US 2082124 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 1, 1937. SCHEPMOES 2,082,124
LIGHTING APPARATUS Filed April 9, 193 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR V Lgzdsley Sc/zepmoes ATTORNEYS June 1, 1937. SCHEPMOES 2,082,124
LIGHTING APPARATUS Filed April 9, 1935 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 7 INVENTOR Linfily Schepmoes BY V 13%, M Hawk ATTORNEYS Patented June 1, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE LIGHTING APPARATUS Application April 9, 1935, Serial No. 15,456
This invention relates to a lighting system more particularly adapted for use in railroad cars or the like and a method of illuminating vehicles such as railroad cars.
One of the objects of this invention is to provide a lighting system for railroad cars or the like which will be simple, practical and thoroughly durable. Another object is to provide a system of the above character which may be easily installed without changing the original structure of the railroad car. Another object is to provide a system of the above character which will be characterized by efficiency in operation while being of pleasing appearance. Another object is to pro- 1 vide a system of the above character which may be manufactured economically with a minimum amount of labor.
Another object is to provide a system of the above character which will be completely sufficient in itself in that no outside wiring will be needed. Another object is to provide a system of the above character by which the important portions of the car will be eiTect-ively illuminated with a minimum of glare. Another object is to provide a system of the above character which will take up a very small space in a car and improve lighting efficiency. Another object is to provide a system of the above character by the practice of which a railroad car can be lighted with a minimum Of cost. Other objects Will be in part apparent and in part pointed out hereinafter.
The invention accordingly consists in the features of construction, combinations of elements, arrangements of parts and in the several steps and relation and order of each of the same to one or more of the others, all as will be illustratively described herein, and the scope of the application of which will be indicated in the following claims.
In the accompanying drawings, in which is 40 shown one of the various possible embodiments of this invention,
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a railroad car or the like having my apparatus installed therein;
45 Figure 2 is a diagrammatic cross section of a railroad car or the like having my apparatus installed therein;
Figure 3 is a vertical sectional view of a preferred form of my lighting apparatus;
Figure 4 is a vertical sectional view of my apparatus taken along the line i4 of Figure 3; and
Figure 5 is a top plan view of my apparatus with the top cover plate removed therefrom.
55 Similar reference characters refer to similar parts throughout the several views of the drawings.
As conducive to a clearer understanding of certain features of the invention, it should be pointed out that many of the lighting systems now in use are cumbersome and space consuming a well as 5 being inefiicient distributors of light. As the majority of the present systems of lighting are installed in the clerestory of a railroad car, the distance between the source of illumination and the eye-level of the passengers is considerable thus increasing light consumption and, more important, glare with resultant discomfort to the passengers. More specifically, portions of the car in the systems now in use are poorly lighted while in other portions the light is so intense that it strains the eyes of the passengers. Furthermore, the light in these systems is not concentrated on the seats where it will benefit the passengers to the greatest degree; the clerestory of the car is usually brilliantly lighted while the eye-level of the car receives much less serviceable light, the antithesis of a favorable condition. Furthermore, the tendency in modern car construction is to reduce the weight thereof as much as possible and many fixtures now in use are too heavy to be suitable for this purpose. One of the objects of this invention is to provide a system and method of lighting a railroad car or the like which will overcome the above-mentioned difficulties as well as many others.
Turning first to Figure 2, there is shown a railroad car or the like generally indicated at H] provided with the usual clerestory II and side walls l2. A plurality of seats generally indicated at l6 may be located in the usual position within the car as well as the usual baggage racks or the like generally indicated at M. At spaced points along the underside of baggage rack I4, I provide a plurality of lighting fixtures generally indicated at I5, the structural details of which will be described more fully hereinafter. For the present it is merely necessary to state that I prefer to locate the light sources in fixtures i5 substantially adjacent walls I2.
Disposed below and in alignment with fixtures I5 is a plurality of reflector members generally indicated at l8 suitably secured to walls I2. As more clearly shown in Figure 1, reflector members l8 may be formed from any suitable material having a reflecting surface, such as, for example, a highly polished metal. Furthermore, the upper sides Illa of the reflector members slope downwardly at an acute angle to the plane of the side walls.
Accordingly when fixtures I5 are in operation, light is diffused therefrom generally in a downward direction as indicated by the dotted lines A so that all portions of the seats l6 as well as the aisle are adequately lighted. More important, the reading plane B of the passengers is effectively lighted by the fixtures. Furthermore, light passes in a direct downward path indicated by the dotted lines C against surfaces I8a of reflector members I8. From reflector members I8 the light is reflected upwardly in the general direction of the clerestory II as indicated by the dotted lines D. Accordingly it will be seen that in this system light is concentrated in the lower portions of the car along the reading plane B where it is most necessary to have an adequate supply of light. Furthermore, a part of the light is directed upwardly so that the upper portions of the car are lighted without any of the disagreeable glare effects so predominant in many lighting systems now in use.
