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Publication numberUS2082941 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 8, 1937
Filing dateJun 30, 1933
Priority dateJun 30, 1933
Publication numberUS 2082941 A, US 2082941A, US-A-2082941, US2082941 A, US2082941A
InventorsBurnside James H
Original AssigneeBurnside James H
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Counting apparatus operated by radiant energy
US 2082941 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

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z wM ATTORNEYS Semen m mFume 8, 1937. J. H. sumsmfia 2m 2,932,941

COUNTING APPARATUS OPERATED BY RADIANT ENERGY Filed June 50, 1933 8 Shasta-Sheet 7 wk M ATTORN EYS m 1937- J. H. BURNSEDE, 2m

COUNTING APPARATUS OPERATED BY RADIANT ENERGY Filed June 50, 19353 8 Sheets-Sheet 8 INVENTOR JAMEs 5006/05, 2w

ATTORNEYS 235. REGISTER UNITED STATES COUNTTNG APPARATUS OPERATED BY RADIANT ENERGY James H. Burnside, 21111, New York, N. Y. Application June 30, 1933, Serial No. 678,367 Claims. (Cl. 250-415) My invention relates to counting apparatus operated by light or other radiant energy, particularly such as are intended for counting persons entering a theatre, meeting hall, or the like. Among the objects of my invention is the provision of an apparatus of this type which will furnish an accurate count of all persons passing through the entrance in a predetermined direction. Certain features of my invention insure the accuracy of the count notwithstanding irregularities such as may be due to difi'erences in the stature or girth of the persons to be counted, or to the way in which such persons may hold or move their arms, or to articles carried by such persons, or to persons following one another very closely, or to attempts of persons to pass through uncounted, as by jumping or crawling through. Another feature of my invention causes the counting apparatus to be thrown out of action whenever a person passes through the entrance in the direction opposite .to that which may be called the counting direction; thus, generally it will be desired to count only the persons which pass in through the entrance, and not any persons which may pass out the same way.

A satisfactory typical embodiment of my invention will now be described in detail with reference to the accompanying drawings. While this embodiment contains various features or devices used in conjunction with each other, I desire it to be understood that in certain cases,,some of these devices or features might be omitted without sacrificing the advantages obtained'by the provision of the other features. Furthermore, it will be understood that I do not wish to limit myself to the exact constructions, arrangements, and connections illustrated and described, but that various modifications may be made without departing from the nature of my invention as set forth in the appended claims.

In the drawings, Fig. 1 is a perspective view showing the doorway through which the persons to be counted are intended to pass; Figs. 2, 3, and 4 are sections substantially on the lines 2-4,

- 3-3, and 4-4 respectively of Fig. 1, the section line 2--2 being laid longitudinally of the irregular opening 12 and of the opening i2, as well as through the openings l2"; Fig. 4a is a detail perspective view showing a photoelectric cell and a reflector associated therewith; Figs. 5 to 9 inclusive together constitute a diagram of the parts and their electrical connections, Fig. 5 being the uppermost section of this diagram, Fig. 6 being the downward continuation of Fig. 5 and so forth, Fig. 9 being the lowermost section;

the dotted horizontal lines at the bottom of Figs. 5 to 8 inclusive and at the top of Figs. 6 to 9 inclusive indicate corresponding points of adjacent diagram sections.

Referring particularly to Figs. 1, 2, 3, 4, and 4:1, I have shown an entrance to a theatre or like building, with parallel horizontal rails K leading to the opening in the door jamb L, said opening being relatively narrow so as to prevent two persons walking abreast, and compel all persons to enter through the door in single file. Preferably even the distance between the rails K is such as to compel the people to form a line in single file as they approach the doorway. The door jamb L is hollow and contains the several parts of my improved counting apparatus.

At one side of the doorway, the jamb contains devices for projecting rays or beams of radiant energy across the doorway, while on the other side the jamb contains devices sensitive or responsive to such radiant energy, and controlling the counting mechanism proper. Such rays or beams are projected at different levels, and are preferably located at such short distance apart (say about 2 inches) that together they will constitute a practical approximation to an upright sheet of radiant energy. The upper limit of such sheet may, for instance, be at a level of about 5 feet 6 inches from the floor, and the lower limit at a level of about 2 feet 6 inches. In the draw.- ings, I have shown incandescent electric lamps as the source from which beams or rays of radiant energy proceed, and in the particular embodiment illustrated there are nine groups or banks of such lamps at difierent levels, said groups being designated as Illa to I02 respectively, to form the upright sheet of radiant energy (light) referred to above. At a distance below the lower edge of such sheet (say about inches from the floor), I have indicated another group or bank of incandescent lamps lily. The ten groups lilo to Hlgi together form what I term the counting line, that is, the set of lamps (projectors of radiant energy) which causes the counting mechanism to operate. While each of the banks or groups contains more than one lamp (Fig. 2 showing two lamps in some groups, and three in others), each group has been represented by a a single lamp in the diagrammatic Figs, 5, 6, 7, 3, in order to simplify illustration.

The light from the lamps is thrown across the door opening by suitable directing, focusing, or concentrating devices, for instance lenses Ii, one for each lamp, the inner wall of the jamb having openings or windows through which the iii] , tampering.

location, and preferably also in size.

light may pass. Fig. 2 shows a single opening ill for the eight groups of lamps lDa to iilh which form all but the lowermost portion of the sheet of light, a separate opening 12 for the group lili which forms the lowermost portion of said sheet, and separate openings i2" for each of the lamps of the lower group ii. In each of the openings l2, I2, I2" I have shown a pane of ruby glass l3, II! or I3" respectively, the purpose being to render the beams of light less noticeable to the eye, although they are fully efilcient to influence the light-responsive dcvlces located on the other side of the door opening.

These light-responsive devices consist of photoelectric cells of any weil-known or approved construction. There are ten photoelectric cells Ila to My, one for each of the lamp groups ifla to I09 respectively. In the construction illustrated, the rays or beams of light focused by the lenses H do not reach the photoelectric cells directly, but are first thrown on reflectors i5 or l5 respectively. The reflectors l5 are shown as of parabolic shape, there being nine reflectors 45, one for each 01' the photoelectric cells Ila to Hi (the two reflectors for the cells Hf and Hg are shown as a unit), while two reflectors 15 are employed (one for each 01' the lamps I07) in connection with the photoelectric cell I49. The light-sensitive surfaces of the photoelectric cells are placed at the foci of the respective reflectors. Any suitable detail construction may be employed for the photoelectric cells and the reflectors associated therewith. According to 4a, a unitary bracket l5b may be used to support both the photoelectric cell 14 and the corresponding reflector l5, said bracket having two flanges l5c perforated to receive screws ior fastening it to the inner wall of the door jamb. The photoelectric cells and the reflectors are located within the hollow jamb L, behind openings l6, l6, 16'', which may contain panes IT, M, I1" of ordinary clear glass, to exclude dust etc. and to protect the apparatus against The openings l6, l6, l6 correspond to the openings l2, I2, l2" in shape and In the openings l6, l6 which receive a plurality of beams of light, I prefer to provide partitions or shields IS the planes of which are horizontal. that is to say, parallel to said beams, and located between adjacent beams. as shown in Fig. 2. These shields will prevent any stray light flux from affecting the photoelectric cells Ila to I42.

While the lamps Ilia to I07 are mostly located at different levels, they are not all vertically one above the other, but I have adopted the irregular arrangement shown in Fig. 1, which has certain special advantages explained below. The upper portion M of the counting line (the five groups Illa to Me) has its lamps vertically one above the other. Then follows a portion M which is inclined downwardly and toward the rear or inner end of the doorway, that is to say, in the direction in which the persons wall: through when being counted. In this portion M (formed by the group I0! and all but the lower end of group 10g), the lamps are not only at different levels, but at different distances from the end or face of the jamb L. A short horizontal portion M" (formed by the lower end of group inn and the upper end of group i072.) contains lamps locfiicci at the same level, but at different Ciistanccs from the face oi" the jamb. This portion M" extends from the lower end of the portion aneaoai M rearivardly (toward the left in Fig. ii to th upper end of a portion M composed of the group W1 and all but the upper end oi group Hill. This portion M is inclined downwardly and forwardly (toward the right in Fig. 1), and the lamps therein are arranged correspondingly, that is, not only at diilerent levels but at different distances from the face of the jamb. Fig, i also shows that the upper opening i2 is locate-cl i the continuation of the lower portion M of the: counting line", while the lower opening i2" is somewhat to the rear of said upper opening.

