US 2078998 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 4, 193 7. E; R. BLACK BUILDING COVERING Filed Oct. 10, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 L Ja/azd y 4,1937. E. R. BLACK 2,078,998
- BUILDING COVERING Filed Oct. 10, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 hwi il' nme oovimo Edward Roscoe Black, Chicago, BL, assignor to Black Systems, Inc Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application October 10, 1932, Serial No. -63'l,002
My invention relates to building coverings.
More particularly it relates to coverings composed of weatherproof unitscmmonly termed shinglesarranged in vertical rows and horizontal courses to form the outer protective and decorative covering of the roofs and side walls of buildings. Usually such units are formed from well known varieties of prepared sheet roofing material-such as asphaltum impregnated paper stock or felt--and when they are provided with a protective and decorative coating of crushed .stone or other resistant material only one surface is so covered in order to eliminate unnecessary expense.
One popular and extensively used type or variety of such coveringgenerally termed the Dutch lap-is, provided by laying all of the units in each horizontal course with one side or lateral edge overlapping the adjacent shingle in the same course. As far as I am aware it has been the invariable custom heretofore to so overlap the adjacent shingles in the same course that the right hand portion and edge of each unit overlaps or is superposed upon the adjacent unit a right hand lap. One important and distinct objection of Dutch lap roof coverings has been that'the roof or side wall when viewed at an angle from one end takes on an entirely different appearance from that assumed when viewed from the opposite end. Thus, for example, in looking at a roof or side wall at an angle from the right (i. e., standing at the right and looking toward the left) all of the exposed right handlateral edges of the units of all courses will clearly display the upstandingthickness of the units which, augmented by the shading effect produced thereby, will prominently manifest the unit or shingle 4o demarcations and the roof or wall will appear to beasit actually is-covered by separate units or shingles. But when viewed from the other angle (standing at the left and looking toward the right) the vertical edges of all of the units are entirely hidden-or at least the appearance of depth or thickness of such edges is obliterated-and the entire wall or roof takes on the appearance of being composed of horizontal continuous strips of roofing material; that is, substantially the same appearance as though it was composed merely of vertically overlapped roll or strip roofing. The consequence is that, say when viewed from the front end of a building, the two sides of the roof on opposite sidesof the ridge or opposite side walls present entirely different appearances-that on the left having the appearance of horizontally and vertically overlapping rows and courses of individual shingles and that on the right presenting the appearance of horizontally arranged continuous strips overto its right in what, for convenience, I will term lapped only vertically. Or one side of a roof or one side wall will appear to be covered with individual shingles when it is viewed from one end of the building but willseem to be covered by continuous strips of roofing when viewed from the other end of the building. This difference in appearance has constituted a distinct disadvantage in the laying of building coverings according to the Dutch lap method. It is impossible by mere reversal of units or shingles formed for a right hand lap to lay them with a left hand lap, in order to eliminate this difference in appearance, because the finish coating is only on one surface of the units and reversal would result in part of the roof or side walls showing the finished or outer surfaces while other parts would show the unfinished (usually black) surfaces of the base stock or felt. 7
One of the objects of my invention is to provide an improved building covering-particularly of the Dutch lap type.
Another object is to provide a building covering which, for example, when appearing on two sides of a roof or opposite side walls, will present the same appearance on both sides.
Another object is to provide a building covering wherein roofs'and walls may present the same appearance when viewedfrom either end.
Another object is to provide a building covering unit particularly adapted for laying so as to provide the heretofore described uniformity of appearance.
Another object is to provide a unit which maybe laid with either the left hand edge or the right hand edge exposedto produce either a left hand lap or a right hand lap-and yet have all units show the top surface finish.
Another object is to provide a unit, particularly for laying in accordance with the Dutch lap method, possessing means which'serves either as an interlock between adjacent units in the same course or as a positive gaugefor properly positioning adjacent units in the same course.
:A further object is-to provide a method of laying units so as to obtain the improved uniformity of appearance heretofore mentioned.
Another object is to provide a building covering and unit which is simple and inexpensive and more uniformly decorative than the Dutch lap method has heretofore been able to produce.
Other objects and advantages of my invention WllLhereinafter appear.
In the accompanying drawings, in which I have illustrated typical embodiments of my invention,
Fig. 1 is an isometric view of a fragment of a roof, showing, in a somewhat exaggerated manher, how the lateral or vertical edges of all ofthe shingles on both sides of the ridge are exposed when viewed from one end of the building,
Fig. 2 shows a. fragment of a roof or side wall, how the covering units may be applied to present the same appearance when viewed from either end,
Fig. 3 is an enlarged plan of a typical unit, and
Fig. 4 illustrates the laying and proper positioning of adjacent units in the same course or horizontal row.
