US 2078501 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 5 1937- E. B. MALQoN 2,078,501
' ROAD SCRAPER Filed Nov. 27, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 6 INVENTOR.
ATTORNEYf ROAD 5 CRAPER 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed Nov. 27, 1935 INVENTOR. Q
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BY m r Patented Apr. 27, 1937 ROAD SCRAPER Earl B. Maloon, Milwaukee, Wis, minor to The Hell .00., Milwaukee, Wis., a corporation of Wisconsin Application November 27, 1935, Serial No. 51,774
Claims. (01. a'z-icel My present invention involves improvements in the art of land grading, and relates specifically to improvements in the construction and operation of road scrapers especially adapted to be 5 drawn along the ground by a tractor or the like.
An object of the present invention is to provide an improved roadscraper assemblage which is simple and durable in construction; and which is moreover flexible and highly 'efllcient in opera- It has heretofore been proposed in the art-of grading, to provide a scraper assemblage comprising a blade having a forwardly extending rigid draft arm capable of being attached to the propelling vehicle, and a supporting carriage disposed rearwardly of the blade for adjustably suspending the latter. Such a general assemblage is shown and described'in my copending application Serial No. 45,181 filed October 16, 1935, and
the rear suspension for the blade upon the supporting carriage is preferably so formed that when the scraper blade is raised and lowered relative to the ground, minimum power isrequired to free the cutting edge from the earth and rock accumulated thereon, and to properlyposition the blade at the desired grade. It is also desirable to make some provision for maintaining the grading blade in proper cutting position when relatively deep cutting is being efiected, and while this can readily be accomplished with heavy scrapers of large capacity, it presents quite a serious problem in lighter scraper assemblages.
It is therefore a more specific object of the present invention to provide an improved grader assembly of the type disclosed in my prior application above referred to, having improved mechanism for adjustably positioning the cutting blade.
Another specific object of the present invention is the provision of a new and useful scraper unit of relatively light but durable construction, having means for effectively maintaining the scraping edge in proper position at all times and especially during deep or inclined grading.
A further specificobject of the invention is to provide a relativelysmall and compact grading unit of large, capacity, which is extremely flexible in operation and adapted to cooperate effectively with sloping and relatively rough ground.
Still another specific object of the invention is the provision of improved hydraulically actuated mechanism for raising, lowering, or tilting the scraping blade of a tractor propelled road grader or the like, either from the tractor or from the grader unit itself. l5 An additional specific object of the invention is to provide an improved scraper unit which aside from being manually controllable, is entirely automatic in operation, and which canbe manufactured, sold and operated at extremely moderate cost. 5
The above and other objects and advantages ofthe present improvement, will be apparent from the following detailed description.
A clear conception of the several features constituting the present invention, and of the mode 10 of constructing and of manipulating road scrapers built in accordance with the improvement, maybe had by referring to the drawings accompanying and forming a part of this specification in which like reference characters designate the 16 same or similar parts in the various views.
Fig. l is a side elevation of the improved hydraulically actuated scraper unit, showing the same in normal surface grading condition;
Fig. 2 is an end View of the. scraper unit of 20 Fig. 1, showing one of the rear suspension wheels in dot-and -dash lines in its lowermost position of adJustment, and similarly illustrating the other rear wheel in its uppermost position;
Fig. 3 is a side elevation similar to Fig. 1, show- 25 ing the scraper blade elevated away from the ground surface, as during normal transportation of the unit without scraping; and
Fi 4 is another similar side elevation of the scraper, showing the blade lowered and perform- 30 ing deep grading.
While the invention is shown and described herein as being specifically applied to a road scraper of a particular type adapted for scraping duty alone, it is not the intent to thereby unnec- 3 5 essarily restrict the scope; and some of the novel features of grader construction shown but not specifically claimed herein, form the subject of my copending application Serial No. 45,181, filed October 16,1935. 40
Referring to the drawings, the improved road scraper comprises in general, a grading'or cutting blade 5 secured by bolts 6 to the lower portion of 'a curved rear wall I which is rigidly attached at its opposite extreme ends, to the rear 45 end portions of laterally spaced side plates 8 the upper front portions of which arev rigidly connected to the ends of a. cross-beam 9 to the medial portion of which a goose-neck arm I 0 is firmly secured; a draw bar ll having a rear pivot I2 50 joumaled in the lower front portion of the arm l0, and provided with a series of transverse holes ii to which a clevis I4 is adapted to be swingably attached by means of a coupling pin I 5; a pair of rear supporting wheels it each of which is rotat ably mounted in a housing bracket l8 having laterally spaced rearwardly and upwardly extending projections I9, 20 respectively; a transverse suspension bar 2| secured to the rear extremities of massive ears 22 formed integral with and projecting rearwardly from a backing plate 23 rigidly attached to the rear wall I; and hydraulic jacks 24 connecting the upper portion of the plate 23 with the upper ends of the projections 28.
