US 2083479 A
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June 8, 1937. A, R, SPEARE 2,083,479
PACK FOR DISPENSING LUBRICATING OILS Filed Nov. 5, 1935 zvela-or lbelzpeare y morne Patented June 8, 1937 'l UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 4 Claims.
In the operation of internal combustion engines, notably in the automobile, the dispensing of lubricating oil has become increasingly a matter of sales servi-ce.
'Ihe public has come generally to demand its preferred grade and quality of lubricant and to have it in guaranteed standard units so that both quality and amount are assured. This is iinportant particularly in automobile operation because servicing by crank case filling must be when and where the need arises.
The present methods of dispensing motor oil at garages and iilling stations may be generally divided into three classes. The oil is pumped from containers into liquid measures, or in some instances poured from prefilled bottles or poured from tin cans, sealed at the factory and punctured in the presence of the customer. The rst two methods have the defect that most containers are subject to rell by unscrupulous dealers with inferior oil. In the case of bottles, the cost of return to factory for sealed refilling is heavy and loss by breakage considerable.
Dispensing from the sealed cans gives better assurance, but is expensive and wasteful in storage and involves a serious disposal problem of the empty cans.
My concept of the solution of all these difficulties of demand is one of adherence to accepted practices based on the intelligent desires of the engine operator. However, it is radical in its departure from previous ideas of what was possible in dispensing oil. Not only doe oil present difficulties due to the physical characteristics, but its dispensing on a basis of assured servicing adds many complicating factors above suggested.
It is highly desirable for the`hon'est dispenser that the oil be serviced in pre-sealed certified 40 form of standard unit. This necessitates the factor of ready inspection as to body, color, viscosity and other characteristics which an educated public has learned as necessary factors in motor maintenance and operation. The converse of the requirements are the very practical considerations of the dealer who has to maintain the service for the customer. The problem imposes strict limitations as to cost and the limitations of stations with maximum demand on extremely limited operating space make an expensive and annoying burden of empty containers that must be disposed oi'. As the matter of cost is a most ,serious factor my invention is of great importance in that it offers great economy and a great saving to producer and dispenser,
(Cl. 20G-46) My concept is that of a basis of unit dispensation in which a measured quantity of oil is iso-4 lated, sealed, handled and so delivered to the motor with full possibilities of inspection, and with a residual empty container of negligible proportions and one capable of easy disposal.
The apparent inconsistency of these factors is eliminated by the fact developed by my concept that a body of oil may be most advantageously handled if coniined in a limp, thin envelope in direct contrast to the previous tradition that it could only be handled in rigid holders such as bottles, cans or like known containers.
My concept is that the true basis of oil dispensation is that unit consisting of the measured body of oil isolated by a mere skin or limp membrane and capable of exible conformance in a. rigid pack for shipment and storage. One important factor making such a practical possibility is the inclusion with the oil in such a limp unit of a small body of air which gives the unit a self-cushioning capacity.
My invention is adapted to meet the wide ranges of form, size or volume which are involved in the dispensing of oil but for the purposes of illustration it is only necessary to present a. simple characteristic example of its practice. Variations, modications and adaptations will occur readily to those skilled in the art and will naturally develop to meet the needs or desires of producer and purchasing public without departing from the spirit of the invention as herein disclosed.
In the drawing illustrating the .selected example,
Fig. 1 shows in plan view a portion of a pack.
Fig. 2 is a section through the cell Wall on the line 2-2, of Fig. 1, but leaving. the oil unit in elevation.
Fig. 3 illustrates the Withdrawal of an oil unit from a shipping pack for service delivery to the motor.
Fig. 4 illustrates a simple type of delivery can or funnel.
Fig. 5 is a section through a characteristic unit seal as on the line 5-5 of Fig. 4, and
Fig. 6 is a diagrammatic study of a unit encasement for the envelopment of the unit volume of oil on which the pack is based.
The unit bodies of oil to be isolated, packed, shipped and dispensed may be of pint, quart, litre or other volume, but as the current practice in the United States is on the quart volume basis it may be understood that such is the body of oil making up the illustrative units I.
units are Withdrawn as indicated in Fig. 3.
'Ihe packs, which comprise rigid walls I0 and partitions II, provide as many cells I2 as are desired to give the total volume of the pack as delivered to the service station. The pack may be opened and exposed to prospective purchasers as the units are tamper-proof. In servicing, the In so doing the seal 2 affords a convenient grasp and provides a suspending yoke for the limply encased body of oil.
The seal 2 may be of any material or type. As indicated in the drawing, a crimped on metal strip affords a simple inexpensive and tamperproof seal that can be permanently applied after lling and carries any desired marking as to quantity, grade, body or trade mark or other indications of source or original responsibility for the unit and the pack.
