US 2078699 A
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' April 9 TAYLOR ET AL 2,078,699
APPARATUS FOR CLEANSING RECEPTACLES Filed Dec. 3, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTORS Fifi E5 Tfl/LOF CHYFIIFLESHMOIPI f/UZL April 1937- R. TAYLOR ET AL 7 APPARATUS FOR CLEANSING RECEPTACLES Filed Dec. 5, 1951 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 'mmnnmumu WWI 95 v2 ATTORNEYS April 27, 1937. TAYLOR ET A 4 2,078,699
APPARATUS FOR CLEANSING RECEPTACLES Filed Dec. 5, 1931 4 Sheets-Sheet 5 INVENTORs 70 ZfEI Es 777mm? I C/IHALES HMUP) ou 74 BY ATTORNEY Patented Apr. 27, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR CLEANSING RECEP- TACLES Reeves Taylor, New York, and Charles Amory Hull, Poughkeepsie, N. Y., said Taylor assignor to said Hull This invention relates to a method of and apparatus for cleansing receptacles such as dishes, glasses, cups, and the like. More particularly the invention is concerned with the utilization of centrifugal force to effect both washing and drying in an operation further characterized by the individual cleansing of each receptacle.
The majority of dish washing machines in use today provide a basket-like dish supporting structure, a casing adapted to receive the basket carrying the dishes to be cleansed, and means for surrounding the group of dishes with a body of cleansing liquid such as a soap and water solution.- In dish washing machines of this type, the dishes are cleansed as a group and the washing is effected by the agitation of the soap and Water solution in contact with the group of dishes, either by revolving the basket in which the dishes are supported or by agitating the solution, or both. After Washing the dishes are agitated with pure water for rinsing and finally dried by evaporation in the air.
According to the present invention, the receptacles to be cleansed are washed individually by rotating a receptacle about its axis while streams of cleansing liquid are projected against the upper and lower surfaces of its base. The centrifugal force produced by such rotation effects a vigorous cleaning of the receptacle by the liquid contacting therewith as it is thrown violently outward along the surfaces thereof. The cleansing action of the liquid under the influence of the centrifugal force of the spinning receptacle is extremely efiective and it is unnecessary to supply liquid at pressures greater than that necessary to effect contact with the surfaces of the base of the receptacle. The cleansing liquid may, however, be supplied at any pressure desired.
The receptacle, when washed, is dried by continuing the rotation thereof after shutting off the supply of liquid thereto. The centrifugal force produced by such continued rotation induces a very rapid and complete drying, the liquid adhering to the surfaces of the receptacle being completely removed therefrom in a very few seconds.
The present invention has general utility in the cleansing of various receptacles and may be used with equal advantage in homes, hotels, restaurants, and similar establishments. Each receptacle is subjected to an individual cleansing action and the danger of breakage is less than with the present type of dish washing machine while the speed and effectiveness of the cleansing is as great or greater. The time required for each operation is so short that a number of dishes and plates may be thoroughly washed and dried in rapid and continuous succession, enabling a plurality of receptacles to be completely cleansed in a very brief period of time. The efiectiveness of this method of cleansing receptacles has been demonstrated in an experimental machine adapted to carry out the method of the invention. With the aforesaid machine very dirty and greasy dishes, plates, cups, and glasses have been completely washed and dried at the rate of approximately ten receptacles per minute. The rotational speed of the receptacles was 1100 R. P. M. but the invention is not limited to operation at this speed.
It will be apparent that a number of different machines may be designed to carry out the method of the present invention. The particular type best adapted to any specific use of the invention will depend both upon the character of the work which is to be performed and upon the personal ideas of the designer as regards the most suitable combination of mechanical elements for carrying out the cleansing method herein presented.
The drawings forming a part of this specification illustrate one type of apparatus which may be used advantageously in connection with the method of the invention. As will appear more fully hereinafter, the apparatus shown comprises three operating units, but it is to be understood that the number of such units in this particular type of apparatus is not limited to three. It is also to be understood that the invention, insofar as the method is concerned, is not intended to be limited by the particular structure shown since other apparatus than the type described may be used in carrying out the method.
In the accompanying drawings, in which like reference characters denote like parts:
Figure 1 is a top plan view of an apparatus which may be used in carrying out the method of the invention, showing one operating unit in loading position with a dish in place;
Figure 2 is a similar View of the apparatus with the cover plate and portions of two of the operating units removed;
Figure 3 is a section taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a section taken on the line 4-4 of Figure 3;
Figure 5 is a section taken on the line 5-5 of Figure 4;
Figure 6 shows the details of construction of one receptacle supporting element;
Figure 7 is a top plan view of the liquid supply valve mechanism;
Figure 8 is a section taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 7;
Figure 9 is a section taken on the line 99 of Figure 8;
Figure 10 is a detail cross section of the handle operating mechanism and,
Figure 11 is an enlarged detail section of the casting support on the motor housing.