Near the inner or rear end of the doorway, l have indicated see particularly Fig. 3) another set of lamp groups Iillc, Him, In, the lamps of these groups being one vertically above the other and together constituting what I term the free line, since the lamps of this set are intended to renderthe lamps oi ihe "counting linc"inoperative for counting purposes whenever a person passes through the entrance in the direction marked Out in Fig. 1. This will be fully explained below in describing the operation of the invention. The lamps of the free line are located on the same side of the lamb L as those of the counting line, and in connection with the lamps of groups liJlc, Him and I071 I have shown lenses ii, openings i2a in the jamh, and ruby panes i3a in said openings. corresponding to the lenses ii. openings !2. i2, I2" and ruby panes i3. i3. i3" used in connection with the counting line. In the same manner as described with reference to the lamps of the counting line, those of the free line" groups iiilc. Him, I012 throw their light across the doorway through clear panes Ila set in openings iBa on the other side of the jamb and with the aid of reflectors I5" (some of which have shields l8 of the character described above upon the light-sensiiive surfaces of photoelectric cells Mk, Mm, Mn respectively.

In an intermediate position. that is to say. substantially to the roar of the counting line but forward of the free line. I have located still another set of lamp groups and adjuncts. which together constitute what I term a trip line. for reasons that will appear from the description of the operation as given below. The lamps of this tripping line are arranged in three groups iilp. illq. iilr at different levels, each group being of substantially triangular outline, one lamp of each group being forward of the others (to the right in 1i. such other lamps of the groups iOp, iiiq and iiir being located one vertically above the other. These lamps are on the some side of the jamb L as the other lamps referred to above. and the light from the lamps of the trip line is directed by lenses of the same character the lenses Ii. ii through openings i2, containing ruby panes of the same character as the panes i3. iZi, i311, horizontally across the doorway into openings 15 containing clear panes of the same character as the panes ll. ll. ll", Ha. The light thus reaches reflectors i$-, one of which is shown as a parabolic reflector (Fig. 4) and the opening I6 adjacent to which said reflector is located. is provided with shields of the character described above in connection With the shields i8, iii. The reflectors throw the light upon the light-sensitive surfaces oi three photoelectric cells My), Mr and Mr r spcctivcly one for uch group of lamps). The lamp groups i977. HM and iii," are shown only in the dizwt'nnunutic v z-u Fun 8, but ii will be llll-- dcrstood lilni ii'lvfw lmnpr; and their :uiiunvis will be oi the some gcncral character as emplainml above in connection with Figs. 2 and 3, so that with the aid of Figs. 1 and 4 and in view of the analogy of the arrangement with that shown in Figs. 2 and 3, the illustration is thought sufliclent to make the parts of the trip line readily intelligible.

In Figs. 1 and 2, I have shown the openings l2, l2, l2", i2a, I2 on one side of the jamb, and the corresponding openings I8, l8, l6, lBa, l6, on the other side of the lamb. It will be understood that the lamps, reflectors and other parts described above but not shown in Fig. 1 are located adjacent to therespective openings. For the sake of easier understanding, I have added at the right hand portion of Fig. 1 reference characters indicating the position of the particular groups of lamps located adjacent to the 112-- spective openings.

The filaments of the incandescent lamps in the several groups Ilia to I01 are connected in parallel to bus wires IS, IS receiving an electric current from any suitable source, for instance alternating current from the secondary of a transformer T the primary of which is connected to the conductors or mains N, N for instance of an ordinary electric circuit supplying alternating current of 110 volts and 60 cycles. The anodes of the photoelectric cells Ila to Mr are indicated by small circles in Figs. 5, 6, 7, 8 and the anodes of the cells Mo to Mn are connected to a bus wire 20 connected with the positive terminal of any suitable source of direct current. As such source, I may employ a vacuum-tube rectifier V which receives alternating current from the secondaries of a transformer T energized by the mains N, N, and delivers the rectified current through positive and negative conductors 2| and 22 respectively. The positive bus wire 28 is connected with a tap 23' on a resistor R which connects the conductors 2| and 22. Another tap 24 on said resistor supplies positive potential through a wire 25 to the anode of one of the photoelectric cells of the trip line, for instance the cell Mr. The cathode of this cell (the cathodes being indicated by semi-circles) is connected by a wire 26 with the anode of another cell (Mq) of the trip line, and a similar wire 21 connects the cathode of such second cell with the anode of the third cell (Hp). The cathodes of the photoelectric cells Ma to Hp are connected to the grids of vacuum tube amplifiers -Va to Vp respectively and to one terminal of the grid leak resistors Re to Rp of such amplifiers. The other terminals of these grid leak resistors are connccted by wires 28 with taps 29 on bias resistors 0a to Op respectively, the ends of said resistors being connected by wires 30, 3|. From the wire 3| a wire 32 leads to the negative conductor 22 of the rectifier V. Thus a. negative potential is supplied from said rectifier to the cathodes of all the photoelectric cells Mo to Mr.

I The filaments of the amplifier tubes Va to Vp are supplied with direct current through bus 7 wires 33, from any suitable source, for instance a dry rectifier P, a shunt condenser Q being connected with said wires. This rectifier is energized by a transformer T".

The wires 30, 3I- are connected with a shunt condenser Q and with positive and negative terminals respectively of another source of direct current, for instance a dry rectifier P energized by a transformer T Thus a negative potential (relatively to the tube filaments) is applied to the grid of each amplifier tube through the grid leak resistors Ra to R9 and the bias resistors 0a;

to Op.

The plates of the amplifier tubes Va to Vp are which are adapted to engage the respective stationary contacts 39. The number of switch members and contacts varies in the several relays, as explained below, and to facilitate the reading of the drawings I have appliedlike indices (A to H) r to switch members and contacts which have similar circuit connections. Under normal conditions, that is to say, when the light beams thrown across the doorway are unobstructed, the current flowing through the coils of the relays So to Sp is strong enough to raise all the switch members 38 of the relays So to S9, Si, S7, Sic, Sm, and Sn out of engagement with the respective contacts 39, while as to the relays Sh and Sp, some of their switch members 39 in their raised position will engage the respective contacts, and others will be out of engagement therewith.

The relay So. has three switch members'38 and three-contacts 39, with the indices A, B and D respectively. The relay Sb has four such switch members and four such contacts, with the indices A, B, C and D respectively, Each of the four relays Sc, Sd, Se and SJ has five switches with their respective contacts, designated by the indices A, B, C, D and E. The relay Sg likewise has five switches and contacts, but their relation to the circuit is different from those of the four relays just mentioned, as is indicated by the indices A, B, C, E and G respectively. The relay Sh has six switches and contacts designated by the indices A, F, B, G, E and C respectively. The relay Si has five switches and contacts designated by the indices A, F, B, E and G respectively. The

relay 'SJ' .has four switches and contacts designated by the indices A, F, B and G respectively. These are the relays associated with the counting line, and may be termed the counting-control relays.

The relay Sic has two switches and contacts, designated by the indices H and G respectively. The relay Sm has four switches and contacts, designated by the indices A, H, G and )3] respectively. Ihe relay Sn has four switches and con tacts designated by the indices A, B, H and G respectively. These three relays Sic, Sm and Sn are associated with the free line, and may be termed the free control relays.

Finally, the relay Sp associated with the trip line has two switches with their respective con tacts, designated by the indices F and D, respectively, and also an additional switch 38 with its contact 39'. This relay I term the trip control relay.

The switch member 38A of the relay So is connected by a bus wire 40 with one terminal of the actuating coil U of the electrically operated counting device U, which may be a register or a recorder, but preferably combines both functions. Since devices of this'class, operated by electrical impulses, are well-known in the art, I have not deemed it necessary to show the details of the counting mechanism proper. The coil U is adapted to receive current from the mains N, N

through wires ll, 42 one which (42) is connected with the coil permanently, while the connection oi the other wire (II) with said coil through the bus wire is controlled by switches, in the manner set forth hereinafter. A tell-tale lamp U shunted across the coil U, is designed to flash whenever a current impulse passes through said coil to operate or step" the counting mechanism. This lamp is visible through openings or windows 43 at the top of the lamb L. A resistor 44 is shunted across from the wire 0 to a wire 80' referred to below.