In the illustrated and particularly described embodiments of my invention the building covering units are sheets of flexible weatherproof material-usually cut from standard varieties of weatherproof roofing, finished on one surface with a suitable coating of decorative and resistant material such as crushed or flaked stone, mica, etc.- formed to constitute what is generally termed in the art individual shingles. But the principles thereof are applicable to units formed in simulation of a number of shingles,such units being generally termed multiple shingles; or as is the case of units which simulate two shingles, twin shingles.
Fig. 1 shows an isometric view of a portion of a building roof on both sides of the ridge. The units or shingles at the right side of ridge X are laid in vertically overlapping courses A, B, C, D, etc., while those at the left of the ridge are similarly laid in courses M, N, O, P, etc. The shingles of the courses on both sides of the ridge are shown laid horizontally overlapped to simulate the usual Dutch lap, but with this important difference. Facing the ridge, the units on the right side of the ridge, with the exception of the first and last or terminal units of each course, have the right marginal edge (upper as viewed in Fig. l) overlapped by the left marginal edge of the next adjacent unit to the right in the same course, which brings the left hand edge and a contiguous portion of each unit, except that at the extreme left--superposed upon the right hand edge and a contiguous portion of the unit in the same course immediately adjacent thereto at the left. In other words the units on the right side of the ridge are laid with a left hand lap. Thus the left lateral edge of each unit is exposed above the unit immediately at the left in the same course and the thickness of the units on this side of the roof is clearly apparent when the roof is viewed at any angle toward the left (i. e., from the bottom as viewed in Fig, 1).
Facing the ridge, the units on the left side thereof, with the exception of the first and last or terminal units of each course, have the left marginal edge (upper as viewed in Fig. 1) over lapped by the right marginal edge of the next adjacent unit to the left in the same course, which brings the right hand edge and a contiguous portion of each unit, except that at the extreme right, superposed upon the left hand edge and a contiguous portion of the unit in the same course immediately adjacent thereto at the right. In other words the units on the left side of the ridge are laid with a right hand lap. Thus the right lateral edge of each unit at the left of the ridge is exposed above the unit immediately at the right thereof in the same course and the thickness of the units on this side of the roof is clearly apparent when the roof at the left side of the ridge is viewed at any angle toward the right (i. e., from the bottom as viewed in Fig. l).
The consequence of this arrangement of units those on the right of the ridge being laid with a left hand lap and those on the left of the ridge being laid with a right hand lap-is that either side of the roof when viewed from the front of the building (bottom as shown in Fig 1) has one lateral edge of all of its units exposed so that the observer looks more or less directly against the upstanding thickness of the units.- The shadow effects produced by these exposed upstanding edges augment the appearance of depth so that both sides of the roof when viewed at angles from the front of the building appear to be-as they actually are-covered by separate or individual units or shingles laid in horizontal courses according to the Dutch lap method. Of course, when viewed from the other end or rear of the building the effects of the overlapping edges and thickness of the units are wholly or partly lost, because the observer looks over or past rather than against them. The result is that, from the rear, both sides appear to be covered with vertically overlapped continuous strips of roofing. How ever, again both sides of the roof look alike rather than having the appearance of being laid according to different methods or with different materials.
The formation .of the units whereby they may be laid according to the Dutch lap method either with a right hand lap or a left hand lap and still expose the finish surface when only one surface of the units is provided with a finish will be hereinafter explained.
Fig. 2 illustrates one arrangement by which both sides of the roof or the side walls of a building may be covered with units so that opposite sides when viewed from either end of the building will appear alike. In this arrangement the units of alternate courses are laid with the same type of lap, i. e., either right hand lap or left hand lap. Or, explaining it differently, the units constituting adjacent courses are laid with reverse laps, those in one course being laid with a right hand lap and those in the two adjacent courses being laid with a left hand lap.
As shown in the drawings, for example, the courses A, C, etc. are laid with a right hand lap (i. e., with the right hand edge overlapping the unit immediatelyadjacent thereto at the right in the same course) while courses B, D, etc. are laid with a left hand lap (i. e., with the left hand edge of each unit overlapping the unit immediately adjacent thereto at the left in the same course). With the units so disposed opposite sides of the roof or building walls appear alike when viewed from either end and as though covered with alternate courses of individual shingles and strip material. Of course, instead of reversing the lap of alternate courses the covering may be applied, with more or less the same effect, by alternating groups of two or more courses.
Fig. 3 shows a plan of one form of unit which can be laid with either a left hand lap or a right hand lap, as desired, and which, when laid according to either system of lapping, provides interlocks between adjacent shingles in the same course so that the exposed lower right hand corner or lower left hand cornerdepending upon which lap is employedmay be securely anchored down to the building framework with metallic fasteningssuch as ordinary roofing nailsand yet no metal need be exposed.
