enough spacer members are employed and they are so spaced as to provide one spacer for each trough of the corrugated strips.

These corrugated strips are secured crosswise of the sheet members |4|, |42 in parallel to each other and vertically spaced by the vertical dimension of the projecting portions 90, |04, etc.,

4of Figure 4, or the vertical spacing of the alternate arms of the structure of Figure 2. These strips |43, |44 are secured to their respective sheet members |4|, |42 in any suitable manner, illustratively by a suitable cement indicated in Figures 33 and 34 at |45, the strips being apertured as at |43n to permit the cement |45 to pass therethrough and into engagement with the sheet material, the latter being also preferably slotted or recessed as at |42* and |4|l to let the cement enter into the recesses and thus make a better bond wih the sheet material. vThe cement |45 preferably also overlaps the upper and lower edges of the strip members thereby to be brought into engagement with other portions of the sheet material.

. Sheet members, such as members |4| and |42 of Figures 33 and 34, thus equipped with reentrant strips, illustratively the corrugated strips |43, |64, respectively, are interrelated with the spacer means, the projecting portions of the strips engaging between the vertically spaced projecting portions of the reinforcing spacer means (Figure 4 or Figure 2), this interrelation requiring no relative sliding movement, and resulting in the interrelations shown in Figures 33 and 34.

If, thereafter, concrete or cement is poured in between the sheet members 14|, 162,'the concrete fills all of the spaces between each sheet member and the sheet metal reinforcing member, between the latter and the re-entrant strips, etc., and thus a unique and dependable bonding action results for the concrete interengages and interlocks with the various parts and also bonds with the faces of the sheet material itself.

In Figure l there is shown another of the various possible ways of assembling the sheet material to a reinforcing spacer construction of the kind shown in Figure 4. The latter in all of its rib portions Ri'is provided with apertures 150 (Figures 10 and 4), thus forming horizontal and vertical rows. of apertures. The sheet material shown at |5 and |52 in Figure l0 is provided with slots, as was described above in connectionwith Figures 16 and 18, for example, for the reception of fastening devices |52 (see Figure 10) which may be made of wire or sheet metal strips suitably shaped, cut, or stamped to provide oppositely directed prongs or tongues |52EL and |52b (like the prongs i2flEL and |24b previously described) so that they may engage with the T- shaped slots in the sheet material or may be `made to undercut ordinary slots in the sheet material while at their other ends the members |52 have one or more, illustratively two, yieldable or spring prongs |52c and |52'd (Figure 16') shaped and directed as shown so as to be receivable through the apertures |50 when moved in one direction only. These prongs |520, |52d form a part like an arrow head with yieldable wings or sides which yield as the member |52 is forced into the aperture |50 whereupon they spring outwardly after the arrow head part has passed through the aperture. Thus, the sheet material and the sheet metal core and reinforcing member tures approximating one-quarter of an inch in dimension, the members being preferably given fa semi-circular cross-section and being provided with tongues I 60a and |60b running lengthwise thereof adapted to rest against the sheet material shown at |6| in Figure 25. A cement |62 secures the mesh-like material |60 to the sheet material, interlocking therewith by way of the slots ||i|a therein and interlocking also withthe In application the members l|60 of thesheet material are spaced as is better shown in Figure 35 to be received between the rows of arms or projecting portions of the spacers which may be of the type shown in Figure 2 but preferably are of the type shown in Figure 4; in the latter case the members |60 extendcrosswise of the sheet metal reinforcing core member of Figure 4, as shown in Figure 35, being received in the horizontal recesses between vertically displaced rows of projecting parts. Thereupon and at suitable intervals I insert heavy wires or rods |63 and |60 (Figure 35) down through the loops formed by the projecting'portions of the construction,

such as the members 30, |05, etc., of Figure 4,

and also pass these wires or rods through the mesh or suitable apertures in the members |60,

thereby securing a satisfactory assembly ofthe parts for the reception of the poured concrete or cement.