The frame or bowl assembly including the rear wall 1, side plates 8, cross beam 9, front arm III, backing plate 23, and ears 22, is preferably formed of strong metal plates and tubing, welded or otherwise rigidly united to form an integral and durable structure, and one or more reenforcing walls 25 may be interposed between the crossbeam 9 and'the curved rear wall 1, intermediate the side plates 8 in order to enhance the rigidity. The top of the bowl is, however, preferably left open, and the space in front of the blade 5 should be kept clear and relatively free from obstruction. The opposite side edges of the backing plate 23 are rigidly attached to the rear extremities of the side plates 8, while the forwardly projecting top and bottom portions of the plate 23 are likewise rigidly attached to the top and bottom of the wall I, thereby providing a transverse beam having an exceedingly strong box section for supporting the ears 22.
The construction of the draw bar is obviously such that it provides a universal draft connection adapted for attachment to a tractor or other haulage vehicle. The rear pivot |2 provides a substantially horizontal swivel having its axis located in the central vertical plane of the bowl, and the pin |5 provides a horizontal transverse pivot which may be disposed at different selected distances from the ground surface by causing the pin to coact with any of the holes I3. The clevis I4 is alsoprovided with a vertical front opening 26 which is adapted toreceive the upright coupling pin of the tractor so as to provide for relative horizontal angular displacement of the tractor and trailing scraper assembly when turning corners.
The scraper supporting wheels l6 are of relatively massive and heavy construction, being formed hollow and having their interiors either partially or completely filled with fluent material 21 such as liquid or fine shot, see Fig. 2. The axles 28 of the wheels l6 are journaled in bearings 29 firmly'attached to the side walls of the adjacent housing bracket l8, and the brackets I may be provided with top coverings for the wheels l6 and have scraper blades 3|! which are cooperable with the wheel peripheries in order to remove excess mud. The laterally spaced rearwardly extending projections I! of each housing bracket l8, are rigidly connected by a bracing tube 3|, and these tubes 3| embrace cylindrical end portions 32 of the bar 2|, so as to permit independent upward and downward swinging of each wheel IS with its suspension bracket i8. As previously indicated, the bar 2| is rigidly attached to the ears 22, and the ears 22 are rigidly attached to the remainder of the scraping frame, thus compelling the wheels 16 to assume parallel positions at all times during relative bodily displacement thereof.
Each of the hydraulic jacks 24 comprises a cylinder 33 having front end trunnions 34 journaled in spaced upstanding ears 35 rigidly attached to the backing plate 23; and a piston movable within the corresponding cylinder 33 and having a reciprocable rod 36 attached to the swinging ends of -theatljacent laterally spaced upwardly extending projections 20, by means of a pin 31. Delivery of liquid to and from the displacement chambers of the cylinders 33 may be effected through connections 38 with the aid of a pump and controlling valves of any desired type, and the controlling mechanism is preferably such that the jacks 24 may be either simultaneously or independently manipulated. This assemblage of jacks 24 and the coaction thereof with the wheel supporting brackets |8, will obviously permit bodily swinging of the wheels |6 about their pivot portions 32 so as to raise or lower the blade 5 relative to the ground surface 39, as clearly illustrated in Figs. 1, 3 and 4, and during such adjustment of the scraper bowl the scraping edge of the blade 5 moves substantially vertically.
During normal operation of my improved scraper, the assemblage may be utilized either for surface scraping as shown in Fig. 1, or for deep cutting and scraping as illustrated in Fig. 4, or it may be pulled over the ground surface 39 in inactive position as depicted in Fig. 3. The "clevis I4 of the coupling is normally attached to the tractor or haulage vehicle, thereby providing means for transporting the trailing scraper, and the hydraulic jacks 24 may be adjusted so as to bring the cutting or scraping blade 5 in proper position relative to the ground surface 39. As the blade 5 is advanced along or through the earth in the path of travel of the scraper, it levels the dirt, the side plates 8 serving to prevent undesirable escape of excess material at the sides. The wheels l5 function to maintain the blade 5 near the ground surface 39 during surface scraping as in Fig. 1; but when the blade becomes embedded in the ground, as in Fig. 4, the wheels l6 are elevated from the ground surface and the entire weight of the scraper assemblage then rests upon the blade and the lower part of the backing plate 23, thereby forcing the cutter into the ground and maintaining it there as the scraper advances. The depth of cutting may be varied by manipulating the jacks 24, and the wheels |6 will prevent cutting to an extent deeper than the depth which is predetermined by setting of the hoists or jacks. The wheels l6 may however be caused to assume different elevations as indicated in dot-and-dash lines in Fig. 2, in order to maintain the blade 5 horizontal when the scraper is traveling along a hillside, and the coupling II will permit the entire assemblage to rock both laterally and longitudinally as it advances along the ground.