As illustrated in the drawings this unit comprises a substantially rectangular sheet 5 of roofing material finished on one surface only with a suitable resistant and decorative coating. One lateral side of the unit has its corners removed so as to provide a symmetrical laterally projectcorners thereof. The opposite side of the unit adjacent its edge is provided with two openings 9 and i therethrough, these openings being symmetrically located relative to the two lateral corners on the side opposite the tap and its flaps. In the embodiment chosen for illustration the flaps are of substantially semi-circular shape; and the complementary openings are also of semi-circular shape, to provide anchorage tongues H and I2 through which a suitable fastening device, such as a nail, may be applied, as will be hereinafter explained.
The distance between the upper or lower (or either horizontal) edge of the unit and the adjacent horizontal edge of the tab is equal to the distance between the corresponding edge of the unit and the base of the adjacent opening 9 or ID (or the base of the corresponding tongue II or l2). That is, the length of Y or Y' equals substantially the length Z or Z.
Likewise the distance from the vertical edges where the tab joins the body of the unit to the adjacent point of junction of the flap and tab is slightly greater than the distance from the straight edge of the unit to the nearest point at the base of opening Sor l0. That is, the length of U or U is slightly greater than the length of W or W. And again the vertical length or height of the tab is substantially equal to the distance between the bases of the openings or the tongues; that is the length T substantially equals the distance S.
When laying such units according to the right hand lap method the tab of each unit lies under the straight right side of the adjacent unit to its left in the same course and the flap 8 of each unit projects through from the rear the opening-Iil of the adjacent unit to the left in the same course, overlying the tongue if of the unit to the left. When laid according to the left hand lap method the tab of each unit underlies the straight left side of the adjacent unit to its right in the same course and the flap i of each unit projects through from the rear the opening ii of the adjacent unit to the right in the same course,
overlying the tongue H of the unit to the right. In each case the superposed or exposed lower comer of each unit may be anchored to the building framework by a suitable fastening device, such as an ordinary roofing nail, applied through its lower tongue; and when the flap of the adjacent unit is inserted through the proper complementary opening the nail is covered thereby and there is no exposed metal.
' Fig. 4 shows one of the steps in laying units with a right hand lap and illustrates how the nails are covered and the proper relative location of adjacent units in the same course is assured. In laying a course the units are successively placed therein from left to right, the left tabbed lateral side of each succeeding unit being inserted below the straight right lateral side of the preceding unit. Thus assuming that the unit 5' has been properly positioned and anchored in place adjacent its left edge (not shown but effected in the manner now to be described) a nail I3 is driven into the underlying building framework through its tongue If. This nail firmly anchors down the lower right or exposed butt corner of the unit and, of course, is still exposed.
Now by slightly raising the upper right hand corner of unit 5', as shown, the tabbed left marginal side of the succeeding unit 5" may be easily positioned therebehind or thereunder. And as it is thus positioned the flap 8 of unit 5" is inserted through the opening Iii of unit 5' from the rear to the front. When unit 5" is positioned so that its flap is firmly seated in opening Iii of the superposed unit the lower corner of unit 5" will align with the lower corner of unit 5' and the flap of unit 5" will project through the opening Ill adjacent the exposed butt corner of unit 5' far enough completely to cover the nail which was previously applied through tongue l2. The upper right corner of unit 5' is next pushed back into place against the building. Then, with its corner I4 slightly raised,unit 5" is rotated about the connection between its flap and the opening in unit 5' until that corner l4 strikes the right hand edge of unit 5'. Adjacent units 5' and 5" are now in proper relative position, corner M of unit 5" may be pushed back into place and a suitable fastening means, such as an ordinary roofing nail, may be driven through both units 5' and 5" in the upper region where they overlap and in such a location relative to the next succeeding higher course that the nail will be covered by the vertically overlapping units in the next succeeding and without removing any of the material.
With units made in accordance with my inven tion it is necessary to manufacture and stock only one type of single surfaced unit in order to lay coverings with either a left hand lap or a right hand lap as may be desired or the occasion require to produce the uniformity or likeness of appearance heretofore discussed. Thus it is unnecessary to finish both sides of units or to form the units difierently depending upon whether it is necessary or desirable to lay them with a left hand lap or with a right hand lap.
Having thus illustrated and described the nature and typical embodiments of my invention, what I claim and desire to secure by United States Letters Patent is as follows:
A building covering unit comprising a generally rectangular sheet of fiexible weatherproof material, a tab projecting symmetrically from one lateral edge of the body of the unit, a flap projecting vertically from each horizontal edge of the tab, the two flaps being equally spaced from the adjacent edge of the body, and a pair of tongues in the body ofithe unit adjacent the edge opposite the tab, said tongues being formed by openings through the body of the unit, the bases of the openings and tongues formed thereby being substantially in horizontal alignment with the bases of the flaps on the tab.
EDWARD ROSCOE BLACK.