Referring now to the drawings, the apparatus comprises three operating units I8 disposed within a cylindrical casing I2 having a closed base I4 and a removable cover plate I6 adapted to be bolted down while in operation. The cover plate I6 has a cutaway segment I8 forming a permanent opening therein through which loading and unloading of the machine is effected. A cylindrical housing 28 concentric with the casing I2 and integral with the base i4 is provided to surround a motor 22, which is mounted on the base I4 at the center thereof. The drive shaft 24 of the motor 22 carries a clutch member 26, which engages a corresponding clutch member 28 integral with a pulley unit 38 disposed above said motor. The upper rim; of the housing 28 carries a ball-bearing 32 having upper and lower ball races 33 and 35 and forminga rotatable support for a casting 34 resting and turning thereon. The housing 28 is also provided with a stationary cam 36, the function of which will be described hereinafter.
The casting 34 is substantially hollow and has three arms 38 extending radially and a central shaft 48 projecting upwardly to the cover plate I6. The angle between the center lines of adjacent arms 38 is 120. Each arm 38 carries one of the operating units 88 which comprise open cylindrical casings 42 enclosing receptacle supporting elements 44 mounted on shafts 46 carrying pulleys 48 adapted to turn therewith. The
shafts 46 have central bores 58 extending throughout their length to provide for the projection of streams of water therethrough from the nozzles 52 as hereinafter described. Slack belts 54 connect the pulleys 48 with the pulley unit 38 through the hollow arms 38 of the casting 34. The hollow arms 38 also have disposed therein mechanisms 56 (Figures 4 and 5) which cooperate with the cam 36 carried by the housing 28 to regulate the operation of the units I8.
The central shaft 48 of the casting 34 supports the-pulley unit 38 by a bolt 58 screwed .into a stud 68 projecting downwardly from the lower portion of the shaft 48. The upper end of the shaft 48 has an upwardly projecting stud 6| adapted to engage the handle 62 through a ratchet device 64 (Figure 10). A pin 66 set in the cover plate I6 limits the counter-clockwise movement of the handle 62.
Referring now more particularly to Figures 4 and 5, the mechanism 56 comprises a shaft 68 adapted to turn about a fixed axis in the casting 34 and carrying a short arm: 18 at its lower end and a link H2 at its upper end. The arm; 18 and the link 12 are rigidly affixed to the shaft 68 and move as a unit during the operation of the mechanism. A stud I4 passes through the free end of the short arm 10 and carries a roller I6 adapted to ride on the outer surface of the cam 36. A pin l8 passes through the free end of the link i2 and connects thereto a bell crank lever 88 and an idler B2. The bell crank lever 88 carries a brake shoe 84 at the end of one arm While the free end of the lever is attached to a spring 86 connected at its other end to a knob 88 projecting from the inner side of the link 12. The idler 82 contacts with the belt 54 and regulates the tension therein during the operation of the apparatus, while the brake shoe 84 is adapted to contact with the hub of the pulley 48 when the particular operating unit involved is in the loading and unloading position. The action of the brake is clearly shown in Figure 4 of the drawings, where in one position the brake shoe 84 is shown in contact with the pulley 48, this position being assumed by the action of the roller I6 moving the arm I2 as the roller I6 follows the cam 36, and in this manner the rota-' tion of the shaft 46 is stopped during the loading and unloading positions. A spring 98 is connected at one end to a pin 92 carried by the link 12 at a point intermediate its length and at the other end to the casting 34 and serves to press the idler 82 firmly against the belt 54 when the unit I8 is in operation.
The open cylindrical casing 42 of each operating unit I8 is bolted to the central shaft of the casting 34 and is adapted to revolve about the axis of said shaft when the arms 38 are moved by the handle 62. The casing 42 has, however, no rotational movement and functions merely as a shield to limit side-splashing during the washing and drying stages. A rubber ring 84 encircles the upper rim of the casing 42 and makes a liquid-tight joint with the under surface of the cover plate I6 to keep liquid from splashing over the top of the shield or casing 42. sists of three supporting arms 96'extending-outwardly from the shaft 46 and bolted thereto. The angle between adjacent arms 96 is 120 and the three arms cooperate to form a supporting element adapted to receive inverted receptacles of 1 dishes and cup-like receptacles are supported on the surfaces I88. The vertical slots I82 in the arms 96 are adapted to receive inverted receptacles of the nature of glasses while very small receptacles may be supported on the surfaces I84.