I may, however, also secure to the sheet material but this time extending vertically and parallel to each a plurality of members, one of which is shown in Figures 23 and 24 at |10, the sheet material being indicated at |1I. The member |10 is provided with a r-ib |a extending centrally thereof and throughout its length, thus vto give the member H10 adequate rigidity and permitting the use of thinner sheet metal.

It has portions |10b and |10c to each side of the central rib |10a apertured as at |12 to permit member |10 to the sheet material |1|.

member |60 by way of its apertures and cross# Extending lengthwise along the outer edges of i the portions |10b `*and |10 are flanges |10d and 510e which, as shown in Figure 24, are thus held spaced away from the sheet material |1|.

These flanges i10d and 110e are thus available for engagement in back of them of the flange portions 16 (see Figure 2) of the reinforcing spacer construction there shown, the flanges 16, as is better shown in Figure 24, being appropriately bent to take in back of the flanges |10d and 610. By this means two spaced sheet members may be quickly assembled to the spacers 60 of Figures l and 2, and thus prepared for the reception of the concrete or other plastic material. In the preferred method of erecting a wall or the like embodying the reinforcing core or spacer members and the opposed sheet members, as above described, I prefer .to follow the method and usethe apparatus, such as is shown in Figures 36 and 39. In Figure 36 is shown a foundation or flooring |66, illustratively of concrete, and with respect to which a wall is to be erected. I provide a plurality of uprights |8| (Figures 36 and 39) preferably of structural steel so as to resist bending or warping and position them vertically but spaced horizontally, preferably utilizing a bottom channel |62 (Figure 36) in which to rest their bottom ends and thereby aline them. Extending horizontally of these` uprights |8|, |6|, etc. and vertically spaced, is a plurality of supports or brackets |03 (Figure 36) preferably of .angle cross-section or they may be of short 8 ,ovane lengths each individual to its own upright |8I. These support a plurality of horizontal `members |04, |85, |06 (Figure 36) of a length commensurate"with the length or section of the wall to be 5 erected and they are companion pieces to a bottom member |81 (Figure 36) which rests against the left-hand face of the bottom channel |,82.

Further to insure proper alinement of the members I provide a top channel member |81 l0 (Figures 36 and .39) into which the upper ends of the members extend. Suitable hinged braces |06 (Figures 36 and 39) extend from upper portions of the vertical members 6| down into a channel |89 and also braces |68ab from-thelower l portions of the members 8| to the channel |89, the latter being suitably anchored as at |90 to the floor, the part |90 having av vertical part seatedin a pipe. |99 embedded in the concrete yfloor and having a horizontal threaded part l |9| passing through the webs of the channel |06 and passing through the lpwer end of the bruce |86. By means of nuts |92. |68 the channel |90 and hence the braces |60 and braces |00 may be adjusted so that the left-hand faces ofthe uprights |0| fall in the desired plane.

To the left of the horizontal member |91, |90, |65, |86, I position a mat |00 made of any suitable relatively rigid sheet material, such as wood, composition board, sheet metal, or the like, and it may be and preferably is in sections. To the left of that I erect a suitable series of sheet members Sx and S2 with the sheet metal spacers and reinforcing-members indicated generally at Y. in

Figure 36, assembled together in any of the.

manners above described in detail, the fiooring, base, or foundation |60 having been previously provided (Figure 36) with a channel member |95 whose flanges extend upwardly and which has tongues |96 cut and bent out of the channel -40 portions and embedded (pressed into the concrete while still plastic) in the concrete or otherwise secured to the foundation or flooring |80, details of this structurebeing later described.

To the left (Figures 36 and 39) of the sheet metal S2 I provide another mat |91 held in place by horizontal members 200, 20|, 202 and 209 held horizontally by members 204 constructed like the members |88 and supported by or secured to` uprights 205 spaced and constructed similarly as are the uprights |8| above described (see 4also Figure 39).

'I'he lower ends of the uprights 205 are received in a channel member 206 which is anchored as by a hook-shaped bar 201 buried in projecting portions |98 of the concrete |00 and provided with a thread and nut 208 where it passes through a flange in the channel 206, such anchorages being provided at suitably spacedA points (see Figure 39) whereby the bottom Achannel 206 may be nicely alined with the channel |82 (Figure 36).