From the foregoing detailed description, it will be apparent that the present invention provides an improved road scraper assemblage which is extremely simple, compact and durable in construction, and which is highly flexible and efficient in operation. The side plates 8 not only prevent possible weaving of the bowl, but also confine the excess dirt to the path of advancement of the blade 5, and the universal coupling permits lateral and longitudinal tilting of the bowl, as well as lateral swinging of the assemblage relative to the tractor. The rear wheels I6 are adapted to effectively pre-position the scraper blade 5 either horizontally or at any desired inclination, and when the latter is elevated away from the ground surface, the wheels IS with their massive construction and wide faces may be utilized as surface rollers for compressing and leveling the graded area. a The wheel housing brackets i8 with their pivot points located rearwardly of the wheel axles, and the jacks 24 coacting with these brackets, serve to effect rapid and positive adjustment of the cutting edge with blade and the adjacent beam portion to swing,
, tical adjustment of the scraping blade 5. The
provision of means for effecting independent vertical adjustment of the blade supporting wheels 16, is an important feature of the present improvement, since the cutting edge may thereby be adjusted to suit any grade or slope, by anoperator on the propelling tractor and while the scraper is in motion. The improved scraper can be manufactured, sold, operated and maintained in operation, at extremely moderate cost, and can handle large yardage considering the space occupied by the unit.
It should be understood that it is not desired to limit the invention to the exact details of construction and to the precise mode of operation, herein specifically shown and described by way of illustration, since obvious modifications within the scope of the claims may occur to persons skilled in the art.
1. In a road scraper, a transportable frame having a front central fulcrum and a rear substantially upright integral scraper blade provided with rearwardly extending integral rigid ears, a cross-beam rigidly attached to the rear extremities of said ears and spaced from the back of said blade, a ground engaging wheel pivotally suspended from each end of said beam and being swingable between the rear of said blade and the adjacent beam end to swing the adjacent portion of said blade about said fulcrum, and means for 40 effecting independent swinging of said wheels about said beam.
2. In a road scraper, a transportable unitary frame having a front central fulcrum and rearwardly extending integral side walls intercon- 4 nected at their rear ends by an integral substan- 50 back of said blade, a ground engaging wheel swingably suspended from each of the overhanging ends of said beam and being upwardly and downwardly movable between the rear of said the adjacent blade portion about said fulcrum, and jack means for effecting independent swinging of said wheels about said beam.
3. In a road scraper, a transportable unitary frame having side walls interconnected at their 'rear ends by an integral substantially upright scraper blade having rigid rearwardly projecting ears associated with the medial portion thereof, a horizontal cross-beam rigidly attached at its medial portion to the rear extremities of said ears and extending outwardly beyond said ears in spaced relation to the back of said blade, a
wheel support swingably suspended from each overhanging end portion of said beam and being swingable in the space between said beam end portion and said blade, and a wheel rotatably journaled in the swinging end of each of said supports.
4. In a road scraper, a transportable unitary frame having side walls interconnected at their rear ends by an integral substantially upright scraper blade having rigid rearwardly projecting ears associated with the medial portion thereof, a horizontal cross-beam rigidly attached at its medial portion to the rear extremities of said ears and extending outwardly beyond said ears in spaced relation to the back of said blade, a wheel support swingably suspended from each overhanging end portion of said beam and being swingable in the space between said beam end portion and said blade, a wheel rotatably journaled in the swinging end of each of said sup ports, and means for effecting independent swinging of said wheel supports about said beam.
5. In a road scraper, a transportable frame having side walls interconnected by an integral scraper blade having integral rearwardly projecting ears, a horizontal cross-beam rigidly attached to said ears and extending outwardly therefrom in spaced relation to the back of the outer ends of said blade, a wheel support swingably suspended from each overhanging end of said beam and being swingable in the space between said beam and the adjacent blade end, a
wheel journaled in the swinging portion of each of said supports, and an independently operable hydraulic jack carried by each side portion of said frame for swinging each of said supports about said beam to independently raise and lower said wheels.
EARL B. MALOON.