Shafts I86 extending between the ends of adjacent arms 96 carry locking arms I88 having inbent upper portions and carrying weights H8 at their lower ends. The ends of the shafts I86 pass through and turn in openings in the wing portions I I2 integral with and extending outwardly from the supporting arms 96. Bevelled gear segments H4 are provided at the ends of the shafts I86 and form journaled connection therebetween to prevent movement of said arms independently of each other. I88 are operable by the centrifugal force resulting from rotation of the element 44 and may be fixedly attached to the shafts I86 in any desired The receptacle supporting element 44 con- The locking arms manner. In the embodiment shown in the draw- Water or other cleansing liquid is supplied to the apparatus through line I24 and the distributing pipes I26 and I28. The fiow is controlled by a valve mechanism I30 (Figures 7, 8 and 9) operated automatically by studs I32, projecting downwardly from the end of each of the arms 38 on the casting 34, which act on a trigger I34 carried by a valve stem I 36. The valve mechanism I30 has a valve casing I38 provided with an inlet opening I40, adapted to receive the supply line I24, and two outlet channels I42 and I44 connected with the distributing pipes I26 and I28, respectively. The rotatable valve stem I36 passes through the upper portion of the valve casing I38 and carries a circular plate or disc I46 secured to its lower end. Four openings I48 are disposed radially at intervals of in the disc I46 with the centers of the openings I48 lying on a circle passing through the centers of openings I50 and I52 in the outlet channels I42 and I44. The trigger I34 has four arms I54 corresponding to the openings I48 in the disc I46 so that the valve will open and close once during each 90 movement of the valve stem I36.
Snap pins II6 acted upon by Springs II8 project from the outer end of each of thearms 38 and are adapted to engage an extension on a lock I20 located on the inner wall of the casing I2. The lock I20 has a hand lever I22 for disengaging the pins IIS and cooperates with said pins to limit the free clockwise movement of the casting 34 to The distributing pipe I26 extends upwardly along the side of the casing I2 and connects with a tubular opening I56 extending partially through the cover plate I6 toward the center thereof. Two nozzle openings I58 and I60 are provided in the lower side of the tubular opening I56 to project cleaning liquid downwardly upon a receptacle supported on the element 44. The nozzle I60 is aligned with the center of the element 44 while the nozzle I58 is offset therefrom. The remaining distributor pipe I23 extends horizontally toward the center of the easing I2 and is provided with two upwardly projecting nozzles 52 and I62, the nozzle 52 being in line with the center of the element 44 and the nozzle I62 being offset therefrom. The two center nozzles I60 and 52 are best adapted to project vertical streams of liquid upon the receptacle as is indicated in the drawings. The offset nozzles I58 and I 62 may advantageously be adjustable as to direction of the streams projected therefrom in order to insure liquid-receptacle contact when very small receptacles are being cleansed. The invention is not limited, however, to any specific adjustment of the offset nozzles.
A drip pan I64 is provided in the annular space I66 between the inner wall and the casing I2 and the outer wall of the motor housing 20, forming a trough-like false bottom fixedly attached to the two said walls. Waste material and. used cleansing liquid collecting in the pan I64 are discharged through the opening I68 located in the pan adjacent the entrance to the loading stage, as indicated in Figure 2. To facilitate the discharge from the opening I68, the pan I64 may advantageously be inclined circumferentially, sloping both clockwise and counterclockwise from a high point at the entrance to the drying stage to a low point at the location of the opening I68.
When the apparatus is adapted to its intended use the line I24 is connected to a source of cleansing liquid supply and the motor 22 is connected with a source of electric current. The handle 62 Since is turned in a clockwise direction until one of the operating units I0 is positioned at the loading stage of the apparatus directly beneath the opening I8 in the cover plate I6. The snap pin II6 then engages the lock mechanism 56 operates to release the tension on the belt 54 and to force the brake shoe 84 against the hub of the pulley 48, thereby inhibiting all movement of the unit in this position. the element 44 is not in rotation the weights IIO carried by the looking arms I88 raise the upper portions thereof so that a. receptacle to be cleansed may be placed upon the supporting element 44.