The wire 40 is also connected, as shown, with movable switch members 4! (bearing the index A) of another set oi relays Wc, Wb, Wc, Wd, We and W! (which I term power relays). These relays are similar to those described above, each of them having a coil, a movable core 31 connected with all the switch members oi the particular relay,

20 and stationary contacts 48, some oi the switch members l5 when raised being in engagement with the respective contacts, and others in engagement with their contacts when lowered. Each of these six relays Wu to W! has three switch members 45 and three contacts 4', bearing the indices A, B and G respectively. The contact 05A oi the relay We is connected by a wire ll with the contact 38A of the relay Ba and also with the switch member 38A of the relay Sb. The contact "A oi the relay Wb is connected by a wire I with the contact 39A of the relay Sb and also with the switch member 38A of the relay Sc. Similarly, a wire l8 connects the contact A oi the relay Wc with the contact "A oi the relay Sc 3 and with the switch member "A 01' the relay Sd.

A wire connects the contact A of the relay Wd with the contact 39A of the relay 8d and with the switch member 38A of the relay Se. A wire 5| similarly connects the contact "A of the relay We with the contact "A oi. the relay Se and with the switch member "A oi the relay S]. The contact 39A of the relay S] is connected by a wire 52 with the switch member "A oi the relay S0. Wires 5!, 54 connect the contact 48A 01 the relay W! with the contact 39A of the relay S0 and with the switch member "A of the relay Sh. A wire 55 connects the contact "A oi the relay Sh with the switch member "A oi the relay Si. Another wire 56 connects the contact 38A of the relay Si with the switch member "A oi the relay S1. The contact 39A of this relay S1 is connected by a wire 90' with the wire 90 referred to below.

The contact 393 of each 01 the ten relays So to S1 is connected by a wire 51 to the wire 34 associated with the same relay. The switch member 38B of each of the six relays So to S/ is connected by individual wires 58 to the switch member 59a to 59] respectively oi a locking relay J. The stationary contacts 600 to "I co-operatlng with said switch members are connected by individual wires 6| with the six switch members 62a to 62! respectively oi another locking relay J the stationary contacts 830 to "I oi which are all connected, by the same wire 64, to the bus wire 35.

The general construction oi the locking relays J and J is the same as that or the other relays described above; that is to say, each of the relays J and J has a coil which when energized fully will draw the core 31" in such a direction (upwardlyas illustrated) as to hold all the switch members 59a to Mt or 62a to 82) respectively of that relay out of engagement with the contacts a to 60f or 63a to B3 of the same relay, each core being connected operatively with all the mova able switch members oi the respective relay.

aoaaeu One terminal of the coil oi each locking relay J, J is connected by a wire 65 to one terminal of the actuating coil oi another relay X (which I term the tree control relay), the other terminal oi said actuating coil being connected by a wire 66 to the second terminal of the coil of the looking relay J. The wire 65 is connected by a wire 51 with a voltage bus wire 68 receiving current from one terminal of the rectifier V. The wire 66 is connected by a wire 69 with the switch member 38F oi the relay Sh, and by a wire Ill with one end oi the actuating coil of a relay Y (which I term the trip set driver relay), the other end of said coil being connected with the wire 61 by a wire ii. The latter is also connected with one end of the actuating coil of a relay Y which I term the trip lock relay), the other end of which is connected by a wire I! with a wire 13. The latter is connected with the switch members 386 of the counting control relays Sq, Si, S7, Sk, and Sm, with the contact 39C of the relay Sh, the contact 396 of the relay Sn, and also with the switch members 45G 01 the six power relays Wu. to W The switch member 386 oi the relay Sn is connected by a wire 14 and suitable branch wires, with the contacts 39G of the relays S0, Si, S7, Sk and Sm, with the switch member 38C oi the relay Sh, the switch member 38G oi the relay Sn, and also with the contacts G of the six power relays Wa to WI. From the wire 14 a wire 15 leads to a voltage bus wire 15 receiving current from the other terminal of the rectifier V.

The bus wire 16 is also connected, by suitable branch wires, with the contacts 39D oi the six relays Sa, Sb, Sc, Sd, Se, S), with the switch members 453 of the six relays Wa to W], as well as with the contact 39F oi the relay 81, the contacts 39D and 39F oi the relay Sp, the contacts 39H 01' the relay Sic and the contact 39A of the relay Sn.

A wire 11 connects the switch member 18 of the relay Y with two switch members 18, 1B" of the relay Y. The stationary contact 19 of the relay Y is connected by a wire 80 with one end of the actuating coil of a relay Y2, the other end of such coil being connected with the bus wire 68.

This wire 88 is also connected with one end oi the actuating coil of each oi the relays We to WI, and also with one end of the actuating coil oi relays Y2, Y, Y, W, and W. The other ends of the coils of the relays Wa to W}, are connected by wires Bi, with the switch members 38D of the relays So to S]. The other end oi the coil oi the relay Y2 is connected by a wire 8| with the switch member 38D oi the relay Sp, and the other end oi the coil of the relay W is connected by a wire 8|" with the switch member 88A oi the relay Sm.

The stationary contact I! oi the relay Y is connected by a wire 8! with the switch member 8313 of the relay Y2. The contacts 843' and 84B" 01! this relay Y: are connected with the wire 80. The stationary contact 19" of the relay Y is connected by a wire 86 with the stationary contact 81B of the relay Y2. The corresponding switch member 883 of the relay Y2 is connected by a wire 89 with the wire Bl which connects the actuating coil oi this relay with the switch member 38D of the relay Sp.

The relay Y2 has four additional pairs oi switch members and corresponding contacts, these pairs being denoted by the indices A, F, E and H respectively. The switch member 88A or 5. than i his.

this relay is connected to the wire 40, while the corresponding contact 81A is connected by a wire 85 with the contact 84A of the relay Y2. The switch member 83A co-operating with the contact 84A is connected with a wire 90 leading to the switch member BIA of a relay X which I term the free set relay. From the corresponding contact 92A of the relay X a wire 93 leads to the contact 94 of a relay Z which I term the power time delay relay. The switch member 95 of this relay is connected by the wire 4| to the line wire N. The actuating coil of the relay Z is connected by wires 96 in a shunt between the wires M and 42.

The switch member 8835' of the relay Y2 is connected by a wire 91 with the switch member 38F of the trip line relay Sp; the contact 81F co-operating with said switch member 88F is connected by a. wire 98 with that end of the actuating coil of the locking relay J which is opposite to the end connected with the wire 65. The switch member 88E of the relay Y2 is connected to the bus wire i6 by a wire 99, while the corresponding contact 81E is connected by a wire I to the switch member 833" of the relay Y2.

The switch member 88H of the relay Y2 is connected with the wire 80, while the corresponding contact 87H is connected by a wire IOI with the switch member 38H of the relay Sk.

From the wire IOI a branch wire I02 leads to the switch members 38H of the relays Sm and Sn. The contacts 39B of the three relays Sic. Sm, Sn are connected by a wire I03 from which a branch wire i04 leads to the bus wire 13.

The switch member 9IF of the free set relay X is connected by a wire I with the contact iOBF' of the relay W (which I term the free power relay) and with one end of the actuating coil of the relay X, the other end of said coil being connected by a wire I01 with a wire I08 which connects the contact 9213 of the relay X with the contact I09F of the free control relay X. The corresponding switch member BIB of the relay X is connected by a wire III with the switch members IIIiF and UHF" of the'relay X. A branch H2 connects the wire III with the switch member II3B of the free power relay W and with the contact II4F of the relay W, which I term the free master relay. The switch member l i5F and the contact I NE of the relay W are connected with the bus wire "I6 by a wire HE. A wire I I1 connects the switch member II5E of the relay W with the switch member IIOE of the relay X. The contact 92F of the relay X is connected by'a wire I I8 with the bus wire 68 and also with the switch member II3F of the relay W. A wire II9 connects the contact IUBF' of the relay X with the contact IDGB of the relay W and with one of the actuating coils of said relay W. The other end of said coil is connected with the bus wire 68 by a wire I20. The actuating coil of the relay W has one end connected, by a wire I2I, with the bus wire 68, the other end of such coil being connected, as stated above, with the switch member 38A of the relay Sm by the wire 8i", from which a branch I22 leads to the contact IIISE of the relay X.

The contact 39B of the relay Sn is connected by a wire I23 with the wire 34 connecting the actuating coil of said relay with the plate of the corresponding amplifier tube Vn. The corresponding switch member 38B of the relay Sn is connected by a wire I24 with the switch member 38E of the relay Sm. The corresponding contact 39E of the relay Sm is connected by a wire I25 ,ocaoci QEaI CH H00 with the bus wire 35. A wire I26 connects the contact 39A of the relay Sm with the switch member 38A of the relay Sn. The corresponding contact 39A of the relay Sn is connected by a wire I2'I with the bus wire I6.