Referring now to Figure 3, baggage rack I4 is preferably positioned upon side wall I2 so as to be easily accessible for the placing of baggage or the like thereupon and preferably extends longitudinally throughout the length of the. car. As mentioned above, fixtures I5 are suitably disposed along the rack and as the construction of these fixtures is substantially identical one only will be described in detail.
Fixture I5 includes an outer casing generally indicated at I9 secured to wall I2 in a manner to be more fully described hereinafter. The outer edge of rack I4 has secured thereto a pipe or the like 2I about which fits an eye portion 20 of the casing. A bar support 29 is connected to eye portion 20 and wall I2 preferably by way of screws or the like 30. Accordingly, it will be seen that the casings I9 of the fixtures together with the bars 29 form an effective and durable support for the baggage rack making the rack capable of supporting any reasonable amount of weight. The bottom of rack I4 preferably comprises a series of mesh sections 22 extending between each of casings I9 and suitably secured thereto.
Casing I9 is desirably an integral part, for example, a casting having side walls 26 and 2! (Figures 1 and 5) and a bottom portion 32 terminating in a recess 31 adjacent wall I2. The end of bottom portion 32 rests flush against pipe 2I beneath eye portion 20 (Figures 3 and 5). Casing I9 also includes flanged portions 39 and 49 (Figures 1 and 5) adjacent the bottom of the rack and serving in a reenforcing capacity for the entire casing.
As best shown in Figure 3, bottom portion 32 slopes downwardly ending in a substantially vertical portion 34 adjacent recess 31. A vertical back wall 36 of casing I9 rests flush against wall I2 and extending inwardly therefrom is a reflecting portion 35 substantially semi-spherical in shape (Figure 4).
As more clearly shown in Figures 3 and 5, bottom portion 32 and side walls 26 and 21 form a well 33; reflector 35, vertical back wall 36 and side walls 26 and 21 form a recess 31 connected with well 33 by way of an aperture 38. Recess 3! is sufficiently large to accommodate a bulb I! of the usual standard construction and large enough to provide an adequate supply of light for the car Ill. Furthermore, the top of reflecting portion 35 is located below the top of side walls 26 and 21 and hence below the bottom 22 of rack I4 so that various parts may be disposed therein in a manner to be more fully described hereinafter.
Suitable bolts 4I extend through the upper portion of back wall 36 and are threaded into wall I2 of the car thus to hold casing I9 securely in its allotted position. Immediately adjacent back wall 36, apertures III are provided in side walls 26 and 21 and adjacent bosses 24 extending outwardly from the side walls. Pipes 23 fit into holes I0, these pipes preferably forming the rear supporting surface for the mesh sections 22 of the rack. Furthermore pipes 23 provide a convenient carrier for conductors or the like as will be more fully described hereinafter.
A socket 45 is secured to bottom portion 32 of the casing, having its receiving end immediately adjacent aperture 38. Socket 45 may be secured in this position in any desired manner although I prefer to provide a bracket 46 secured to the rear end thereof and secured to bottom portion 32 by way of a screw II or the like. Socket 45, as best shown in Figure 3, is at an acute angle to the plane of the bottom of the rack and more particularly slopes in a general downward direction. The angle at which socket 45 is disposed is sufiicient to allow bulb I! to be inserted and removed therefrom with ease. Furthermore, socket 45 is so positioned that the filament of bulb I! is preferably located in the central portion of recess 31 thus insuring a maximum diffusion of light from the fixture.
Pipes 23 are provided with suitable conductors generally indicated at I2 extending therethrough and extending through each of fixtures I5 where they are suitably tapped to supply each of the fixtures with current. Thus conductors generally indicated at I3 are connected to conductors I2 and to the usual terminals in socket 45. Preferably fixtures I5 are connected in parallel although special circumstances might make another wiring system more advantageous.
The top side of reflector portion 35 is provided with a pair of bosses 42 for accommodating suitable screws or the like and I provide a cover plate 44 shaped to fit over the entire top side of casing I9 as well as the end portions of the respective adjacent mesh sections 22. Cover plate 44 may be secured in position by screws extending into bosses 42 and also suitable screws or the like extending into the side walls of the casing.