The upper ends of the uprights 205 extend into a channel 200 thereby nicely to aline them also.

At suitably spaced points in the upper channels 209 and |01 I provide adjustable tie means generally indicated in Figures 36 and 39 at 2|0, each preferably comprising an inverted U-shaped strap member of heavy metal hinged as at 2I| to the channel member |81 so that it may be swung in counter-clockwise direction. as viewed in Figure 36. over the wall structure and over the channel 209, a thumb screw 2|2 being provided in the left-hand portion ofthe member 2|0 so as to adjust the channel 208 into parallelism and proper spacing with respect to the companion channel member I 81. In Figure 39, these parts are shown with respect to two wall portions at right angles to each other, the parts for each wall portion being the same as above described and identified by similar reference characters.

The uprights |8| having as. above described been positioned so that theirleft-hand faces (as viewed in Figure 36) fall in a plane that is substantially truly vertical, adjusting hand screws 2|3 threaded into the uprights |8| and engag- 10 ing the horizontal members |86, |06, |86, etc., are now manipulated so as to aline the left-hand faces of the latter in a true vertical plane and thereby accurately to determine and position the mat |96 (Figure 36), and against this mat the 15 wall `sections made up of the sheet members S1.

S3 and core members X, as above described in detail, are then positioned.

By means of the hand screws 2id in the uprights 206, the left-hand mat |91 is appropriate- 20 ly adjusted by the resulting adjustment of the horizontal members 200, 202, 203, and thereby the outer sheet members S2 are properly alined.

Furthermore, the sheet members S1 and S2 are thus dependably and rigidly supported in 25 proper vertical and parallel positions and it will be noted that the arrangement is such that the sheet members S1 and S2 are prevented from separating from the intervening core or spacer and reinforcing means; thus, I am enabled with cer- 30 tainty to prevent any of the above described means for securing the sheet members and the reinforcing core or spacer structure from being subjected to severe strains as might result when the concrete is poured therebetween, particular- 35 ly if it is tamped or otherwise forced into position. For that matter the means and method just described and as shown in Figures 36 and 39, make it possible, under some circumstances and where desirable, to dispense entirely with 40 such securing means in which case the two opposed mats |04, |96 hold the sheet material and the interposed core or spacing means in appropriate assembled relation for the reception of the poured plastic material, preferably cement 5 or concrete, and in such case the plastic material or cement bonds itself to the inner faces or surfaces of the sheet members S1, S2, the latter being preferably appropriately treated as by roughenging the inner surfaces or slotting them, as is illustrativelyshown, for example, in Figures 16-19 and 21--23,the cement entering into the slots or recesses and securely bonding with'the sheet material. In Figures 21-22 the sheet material |1I is shown as provided with slots or recesses 2lb lappiri'ipriately and preferably uniformly distributed throughout one face of the sheet member; it is that construction that is. particularly advantageous where cement or Athe like is to unite with or bond with various of -the different surface areas or the entire surface area thereof. Figures 23 and 24, already above described, show. for example, how these distributed recesses 2|! become available where necessary when the sheet metal member |10 is cemented thereto.

Recurring to Figures 86 and 39, it is to be understood that though I have shown in Figure `39 vreinforcing spacer members of the type of Figure 2 above described, it is to be understood, as already above mentioned, that, in so far as broader and other features of my invention are concerned, the core structure of Figure 4 may be employed, as is later described in connection with Figure 3. Where, however, the spacer u

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Classifications
U.S. Classification52/279, 52/745.2, 52/479, 52/565, 52/480, 52/211, 52/630, 52/241, 52/275, 52/762, 52/745.13, 52/481.1
International ClassificationE04B2/86
Cooperative ClassificationE04B2/8647, E04B2/8635, E04B2/8641, E04B2002/8688, E04B2002/867
European ClassificationE04B2/86H, E04B2/86G, E04B2/86G1