The switch member 383 of the relay S7 is connected by a wire I28 with the switch member 38E of the relay Si; the corresponding contact 39E of the relay Si is connected with the bus wire 35 by a wire I29. A wire I30 connects the switch member 38E of the relay S7 with the contact 39F of the relay Si, and the corresponding switch member 38F oi the relay Si is connected with the contact 39F of the relay Sh by a wire I3I. The switch member 38B of the relay Si is connected by a wire it? with the switch member 38E of the relay Sh; the corresponding contact 39E of the relay Sh is connected with the wire 64 and through it with the bus wire 35.

The switch member 38C of the relay Sh is connected by a wire I33 with the contact 39C of the relay So and with the contact 463 of the relay Wf. A wire i3 l leads from the contact 390 of the relay Sh to the switch member 380 of the relay So and to that wire 8i which is connected with the switch member 38D of the relay Sf. The switch member 3813 of the relay Sh is connected by a wire I35 with the switch member 38E of the relay Sc, and the corresponding contact 39E of the relay S9 is connected by a wire I36 with the bus wire 35.

The switch member 3813 of the relay S9 is connected by a wire I31 with the switch member 38E of the relay Sf. The corresponding contact 3913 of the relay S is connected with the bus wire 35 by a wire I30. From the contact 390 of the relay Sf a wire I39 leads to the contact 463 of the relay We.

The switch member 3813 of the relay Sf is connected by a wire I40 with the switch member 38E of the relay Se, and the switch member 380 of the relay Sf is connected by a wire I4l with the switch member 38D of the relay Se, through the corresponding wire 8I. From the contact 390 of the relay Se a wire I42 leads to the contact 463 of the relay Wd.

The switch member 38B of the relay Se is connected by a wire I43 with the switch member 38E of the relay Sd, and the switch member 380 of the relay Se is connected by a wire I44 with the switch member 38D of the relay Sd, through the corresponding wire 8|. The contact 39E of the relay Se is connected with the bus wire 35 by a wire I45. Similarly, a wire I46 leads from the contact 39E of the relay Sd to the bus wire 35. From the contact 390 of the relay Sd a wire I41 leads to the contact 46B of the relay We.

The switch member 383 of the relay Sd is connected by a wire I48 with the switch member 38E of the relay Sc, and the switch member 38C of the relay Sd is connected by a wire I49 with the switch member 38D of the relay Sc, through the corresponding wire 8|. The contact 39E of the relay So is connected with the bus wire 35 by a wire I50. A wire I5I connects'the contact 390 of the relay So with the contact 4613 of the relay Wb.

The switch member 380 of the relay Se is connected by a wire I52 with the switch member 38D of the relay Sb, through the corresponding wire 8I. A wire I53 extends from the contact 390 of the relay Sb to the contact 4613 of the relay Wa. A wire I54 connects the switch member 38C of the relay Sb with the switch member 38D of the relay Sa, through the corresponding wire 8|.

The trip lock relay Y' has a third switch member 18a and a third stationary contact 18a co-operating therewith, said switch member and contact being connected with wires I55 and I56 respectively. These wires are connected, by wires I55 and I55 respectively, with the switch mem ber 38' and the contact 39' respectively of the relay Sp. The switch member 180 Is connected by the wire I55 with one end oi. the actuating coil of a relay Z, which I term the alarm time delay relay, the other end of said coil being connected by a wire I51 with one contact of an alarm time clock I, the other contact of such clock being connectcd by a wire I58 with one end oi the actuating coil of a buzzer I59, a manually operatable switch I60 being preferably included in said connection. The interrupter or the buzzer I58 is indicated at I59, and the stationary contact of such interrupter is connected by a wire I8I with the wire 42. The alarm time clock I may be or any well-known or approved construction, to bring its two contacts into or out of engagement at predetermined hours as desired, A trouble lamp I62 is shunted across the wires I51, I56. The wire I58 is connected by a branch I58 with the movable switch member I63 01 the relay Z, the stationary contact I64 of which is connected with the wire I56.

The wires I55, I56 are also connected with the switch member I65 and the contact I66 respectively of a relay Z", which I term the no-voltage relay. The actuating coil of this relay has its ends connected by wires I61, I86 with the wires 65 and 16 respectively.

At I I have indicated an oI l n,clock" with a switch I69 controlling a gap in the line wire N,

while I" designates a date clock with a switch I10 controlling a gap in a wire I" which leads to one end of the actuating coil He or a time indicator of any suitable construction, preferably located adjacent to the counting device U, the other end of said coil being connected to the line wire N by a wire I12. The indications of said device U and or the time indicator may be inspected through a window I13 in the jamb L,

, preferably with the aid or a lens I".

A condenser Q" may be shunted between the bus wires 68 (2|) and 15 (22), ahead of the re sistor R, and 'a choke coil I15 included in the connection of the wires 2|, 68, on the transformer side of the said condenser shunt.

The trouble lamp I52 is visible through an opening or window I16 in the door janib L, while the tell-tale lamp U" is visible through the openings or windows 43.

The operation is as follows: To bring the apparatus into readiness for operation, the switch I69 must first be closed. This might, of course, be done manually at the proper times, but I prefer to have the switch I68 operated automatically by clockwork, such as the ofl-on,c10ck I' which may be of any suitable construction to open and close the switch I69 at the particular times desired. Assuming that the switch I66 has been closed, the primaries or the four transformers T, T, T" and T will receive current from the line N, N", N. The following operations will then take place simultaneously: (1) From the secondary oi the transformer T alternating current will be supplied through the wires I9, I8 to light all the lamps IIIa to II'Ir which throw beams of light across the doorway, said beams being directed on the respective photo-electric cells Ila to I41, thus reducing the Internal resistance oi said cells. (2) The transformer T has two secondaries, one oi which supplies current to the filament of the rectifier V, while the other supplies current to the plates of said rectifier. From the midpoints of said two secondaries, rectified current is supplied through the wires 2|, 22 to the resistor R and the wires 68, 16 respectively. From the tap 23 of the resistor R, positive potential is applied to the anodes oi the photoelectric cells Ida to Mn through the bus wire 20, while a positive potential is applied to the anodes oi the photoelectric cells Hp. Ilq and Ilr from the tap 24 of the resistor R through the wire 25 and the seriesconnecting wires 26, 21. Current will thus flow from the resistor R to the anodes of the photoelectric cells through the wires 20, 25, 26, 21, then through the cells and from the cathodes of the cells Ila to I43) inclusive through the respective grid leak resistors Ra to Rp and the wires 28, the taps 25 of the bias resistors 0a to O1), and the wires 3|, 32 to the negative terminal of the rectifier V and resistor R. (3) The alternating current from the secondary of the transformer T is transformed into direct current in the rectifier P, and from the negative terminal of said rectifier a connection is made through the wire 30, the bias resistors 0a to Op, the wires 28, and the grid leak resistors Ra to Rp to the grids of the amplifier tubes Va to Vp, thus imparting to the grids of said tubes a negative potential relatively to the filaments of such tubes. (4) The alternating current delivered by the secondary of the transformer T" is trans iormed into a direct current by the rectifier P, and said direct current is supplied by the wires 33 to the filaments of the amplifier tubes Va to Vp. (5) From the tap 36 of the resistor R positive potential is supplied through the bus wire 35, the actuating coils of the counting control relays So to Sp and the wires 36, to the plates of the amplifier tubes Va to Vp. All the plate circuits of these tubes are of the same character, so that it will suffice to trace one of them. For instance, the plate circuit of the tube Vn is as follows: From the tap 36 of resistor R to wire 35, actuating coil of counting control relay Sn, corresponding wire 34, plate of amplifier tube Vn, filament of said tube, and through the negative wire 33, wires 32 and 22 back to the negative end of resistor R.

It is well known that the resistance of a photoelectric cell decreases with an increase in the amount of light falling thereon. The photoelectrio cells of my apparatus have a minimum resistance when the full amount of light intended for each cell is directed thereon. Under these conditions, the amount of current in the plate circuit will be at a maximum, that is to say, the actuating coil of the respective counting control relay Sa to Sp will be energized fully. This will result in the respective cores 31 being in their raised position whenever the light beams from the respective lamps IIJa to IIJp pass without interruption across the doorway to the respective photoelectric cells.