Thus it will be seen that I have provided a system in which passengers are assured a requisite amount of light and yet discomfort caused by glare is obviated. By a unique system of reflectors I have provided a means of lighting the clerestory and upper portions of the car sufficiently and the general appearance of the entire arrangement greatly enhances the interior of the car, the lighting apparatus taking up little more space than the usual supporting parts for the baggage racks.
Furthermore, the construction of the fixtures is extremely simple thus lending itself to easy and quick manufacture with low labor and material costs. The fixtures are conveniently accessible for purposes of repair. Bulbs may be inserted and removed without using ladders or the like, wiring connections may be repaired by merely removing cover plate 44, and the entire system is self-contained in that all conductors, wiring, etc., are carried by the rack, thus making it unnecessary to run conductors through portions of the car, that is, the roof or walls.
My system has been described as applied to a railroad car or the like. However, it should be understood that I do not wish to limit this invention to such application as many of the features thereof have broader application under certain circumstances.
It will thus be seen that I have provided a thoroughly practical and efiiclent system and method for illuminating a railroad car in which the several objects hereinabove mentioned as well as many others are successfully accomplished.
As many possible embodiments may be made of the mechanical features of the above invention and as the art herein described might be varied in various parts, all without departing from the scope of the invention, it is to be understood that all matter hereinabove set forth, or shown in the accompanying drawings is to be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
1. In a lighting system, in combination, a car, a baggage support longitudinally positioned upon, attached to, and extending outwardly from the side of said car and intermediate the floor and ceiling of said car, a plurality of casings depending from said support, lighting means mounted within said casings to direct light downwardly, and reflecting means secured to the side of the car and positioned below said casings adapted to reflect light toward the upper portions of the car at an acute angle with respect to the side of the car.
2. In a lighting system, in combination, a car, supports longitudinally positioned upon the sides of said car and extending outwardly from said sides and so positioned between the floor and the ceiling of said car as to be easily accessible for the placing of baggage or the like thereupon, a plurality of casings attached to and depending from said supports, means securing said casings to said sides to act as brackets for said support, a plurality of lighting members so disposed within said casings and positioned to direct light downwardly, and reflectors positioned on said sides below said casings to reflect light upwardly at an acute angle with respect to the side of the car to illuminate the upper portions.
3. In a lighting system, in combination, a car, a plurality of lighting fixtures spaced along the sides of said car and adapted to direct light downwardly along said sides, and reflecting means positioned on said sides below said fixtures and shaped to reflect light from said fixtures upwardly at an acute angle with respect to the side of the car.
4. In a lighting system, in combination, a wall, an outwardly extending arm secured to said wall, an arm extending downwardly from said outwardly extending arm and toward said wall, a
socket secured to said downwardly extending arm having its opening facing said wall, a reflector positioned adjacent the end of said downwardly extending arm, a pair of side walls extending between said outwardly extending arm and said downwardly extending arm and covering the sides of said reflector, and means forming a hole in said reflector adjacent the opening in said socket whereby a bulb may be positioned within said socket so that its outer end is positioned beneath said reflector.
5. A lighting fixture comprising, in combination, means forming a pair of compartments for housing respectively a socket and a bulb, said means including a partition between said compartments having an opening formed therein, a socket secured in one of said compartments and having its open end in registry with said partition opening, and means forming a reflector in the other of said compartments whereby the light diffusing portion of an electric light bulb mounted in said socket lies within said reflector.
6. A lighting fixture comprising, in combination, means forming a pair of compartments, one of which is open at the top and the other of which is open at the bottom, said means including a partition between said compartments, a socket in said first-mentioned compartment, and a reflector in said second-mentioned compartment formed to receive the light diffusing portion of an electric light bulb mounted in said socket.
7. In a lighting system, in combination, a car, a baggage rack longitudinally positioned upon, attached to, and extending outwardly from the side of said car intermediate the floor and ceiling thereof, a plurality of supporting casings secured to the side of said car at spaced positions therealong below said baggage rack, each of said casings including downwardly extending wall portions arranged to support said baggage rack, and illuminating means mounted within said casings between the walls thereof to direct light downwardly.
8. In a lighting system, in combination, a car, a baggage rack longitudinally positioned upon, attached to, and extending outwardly from the side of said car intermediate the floor and ceiling thereof, a plurality of supporting casings secured to the side of said car at spaced positions therealong below said baggage rack, each of said casings including downwardly extending wall portions arranged to support said baggage rack, and illuminating means mounted within said casings between the walls thereof to direct light downwardly, said casing walls being arranged with respect to said illuminating means to prevent substantially all difiusion of light rays longitudinally of the car.