After loading one of the units I0 in the manner described above, the snap pin I I6 of the loaded unit is released by operation of the hand lever I22. The handle 62 is turned counter-clock wise through the ratchet device 64 until it strikes the pin 66 in the cover plate I6 and is then moved in a clockwise direction for 120, thus positioning the loaded unit at the washing stage of the apparatus which is defined by the location of the cleansing liquid supply line I24. As the loaded unit leaves the loading stage, the mechanism 56 cooperates with the cam 36 .to withdraw the brake shoe 84 from the hub of the pulley 48 and to increase the tension on the belt sufiiciently to occasion rotation of the loaded. supporting element 44 by the pulley and belt connection between the said element and motor 22. The centrifugal force produced by such rotation then causes the weights IIO to move outwardly bringing the upper portions of the locking arms I08 down upon the receptacle supported on the element 44 to hold the same firmly in place. Since all of the locking arms I08 operate as a unit the receptacle held in place by the said arms is automatically centered thereby. As the loaded unit I 0 approaches the washing stage the stud I32 moves the trigger I34 to bring two diametrically opposite openings I48 in the disc I46 in line with the openings I 50 and I52 of the outlet channels I42 and I44, thus rendering the valve mechanism I30 operative to pass cleansing liquid to the distributing pipes I26 and I 28. The cleansing liquid flowing through the pipe I26 projects downwardly, through the nozzles I50 and I60, against the upper surface of the base of the receptacle supported on the element 44, in two streams normal to the plane of the said base. At the same time two streams of liquid are projected upwardly in a similar manner from the nozzles 52 and I62 in the distributing pipe I28 against the under surface of the receptacle base. The liquid thus brought into contact with the surface of the receptacle base is subjected to the action of the centrifugal force resulting from the rotation of the receptacle and efiects a vigorous cleaning thereof.
Since the operating units ID are I20 apart the positioning of a loaded unit I0 at the washing stage of the apparatus automatically brings a second unit I0 to the loading stage, directly beneath the opening I 8 in the cover plate I6, where it is locked in position and rendered inoperative as hereinbefore described. With one operating unit II] at the washing stage and one at the loading stage the remaining unit I0 is at the drying stage where it is rotationally operative but removed from the source of cleansing liquid supply. The loading operation is repeated with the unit I0 now positioned at the loading stage and the handle 62 again turned counter-clockwise to I20 while the 1 the pin 66 and then clockwise for 120 bringing 75 a second loaded unit to the washing stage and moving the first loaded unit II] from the washing stage to the drying stage. The initial movement of the unit leaving the washing stage causes the 5 stud I32 to move the trigger I34ysufiiciently to close the valve 56, the said valve remaining closed until a second loaded unit In approaches the washing stage. The first loaded unit It] while at the drying stage effects a complete drying of the receptacle carried thereby due to the centrifugal force produced by the continued rotation of the receptacle and its supporting element 44 out of contact with water or other cleansing liquid. The remaining operating unit In is now at the loading stage and, after receiving a receptacle to be cleansed, is moved to the washing stage. This causes the second loaded unit to move to the drying stage and brings the first loaded unit back to the loading stage. The cleansed receptacle carried thereby is removed, another receptacle to be cleansed is placed in theunit, and the cycle of operations repeated.
We claim: 1. Apparatus for cleansing and drying dishes, comprising a cylindrical casing, an axial hollow upright manually rotatable therein, a series of spaced hollow arms extending radially from said upright, article containers rotatably mounted at the ends of said arms within said casing, a vertical drive shaft projecting into said upright, means for rotating said shaft, endless belt driving connections extending through said upright and arms from said shaft to said containers, and
means for adjusting said belts whereby one of said driving connections is rendered inoperative by the reduction of the tension therein.
2. Apparatus for washing and drying dishes, comprising a cylindrical casing, an axial upright rotatable therein, a series of spaced arms extending radially from said upright, article containers mounted at the ends of said arms within said casing, guard casings surrounding each container carried by said arms, a liquid supply means having spray nozzles above and below one of the containers, and means to control the flow of liquid therethrough actuated by the rotation of said upright. V I
3. Apparatus for washing and drying dishes, comprising a casing, a series of article containers movable in a circular path therein, an upright having equally spaced radial arms in which said containers are rotatably mounted, their axes being equidistant from the axis of said upright, said containers being progressively movable about said upright into loading, washing and drying positions, a motor vertically disposed in said casing beneath said upright and having a pulley on its shaft for each container, a pulley on each container, belts trained over each motor pulley and the corresponding container pulley, and means for rendering each belt as it assumes the loading position inoperative to stop the rotation of the container.
REEVES TAYLOR. CHARLES AMORY HULL.