The raising of the cores 31' will cause all the switch contacts to be opened in the counting control relays So to Sg inclusive and also in the relays S1, S7, Sk, Sm and Sn. In the counting control relay Sh, however, the raised position of the core 31 will cause the switch contacts to be opened only at A, F, B and E, while in such position of the core the switch contacts will be closed at G and C. In the counting control relay Sp, the raised position of the core 31 will open the switch contact at 38', 39 and at D, but close at F. The drawings show the contacts or the counting control relays in the normal condition corresponding to the raised position of the respective cores 31.

The cores 3'! of the power relays We to W are normally in their lower position, as shown, thus closing all the switch contacts of these relays at A while opening their contacts at B and G. The cores of the relays W, W, J, J, X, X, Y, Y, Y2, Y2, Z, Z are initially in their lower position, thus opening all the contacts of W, Y, Y, Z and Z, and closing all the contacts of J J as to W, closing the contact at F and opening the contact at B; as to X, closing the contact at F" and opening the contacts at F and E; as to closing the contact at A and opening the contacts at B and F; as to Y2, opening the contacts at B, B and closing the contact at A; as to Y2, closing the contact at H and opening the contacts at A, B, F, and E. Since a circuit is closed from the positive end of resistor R through wires 68, I61, the actuating coil of the no-voltage relay Z and the wires I68, 16 to the negative end of the resistor R, the core of said relay is normally in the upper position, breaking the contact between l65 and I66. Whenever the switch IE9 is closed, the wire 4| becomes energized by connection with the live portion N" of the line wire N and a circuit is closed from such live portion through the switch I69, the wires ll and 96, and the actuating coil of the power time delay relay Z to the wire 42 and the other line wire N. This will cause a slow upward movement of the core of the relay Z, bringing the switch member 95 into engagement with the contact 94 and keeping it in such engagement as long as the switch I69 is closed. Thus, as long as the core of the relay Z is in the upper position, the wire 93 will remain in conductive connection with the live portion N" of the line wire N. The circuit closing movement of the switch member 95 will be relatively slow, the coil and core of the relay being constructed to obtain this result. It will be understood that as soon as the clock I causes the switch I69 to open, the relay Z will become deenergized, thus interrupting the connection between the wire 93 and the wire 4|, which latter, of course, at substantially the same time, is disconnected from the live portion N" of the line wire N.

Therefore, as soon as the switch I69 and the switch 94, 95 have been closed as described above, the cores of the several relays will be in the positions illustrated (upper position for the cores of relays Sc to Sp, Z and Z, and lower position for the cores of the other relays) and the following contacts will be the only ones in the closed position: Relay Sh, at G and C; relays W and S1), at F; all the contacts of relays J, J, and Z; relay X, at F; relay X, at A; relay Y2, at A; relay Y2, at H; and each of the power relays We to Wf, at A.

Now suppose that the light beam striking one of the photoelectric cells (say the cell Ma) is interrupted entirely, the resistance of such cell will increase, thereby reducing the flow of current through the corresponding grid leak resistor Ra, resulting in a decrease of the voltage drop across such resistor. This voltage drop is impressed between the grid and the filament of the amplifier tube Va, in a polarity opposite to the normal negative bias potential supplied by the transformer T as described above. Therefore, when the voltage drop across the resistor Ra is reduced, the resultant grid potential existing in the tube Va between the grid and the negative end of the filament increases, causing lSearch the grid to become more negative. This results in a decrease of the plate current flowing through the tube Va, and consequently there is a decrease in the strength of the current flowing through the actuating coil of the relay Sa connected in the plate circuit of said tube. Such a reduction of the current energizing the coil of the relay So will permit the corresponding core 3'! to drop to its lower position in which the three pairs of contacts of said relay are closed. The closing of the contacts of the relay So at D will cause the actuating coil of the power relay We to be energized, since current from the rectifier V will flow through the wires 2|, 6B, the actuating coil of the relay We, the wire 8, the switch member 38D and the contact 39D of the relay Sc and the wires I6, 22 back to the rectifier. The energizing of the actuating coil of the relay W0; will cause its core 37 to rise thereby breaking the contact at A, but establishing contacts at B and G. This, however, will be insufficient to complete any further circuits, for the reasons explained below.

It will be noted that all the pairs of contacts marked A on the ten relays Sa to S7' of the count ing line are in series connection by means of the wires 4'! to 56, with the bus Wire 90, 93, H. With the switches I69 and 94, closed, there is normally a live condition from the wire M to the wires 93, 90 (since the relay X has a closed contact at A) and 96. It will be obvious that if only the relay Sa has its core 37 in the lowered position, no circuit will be completed at the contact A, for the reason that there are open gaps at the contacts A of the relays Sb to S7 inclusive. In order that a circuit be completed when the core 37 of the relay Sa is in its lower position, it is necessary that the cores of the relays Sb to S7 inclusive be likewise in their lower position, or in other words, that the beams of light affecting the corresponding photoelectric cells Mb to Mi be likewise interrupted. If th s is the case, the cores of all ten relays So to J7 will be in their lower position, and a circuit will be closed as follows: Line N, wire switch member 95, contact 94, wires 93, 90, and 96, contact A of relay Si, wire 56, contact A of relay Si, wire 55, contact A of relay Sh, wire 54, contact A of relay 89, wire 52, contact A of relay Sf, wire 5i, contact A of relay Se, wire 50, contact A of relay Sd, wire 49, contact A of relay Sc, wire :18, contact A of relay Sb, wire 47, contact A of relay Sa, wire 40, one terminal of the actuating coil U of the counting mechanism U, the other terminal of said coil, wire 42,

and line wire N. In this case therefore the coil U will be energized to give a counting mechanism U. At the same time the tell-tale lamp U will flash thus giving the attendant a visible indication that this part of the apparatus has functioned properly.

Now let us assume that the person entering through the doorway is not tall enough to interrupt entirely the beam of light affecting the photoelectric cell Ida, but tall enough to interrupt all the other beams of light belonging to the counting line, that is to say, the beams which affect the photoelectric cells Mb to My inclusive. In this case the core 3'! of the relay Sa will remain in its upper position, breaking the contact D, but the cores 3'! of the relays Sb to S inclusive will be in their lower position. As a result, the actuating coil of the power relay Wa will receive no current and will therefore maintain a contact at A, whereas the actuating hour coils of the power relays Wb to Wf will receive current through the connections which one end of each of such coils has with the bus wire 15,

through the closed contact D of the associated counting line relay and the wire 8|, while the other end of such coil is connected directly with the bus wire 58. The cores 31 of the power relays Wb to Wf will therefore be in the raised position, interrupting the contacts A of said relays. A circuit will therefore be closed as follows: Line N, wire 4|, switch member 95, contact 94, wires 93 and 90', contact A of relay Si, wire 56, contact A' of relay Si, wire 55, contact A of relay Sh, wire 54, contact A of relay 59, wire 52, contact A of relay Sf, wire contact A of relay Se, wire 50; contact A of relay Sd, wire 49, contact A of relay Sc, wire 48, contact A of relay Sb, wire 41, contact A of relay Wa, wire 40, one terminal of the actuating coil U of the counting mechanism U, the other terminal of said coil, wire 42, and line wire N, The counting mechanism will thus again receive an impulse, even though there has been no change in the condition of the relays Sc and Wu.

Similarly, if a still shorter person should enter the doorway and fail to intercept the beams of light which affect the photoelectric cells Ma and lb, a similar operation would take place, the cores of the relays Sa, Sb, Wa, Wb remaining :30 in their original position, while the cores 0! the relays So to S9 and We to W) would assume the reverse position to that shown in the drawings.

The current in this case after reaching the wire 48 in the circuit just referred to above, would :3 not continue on to the wire 41 (since there would be a gap at the contacts A or the relay Sb), but would pass from the wire 48 through the contacts A of the power relay Wb to the wire 40, continuing from there to the line N in the same way as described above. A similar operation would take place if the person was still shorter, so that the uppermost beam of light intercepted would be the one affecting the photoelectric cell l4d, He or I41; in these cases the closed contacts A of the power relays We, Wd and We respectively, would become operative to connect bus wire with the wires 50, 51 or 52 respec tivcly, and through the closed contacts A of the clays Se, Si and So respectively with the wire 54 and thence by the closed contacts A of the relays Sh, Si and S1 with the bus wire 90', 90 and ultimately with the line wire N.

Should the person be of such small stature as to intercept only the beams which afiect the photoelectric cells I421, Hi and Hi, the operation of the counting mechanism will take place in substantially the same manner as before, but the circuit will be slightly different, namely as follows: Line N. wire 4|, switch member 95, contact 94, wires 93, 90, and 90, contact A of the relay Si, wire 56, contact A of relay Si, wire 55, contact A of relay Sh, wires 54, 53, contact A of power relay WI, wire 40, one terminal of the actuating coil U of the counting mechanism U, the other terminal of said coil, wire 42, and line wire N.

