US 2079094 A
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May 4, 1937. \w. WHITEHEAD ET AL APPARATUS FOR OPENING STAPLE FIBERS Filed June 1, 1932 INVENTOR I WlLLlAM WHITEHEAD ALBERT W- KEIGHT Patented May 7 4, i937 i I aoraosa arrana'ros ron creams s'rarlta rmnns William Whitehead and Albert w. might, Cumberland, Md, assignors to Celancse corporation of America, a corporation oi Delaware application June 11, 1932, Serial No. crises l-Ciaim.- (oi. re -cc) ing the cutting of the filaments or threads into short lengths. i, a
A further object oi this invention is to provide means for opening the fiber by means of air, gas or other fluid under suitable pressure.
Another object of this invention is the provision of means for subjecting the freshly cut short lengths to the action of a blast of air, whichblast of air not only opens up the fiber but performs the additional function of drawing the cut I staples away from the cutting device. Other objects of the present invention will appear from the following detailed description.
In theproduction of spun yarn from short lengths or staple fibers made from artificial filaments or threads, it is practically impossible to form a lap from these staples in the normal manner.
This is due to the fact that the filaments or threads are led to the cutting machine in the form of rather compact bundles, each bundle containing thirty or more filaments. After the filaments are cut into shortlengths, the
staples still retain the bundle effect and when it is attemptedto build up a lap from these bundles of staples in the usual manner, it results in failure.v
Heretofore, when it was desired to, spin and ficial silk staples, it was necessary tobuild the lap between layers of paper. This was a rather costly process as it involved the modification of In this condition, the fibers are readily built up into a lap by the usual methods. Moreover,
" by this method of opening/the staple fiber, the
filaments or threads are not damaged as they are very apt to be when opened by well-known beater-arm opener used in opening cotton staples.
tendency of the'sta'ple to becomeelectrically derstood that the staple fiber may be produced charged, makes it possible to handle the opened material more advantageouslyv and with more uniform results. A finish which was found to be satisfactory in deadening the opened staple fiber comprises parts of diethylene glycol, 30 parts of water and 10 parts of magnesium chloride. Variations may of course be made in the proportions of the various ingredients and other finishes having a similar efiect may be substituted for the specific one enumerated above. The finish is preferably applied to the filaments, in any suitable manner, before the cutting thereof into short lengths.
I It is to be understood that the cut and opened fiber may be delivered to a receiving box, or directly to a standard lapping machine or to a carding engine.
- The staple fibers produced by the invention .may be spun into yarns in the manner usually applied to staple lengths of natural materials, 20
. cose, nitrocellulose or cuprammonium silk or vice .versa. The yarns may then be woven or knitted into fabrics or used for any other purpose.
In order further to illustrate the present invention, reference is had to the accompanying draWing wherein is shown the preferred embodiment of the invention.
The figure of the drawing is a side elevational view of a filament cutting machine showing the fiber opening device of the present invention attachedthereto.
Referring to the drawing, threads of filaments generally indicated by the reference numeral l are drawn from a series of spinning machines 2 by means of a feed roller 3. While in the present embodiment, thereis illustrated the production of staple fiber from artificial filaments continuously with their production, it is to be unfrom threads of-filaments taken from any other. convenient source. I f The threads proceedfrom roller 3 to and around a second roller 4 which is supported on shelf 5 mounted on the base 6 of the cutting 5 machine. The threads are then led from roller 0 4 through a feeding guide 1 into the path of, the
cutting device 8 which carries a series of cutter blades 9, the cutting device being-rotated in any suitable manner, as by a belt I I and a motor i2 supported on a bracket 13 secured to the base The length of the staple fiber cut may be varied by regulating the speed of rotation of the cutting 5 device 8 with respect to the rate of feed of the filaments. The number of blades 9 may also be varied in accordance with the length to be out. The cutting device is covered by a hood I! which is connected by a pipe I5 to a coupling 10 member I6 which houses an air injector device I1. Compressed air is delivered from a suitable source to the injector device through a conduit [8 in which is mounted a cut-off valve I9. Also attached to the coupling member I8 is a discharge hose 2|, the free end of which isset into a receiving box 22 for the staples, The cover of the receiving box is perforated to permit the escape of air and means may be provided in the bottom thereof to facilitate the removal of the staples therefrom.
In operation, air under a pressure of 100 pounds is delivered to the injector device. This causes a suction to be created in the hood and an air blast in the discharge hose. The out bundles of 25 staples are then drawn away from the cutting device and through the hood to the discharge hose. When the bundles pass by the mouth of the injector device, they are subjected to a blast of air which opens the bundles and clots of staples into individual filaments which are fluifed up into an increased volume. The opened staples are propelled by the air blast to the receiving box where they are collected and the air allowed to escape. By allowing the air to escape; the opened staples are not subjected to the strobic action of the air draft which would be antagonistic to the retention of the open fleecy character of the material as deposited from the discharge hose. 1
What we claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
In apparatus for the manufacture of spun yarn from staple fiber made from continuous filaments, the combination with a device for cutting the filaments into staples to the desired length and means for delivering bundles of continuous filaments to said cutting device. of an unobstructed closed conduit cooperating with said cutting device, means for delivering the cut staples to the conduit, and means comprising an annular nozzle,
positioned in said conduit at -a substantial dis- WILLIAM WHITE-HEAD. ALBERT w. KEIGHT.