Should the body be so short as to intercept only the beams affecting the photoelectric cell I41 and I43. or only the beams affecting the cell H7, this will not cause an operation of the 7) counting mechanism, for the reason that in the case first mentioned a gap will remain between the wires 54 and 55 at the A contact of the relay Sh, and in the second mentioned case, in addition to said gap, another gap, between the wires 7 t5 and 56, at the A contact of the relay Si. Of

course, if the body is so short as not even to intercept the beam affecting the photoelectric cell I47, 9, gap will remain between the wires and 56 at the A contact of the relay S7 and thus there can be no operation of the counting mechanism. However, the beam of light affecting the photoelectric cell 14h is placed at a level low enough (say three feet from the ground) to be interrupted even by the passage of any child of such age as to be admitted to the theatre or like place under the rules governing admission. The apparatus will therefore count all admissible persons which enter through the doorway irrespective of the stature of such persons.

It will be noted that all the contacts marked A on the power relays We to Wf are connected in shunt to the power bus line 40 at points below those where such line is connected with the A contacts of the corresponding counting control relays So to S Each of the relays Sci to S9 inclusive, once it has closed its contacts by reason of the respective photoelectric cell being rendered dark, is locked in this closed position by the relay Sc to Si respectively next above it. For example, if the core 31 of the relay St! has taken its lower position so as to close the contacts of said relay, it will be locked in this position by the action of the relay Sc. Similarly, if the core 31 of the relay Se is in its lower position, it will be locked by the action of the relay Sd. This is accomplished by an auxiliary contact on each relay so connected as to short circuit the actuating coil of the next relay below through one of its own contacts. For example, when the relays Sc and Sd are in the condition in which their con tacts are closed, a positive potential is applied to the plate of the tube Vd from the voltage bus line 35 by means of the wire I50, the closed E contact of the relay So, the wire I48, the contact B of the relay Sci, and the wires 51, 34. This circuit forms a shunt around the actuating winding of the relay Sd, rendering it unresponsive to changes in the light thrown on the corresponding photoelectric cell l4d. Similarly, if the relays Sci and Se are in the condition in which their contacts are closed, a positive potential will be applied to the plate of the vacuum tube Ve from the voltage bus line 35 through the wire N6, the contact E of the relay Sd, the wire I43, the contact B of the relay Se and the wires 5'1, 34 associated with the relay Se and the tube Vc. This will form a shunt circuit around the actuating coil of the relay Se. It should be observed, however, that there is no interlocking action as regards the relays which are located above the relay Sc; that is to say, the relay So can not be locked in the contact-closing position by the relay Sb. nor can the latter be locked in the contact-closing position by the relay Sa.

Therefore each of the relays Sd to S7. once it has taken the position in which its contacts are closed, will remain closed if the relay next above it is closed, regardless of whether its associated photoelectric cell is light or dark, until the relay next above it is restored to the contact-opening position, thereby releasing the interlock. It will be obvious that by means of such interlock. any one of the relays So to Si may hold all of the relays (Sd to Si) below it closed once they have been closed owing to the interruption of the light beams focused on their respective photoelectric cells.

Each of the power relays Wa to WI can be locked by the counting control relay next below til) incubus Maw are not energized.

, to the plate it. That is to say, when the relay We is in such a position that its contact A is open and its contacts B and G closed, said relay can be locked in this position by the relay Sb, and similarly as to the other power relays. The locking of the power relays is accomplished by short circuiting the D contacts of the corresponding counting control relays So to S/ respectively. For example, if the actuating coil of the relay W1: is onergized (by the closure of the D contact of the relay So) the A contact of the relay We will be opened and its B and G contacts will be closed, as has been explained above. Now, if the contacts of the relay Sb are closed, the relay Wa will be locked in this energized position, whether or not the contact D on the relay Sa remains closed, because a voltage is applied from the volt age bus line 16 through the B contacts of the power relay Wa, then through the wire I53 to 20 the C contacts of the relay Sb and then by the wires I54, 8| to the actuating coil of the relay Wa. Relay Wa will remain in this energized condition until both relays Sc and Sb resume the postion in which their contacts are open.

A separate individual lock is provided on the relays Set to S When any one of these relays is closed (by reason of its associated photoelectric cell being rendered dark), it Will be locked in a contact-closing position by the relay J. This locking action is accomplished by short circuiting the actuating coil of the respective relays Sc to SJ. For example, it has been stated that the contacts of the relays J and J are normally closed, that is to say, when their actuating coils Therefore, if for instance the relay So is in the condition in which its contacts are closed, a positive potential will be applied to the plate of the vacuum tube Va from the voltage bus line 35 through the wire 64 to the contacts a of the locking relay J, the corresponding wire 6| to the contacts a of the looking relay J, then by means of the corresponding wire 58 to the B contacts on the relay So: and then by the corresponding wires 51 and 36 of the tube Va. The circuit just described forms a shunt around the actuating coil of the relay So. This relay will now remain closed whether or not the corresponding photoelectric cell la is light or dark,-until the locking relay J is operated to open all of its contacts, whereby the individual locks will be released and any of the So to SI relays which may have been locked in this manner, will be permitted to return to their contact-opening position if the respective photoelectric cells Ma to If receive the full amount of light.

The locking relay J is operated when all three relays Sh, Si and S7 are in the contact-closing position; a voltage is then applied from the voltage bus line 15 through the F contact on relay S7, wire I30, the F contact on relay Si, wire I31, the F contact on relay Sh, wires 69 and 66 to the actuating coil of the locking relay J and then through the wire 65 etc.

By the connection and interlocking arrangement of the relays described above I insure the result that only one relay at a time will control the counting mechanism. This controlling relay may be any one of the relays So to Sh inclusive, depending on the maximum height of the body passing through the doorway. The controlling relay will always be the highest relay to operate. Furthermore, control of the counting mechanism, once its actuating coil U has been energized, may be passed upward from one aosaesi "search of said relays to another without interrupting the current through said coil. For example, let us assume that all the relays S1, Si, Sh, Sg and S have their cores 3? in their lower position; in this case, the relay S will be in control of the counting mechanism, since the current to operate said mechanism is forced to flow through the A contacts of the highest S relay which has its core in the lower position (providing, of course, that all the relays below said relay, down to and including the relay S7, have their cores 37 in their lower position). As has been described above, in this case the current will pass up as far as the A contacts of the relay Sf and then through the wire 5! to the A contacts of the relay We to the bus line 40. If now the relay Se should be operated in such a way as to lower its core 3'! and close its contacts, this will, at the contacts D, close a circuit through the actuating coil of the relay We and raise the core 31 of said relay so as to open the contacts at A and close the contacts at B and G. The current through the actuating coil U will now flow through the A contacts of the relays S7, S2, Sh, S9 and Sf as before, but since the A contacts of the power relay We are now open, the current will be compelled to flow through the closed A contacts of the relay Se and then by way of the wire 50, through the A contacts of the power relay Wd, through the bus line 4i] and back to the actuating coil U. During the change of control from Sf to See, the current through the coil U was not interrupted. As all the contacts of the relay Se close simultaneously, the power relay We could not be operated to close its A contact before the A contact of the relay Se was closed. There was therefore no open circuit along the bus line 40 to interrupt the current, and as the current through the coil U was not interrupted, the shifting of the control from one relay to the next above below the S relay controlling the counting mechanism, are locked in the closed position (core 3! lowered) by means of the interlocking connections set forth and therefore can not operate, whether their respective photoelectric cells be light or dark, until this interlock is released by opening the contacts of the controlling relay. Therefore, until the contacts of the controlling relay are opened, the current flowing through the coil U can not be interrupted; in other words, it is impossible for another count to be registered until after the contacts of the controlling relay have been opened. For example, let us assume that all the relays from S9 upward to Sd (both inclusive) have their cores 31 in the lower position, it will be understood that this places the relay Scl in control of the counting mechanism and of the locks on all the said relays below it (Se to S7). The current energizing the coil U will now flow through the A contacts of the relay Sd. If now the contacts of this relay are opened (core in the upper position) by reason of its photoelectric cell Md receiving the full amount of light, the current through the coil U will be interrupted. Since, as explained above, the A contact of the power relay Wd is now opened and is locked in this position by the relay Se, control of the counting mechanism will remain at the relay Sd and will not be transferred to Se, and ii the core 3'! of the relay Sd is again caused to drop, its A contacts will again close the circuit along the bus line 40, permitting another current impulse to flow through the coil U and thus register a second count. If, however, the core 31 of the relay Sd is not again brought to the lower position, but if instead of this the core 31 of the relay Se is raised (by reason of the photoelectric cell We receiving the full amount of light), then the lock which has been holding the relay Wd in said position is released, permitting the A contact of Wd to close and thereby placing a shunt across the bus line 40. From this moment on, the counting mechanism will be controlled by the relay Se and if the core 31 of such relay is brought to its lower position, current will flow through the coil U and register another count.

If, however, after the core 31 of the controlling relay has moved to its lower position, thereby opening the circuit along the bus line 40 and interrupting the flow of current through the coil U of the counting mechanism U, the relays below the controlling relay are permitted to open individually in succession (owing to the interlock ing system, this is the only way in which they can open), then the circuit along the bus line 40 will not be closed again, so that no additional count will be registered. When I say that the re lays will open, I mean that their cores 3! will move to their upper position.

It will be understood that the system described above provides means for controlling a counting mechanism through the medium of a plurality of light beams and of photoelectric cells. The arrangement is such that only one photoelectric cell at a time can control the counting mechanism, the lowest cell which can thus become the com trolling cell, being the cell Mh, while the highest cell which can become the controlling cell is the one designated Ha. Whenever a body passes through the doorway, the highest photoelectric cell which is thereby rendered dark, will be the one that will control the counting mechanism at that time. However, owing to the operation as described, this cell can control the counting mech-- anism so as to cause it to register one count, only after all the photoelectric cells of the counting line Ha to My) which are below this controlling cell, have been rendered dark. Once the photo electric cells below the controlling cells have been rendered dark, they are all so governed by the controlling cell that they are not capable of interrupting the above mentioned control of the counting mechanism, if any of said lower cells should become light; obviously, an error by double count could occur if the temporary lighting of any of such lower cells interrupted the control exerted by the controlling cell on the counting mechanism. It is immaterial in which order the photoelectric cells are rendered dark by a body entering through the doorway; in every case, the highest photoelectric cell to be rendered dark by the passage of such a body is the only cell which can control the counting mechanism and cause it to register a count. Ashes been explained above, should a lower photoelectric cell be rendered dark, and thereby placed in control of the counting mechanism, this control can be shiited upward from one photoelectric cell to another after the body passes in through the doorway, until the highest photoelectric cell to be rendered dark by such a body is reached, such shifting taking place without opening the counting circuit so that the count will be effected only when the body has intercepted the beam of light affecting the highest photoelectric cell. After such a body has passed beyond the highest photoelectric cell darkened by the passage of such body (the corn absaeai trolling cell at that time) so that said cell will again become light and cause the counting mechanism to a count, the order in which the lower photoelectric cells become light will have no effect on the counting mechanism.

As explained, once the highest photoelectric cell to be rendered dark by a given body has become light, the counting circuit along the bus line 40 has been opened. and can be closed again only when the same photoelectric cell is again rendered dark, or by permitting the next lower photoelectric cell to become light and then again causing this cell to become dark. For example, once the circuit along the bus line 40 has been opened, interrupting the current which passes through the counting mechanism coil U, control passes down from one photoelectric cell to the next below as these cells become light. The circult can then be closed again only by darkening again a photoelectric cell which has been dark and then has been permitted to become light, thereby starting an upward shift of the control. This would he the case if two bodies passed through the doorway in single file but so close to gether as to present a silhouette unbroken between them except in the region of the heads or necks.

The system described above will provide an accurate count of all admissible persons entering through the doorway, provided they are caused to pass through the doorway in single file or approximately 50. This result is accomplished by giving a proper width to the doorway and by a proper spacing of the rails K. As has been explained above, every person will be counted whether short, medium or tall, the beam of light which affects the photoelectric cell Hh being placed at such a height from the ground as to be intercepted even by a child 01' admissible age.

The irregular arrangement of the opening l2 and the shape of the sheet of light which is thrown across the doorway through said opening, are of considerable importance in securing an accurate operation. When a person enters through the doorway, the number of light beams that will be interrupted and the sequence in which they will be interrupted, depends not only on the height or stature of such body, but on its posture, whether the person be in erect position or bending forward etc. Assuming the body passing the doorway to be erect and tall enough to interrupt 7 the highest light beams, that is to say, those focused on the photoelectric cell Me, the light beams passing through the vertical upper portion M of the long irregular opening 12 will be interrupted first, and as these light beams are focused on the photoelectric cells Ma, Mb, Idc, Md and Me, the corresponding relays So, Sb, Sc, Sci, Se will close (lowering their cores 3"!) and will be locked in this position by the relays J and J. As such body proceeds through the doorway, the light beams passing through the openlugs 12" will be interrupted next, closing the relay S7. As the body continues to pass through the entrance, the light beams issuing from the portions M, M will be interrupted next, closing the relays Sf. So and Si. It should be noted that when the body has proceeded thus far, all the light beams passing through the opening 12 have been interrupted except those at the rearmost point of the said opening, that is, the point where the portion M" joins the portion M This junction point will be the last portion of the opening I2 to be rendered dark by the passage of the body. Since the light beams passing through the opening 12 at this junction point are focused on a. libero t that the cell Mh, all the photoelectric cells in the counting line (Ma to I47) will have been rendered dark, and all the relays of the counting line except the relay Sh will be closed and locked in this position. Now, when the body entering through the doorway interrupts the light beams at the junction point of the portions M" and W, the photoelectric cell l4h will be rendered dark, causing the relay Sh to close. Its A contacts will then complete the circuit along the bus line 40 and cause the counting mechanism to operate, to register or record a count. Simultaneously, a circuit is closed from one side of the voltage bus line 76 through the F contacts of the relays S7", S1 and Sh, and then through the wire 69 to the bus line 65. When this bus line is energized, current will flow through the actuating winding of the locking relay J, opening all of its contacts, and immediately releasing the locks on the counting line relays Sa, Sb, Sc, Sd, Se and Sf. Now, as the body proceeds farther, permitting the photoelectric cell Ma (which we will assume to be the controlling cell in this case) to become light, the relay So will open, opening the circuit along the bus line 40 and causing the counting mecha nism U to efiect one count.

It will be understood that the registering or recording of one count by the counting mechanism U does not take place until the circuit including the actuating coil U of said mechanism is opened, which occurs when the controlling photoelectric cell becomes light again.

As the body entered the doorway, the photoelectric cells Ma to M9 were rendered dark, causing the corresponding relays Sa to So to become closed and locked in this closed position. Similarly, the lower photoelectric cells Hi and Hi were rendered dark and their relays Si and S7 were closed. The actuating coil of the counting mechanism, however, was not energized until the light beams passing through the opening l2 at the junction of the portions M" and M were interrupted, causing the relay Sh to close.

If a child or other short person enters through the doorway, the action will be substantially as described above except that some of the photoelectric cells at the upper portion of the apparatus will not be rendered dark and their relays will not come into play. Let us assume, for example, that a person passing through the doorway is only tall enough to interrupt the light beams focused on the cell Me, but not those on the higher cells Ma to Hid. In this case, the photoelectric cells Me, l4 and I47 will be rendered dark first, causing their associated relays Sc, Sf and S7 to be closed and locked. Next the photoelectric cells Mg and Mi would be rendered dark, closing and locking the corresponding relays By and Si. This will almost close the circuit along the bus line 40, leaving a gap at one place only, namely, the A contact on the relay Sh which as yet has not been operated. All the relays above Se are open, since their respective photoelectric cells have not been rendered dark, and as the contacts on the relay Sd are open, the power relay Wd has not operated and therefore its A contacts are closed, effectively short circuiting the A contacts of all the relays above Sf.

When during the further inward movement of the body the light beams are interrupted at the rearmost point of the opening I2 (junction of the portions M and M the photoelectric cell Hh is rendered dark, causing the relay Sh to close the circuit along the bus line 40 and energize the bus line 66 as explained above, thus operating the i hearth counting mechanism and simultaneously the locking relay J, whereby the locks on the relays Se and Sf are released. As the body continues to pass inward, the photoelectric cell Me (which in this case is the controlling cell) will be rendered light and the relay Se will open, reopening the circuit along the bus line 40 and thereby completing the count.

In the event of the passage through the doorway of a child only tall enough to darken the photoelectric cell Hlh, and none of the cells above, the lower photoelectric cells I49 and Ni will be rendered dark first, closing the relays SJ and S2 respectively. Should then the photoelectric cell My become light again, the relay S9 can not open since it is locked by the relay Si. When the child has advanced far enough to interrupt the light beams focused on the cell Mh, the relay Sh will close, completing the actuating circuit of the counting mechanism U along the bus line 40, because as the relay S! has not operated, the A contact on the power relay W) is closed, short circuiting all the A contacts on the counting line relays above Si. As the relay S2 is locked in a closed position by the relay Sh, the circuit along the bus line Mi will remain closed until the photoelectric cell Mh becomes light, opening the relay Sh and completing the count.

With the arrangement described employing a plurality of light beams, photoelectric cells, and relays, together with the interlocking system set forth, there is no possibility of overcounting, that is, registering or recording more than one count for a single person. For example, let us assume that a person entering through the doorway and carrying an object such as an umbrella, a hat etc., holds such object extended forward. It is impossible to prevent such objects for interrupt ing some of the light be ms; however, the shape and the dimension of the lower portion M of the opening 82 and of the openings I2 are such that any object of the character just mentioned will not be able to interrupt enough light beams in the proper sequence to effect a count in the mechanism U. A child, however, has sufficient dimension to cause the counting mechanism to operate.

My improved arrangement also guards against a wrong count in cases like the following: As-

sume that a person passing through the doorway carries an overcoat on his arm and extends it forward in such a way that light may pass between this overcoat or similar object, and the persons body. An object of this size would be able to interrupt enough light beams in the proper sequence to operate the counting mechanism. However, as has been explained above, the light beams passing through the opening l2 at the junction point of the portions M" and M must be interrupted before the counting mechanism can be operated. The distance s by which said junction point lies to the rear of the portion M of the opening I2, is such that when the overcoat or other object interrupts the light beams at said junction point, some portion of the persons body, generally the extended arm holding said object, will have interrupted some of the light beams along the portion M of the opening l2. The photoelectric cell upon which these light beams are focused will be rendered dark, closing the contacts of the respective S relay and thus placing this relay in control of the counting mechanism. Now, inasmuch as all the photoelectric cells of the counting line below this point have been rendered dark by the passage of the Row;

overcoat or other object, all the relays below the controlling relay will be closed, and locked in this position by the controlling relay. As the person proceeds through the doorway, the lower photoelectric cells are rendered light by the light beams passing between the object and the body. The corresponding S relays, however, can not reopen and thus open the counting mechanism circuit, since the controlling relay maintains an interlock for the closed relays. As the person proceeds still farther, control passes from one photo electric cell to another as has been explained above, until such control passes to the cell corresponding to the highest beam interrupted by the body, when the operation or the counting mechanism to effect one count will be completed. Therefore, even though the lower photoelectric cells have been rendered dark and then light twice during the passage or the body (with the overcoat), only a single count will be effected in the mechanism U. The result would be the same if instead of holding an object in front of him, the person should hold such object to his rear.

The system herein disclosed also guards against the possibility of undercounting, that is. registering a single count for the passage of more than one person through the doorway. For example, assume that two or more persons are entering through the doorway in single file but as close together as possible, perhaps with the intent of defeating the correct operation of the apparatus by causing two or more persons to count as only one. It will be found in practice that some light will be able to pass between these bodies in the region of the head or neck, and possibly in the region of the feet. As the persons proceed through the doorway, the first body will render a suflicient number of photoelectric cells dark in the proper sequence to operate the counting mechanism U and effect one count. As the bodies proceed farther, the light beams that pass between two bodies in the region of the head will render the controlling photoelectric cell light, thus opening the recorder circuit and completing the first count in the manner set forth above. It the two persons are of approximately the same height. the second body will, as it proceeds, interrupt the same light beams and again close the counting mechanism circuit, effecting a second count. If, however, one of the persons is considerably taller than the other, the action is as follows: Assuming the first person to be tall enough to interrupt the light beams focused on the photoelectric cell Na, and the second person to be only tall enough to interrupt the light beams focused on the photoelectric cell He, the tall person will operate the counting mechanism and effect one count as explained above. Then. as the tall person proceeds. the photoelectric cells from Ila downward will become light in succes sion owing to the beams of light which pass be tween the bodies in the region of the head or neck of the smaller person, thus opening the respective S relays and passing control of the counting mechanism downwardly from one photoelectric cell to the other. When during this operation the photoelectric cell lie is finally rendered light by the light beams passing between the two bodies, the relay Se will open, and the lock it holds on the relay Wd (by means of the C contact of relay Sc and the B contact of relay Wd) is released, whereby the A contact on the relay Wd will be caused to close, short circuiting all the A contacts along the bus line 40 above this point and thereby placing the relay Se answer and the photoelectric cell He in control of the counting mechanism. As the two persons then proceed farther through the doorway, the smaller person will interrupt the light beams focused on the cell Me, and since this cell is now in control of the counting mechanism, a second count will be effected when this cell is rendered dark. The action will be practically the same if the position of the two persons is reversed. that is, if the shorter person precedes the taller.

It is one of the objects of the apparatus illustrated that only the persons entering through the doorway should be counted, and not those passing out through the doorway. In other words. the count be termed a uni-directional count. For the purpose oi preventing the counting mechanism from being operated by persons which pass out through the doorway, I have provided the lamp groups liilc, Him and i011 constituting the free line, and the instrumentalities controlled by the light beams proceeding from said three lamp groups. It will be evident from Fig. 1 that a person passing out through the doorway will interrupt the light beams of the free line (beams emitted through the openings lZa) before interrupting the light beams of the counting line (beams emitted through the openings l2, l2, II). It should be noted that a person entering through the doorway can not interrupt a sufficient number of the light beams emitted through the free line openings l2a to render the counting line inoperative before a count has been effected by the said person having interrupted the proper number of light beams emitted through the openings i2, i2 and i2". If, however, the person is passing through the doorway in the direction marked Out. the interruption of the light beams of the free line will render the counting line temporarily inoperative to effect a count; this operation is obtained by means of the switching relays W (free master relay), X (free control relay), W (free power relay), and X (free set relay). The relay W is operated by voltage applied to its actuating coil through the wire Hi from the bus line 68, through the wire BI" and the A contacts on the relays Sm and Sn. when the latter are closed. The relay X is operated when the bus line '55, 6B is energized by the closure of the F contacts on the relays Sh, Si and S7. When no current is flowing through the actuating coil of the relay X. its contacts F and E are open, and its contact F" is closed. The relay W is operated when a voltage is applied to its actuating coil from the voltage bus line 16 through the wire H6, the F contact of the relay W, the wires H2, ill. the F contact of relay X and the wire H9. Therefore. if the F contact on the relay W and the F contact on the relay X are both closed, a current will flow through the actuating coil of the relay W. closing its 13 contact and opening its F contact. relay X is operated when a voltage is applied to its actuating coil from the voltage bus line 16, through the wire H6, the F contact of relay W, wires 1 [2, Hi, the F contact of relay X. and the wires I08, I111. The other end of the actuating coil of the relay X is connected with the voltage bus line 58 through the F contact of the relay W. Therefore, in order that current may flow through the actuating coil of the relay X. ii is necessary that the F contact of relay W. the F" contact of relay X and the F contact of relay W all be closed. When current flows through the actuating coil of relay X, its A contact will open and its 13 and F contacts will close. The A coniii)

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2716047 *Apr 3, 1951Aug 23, 1955Ebasco ServStatistical frequency distribution recorder
US2852697 *Mar 10, 1954Sep 16, 1958Clarence A DavenportOptical system for measurement and control
US2866600 *May 20, 1954Dec 30, 1958CooperSonic vehicle counter
US2900521 *Jul 21, 1953Aug 18, 1959Westinghouse Electric CorpDoor control apparatus
US3081765 *Jun 15, 1960Mar 19, 1963Honeywell Regulator CoMedical body function recorder
US3100847 *Jan 18, 1961Aug 13, 1963Licentia GmbhLight curtain apparatus for photosensitive detector
US3825916 *Oct 20, 1972Jul 23, 1974California Crime TechnologicalLaser fence
US4009389 *Sep 19, 1975Feb 22, 1977Aktiebolaget AlmexApparatus for the automatic counting of passengers
US4528679 *Mar 14, 1983Jul 9, 1985General Signal CorporationAutomatic counting system for passages
Classifications
U.S. Classification235/98.00C, 250/215, 250/214.1, 340/556, 361/176, 250/208.4, 250/221, 377/6, 361/177
International ClassificationG06M1/10, G06M1/00
Cooperative ClassificationG06M1/101
European ClassificationG06M1/10B