As previously indicated, a characteristic feature of my concept is that the body of oil con.- stitutes a limp conforming unit which, when positioned in the rigid walled cell I2, slumps under its own weight into extended contact with the cell walls. This limpness of the unit I also functions conveniently in dispensing as indicated in Fig. 4. Here, again, the natural slump of the unit I into the dispensing vessel or funnel F facilitates the expulsion or discharge of the oil through the ruptures caused by the blades or pins f at the funnel bottom.
The ruptures are, therefore, enlarged beyond the diameter of the blades so that the unit discharges freely and without choking, leaving only the exhausted skin that confined it but which is held from following the flow of the oil by its seal.
Here, again, my invention involves a feature of double function. The seal 2 is given a bend, such, for example, as a reversed curve or S- shaped form. This assures the retention of the remains of the unit in the funnel F instead of a possible escape with the discharge.
The other function of the bent seal is in its relation to the form or cross section of the unit when in the rigid cell I2 of the pack. In this its function is importantly related to the unit encasement as well as the rigid cell.
While my units I have been described as limp to the degree of sagging or bulging, they should be of very definite proportions so that, whatever the design, there may be certain standard capacities.
In Fig. 6 I have attempted diagrammatically to show the proper basis for analysis of a characteristic encasement. For strength, economy and general efliciency as a unit or in a pack assembly my concept places preference on a generally cylindrical type of unit having a hemispherical bottom as indicated in Fig. 6. 'I'his permits me to calculate definitely the unit capacities of oil and the air cushion which plays such an important part in making the limp, thin-skinned unit possible. By providing in the sealed unit a body of air of about ten per cent of the volume of oil, the unit becomes self cushioning and able to shift, slump, conform or adjust itself. In fact, these apparently frail, slimsy units that might be said to a quart of oil with a skin on it are so selfcushioning as to withstand dropping without disruption.
The diagrammatic study as suggested in Fig. 6 is based on the arbitrary quart unit and may be explained as follows. If the main body of the oil be considered as cylindrical for a depth indicated by the bracket A and its end capacity hemispherical with the same radius as that of the cylinder as indicated by bracket B, I obtain on a diameter of approximately 2% inches, a combined capacity almost exactly of 57% cubic inches or one fluid quart.
For the proper self-cushioning basis of such a unit I allow about a ten percent volume. This in the diagram of Fig. 6 is indicated by bracket C while bracket D indicates the double fold areas of the end seal clamp.
It is necessary, however, to bear in mind that in the end sealing the general cylindricity of the oil body of the unit merges in theoretical figure from a circular cross section to that of a conical wedge of which the seal fold is the edge. This, of course, means that the cylinder being flattened to an edge now extends at the fold laterally of the cylindrical figure by roughly 4X5 inch on each side. That is to say, the end fold of the seal is approximately 41/3 inches long.
This as a matter of practical structure requires a sealing strip of at least equal effective length when clamped. Here would seem a geometrical difficulty inasmuch as the logical cell for such a unit is one of square cross section. My concept capitalizes this apparent diiculty by modifying the overlength of seal in respect to the transverse cell diagonal. This I do by bending or crimping the metal seal into an S-shaped or other sinuous form to give it an effective length to t the diagonal dimension of the square cross section of the cell I2. This no-t only assures a uniform positioning of the units I in the pack cells to make for standard efficiency, but increases the nger grip effectiveness of the seal when used as the pull or lifting bar, as in withdrawing the unit from its cell as shown in Fig. 3. These curves or crimps of any desired bend are formed by the closing dies of the end sealer which applies the seal to the unit.
As the confining skin or envelopment of my units I employ as before suggested, a thin, limp membrane. This, of course, must be oil proof and should not be easily creased as anything tending to lessen flexibility or develop cracks is fatal to my theory of mobility in the unit body.
While various materials are capable of use my concept of maximum eiciency indicates not only oil proofness, flexibility and strength, but a reasonable translucence preferably to a degree of color and bubble visibility. This is because, as before suggested, one of the advantages of the non-rigid unit is its capability of affording oil inspection on the basis of those simple standards upon which the motorist must depend. Visibility means that standard colors and degrees of clarity can be recognized. The air cushion becomes in a properly proportioned unit a factor for bubble test and viscosity.
The least expensive and to Inv knowledge the material best adaptable to my concept, is a skin of hydrated cellulose. This may be of wood fibre or other vegetable fibre or such combination as contributes the indicated characteristics best adapted for carrying out my invention within the practical limitations of the desired economy.
I indicate hydrated cellulose as preferred and as a novel factor in my generally novel unit. In spite of an apparent lack of adaptitude to such a use it has according to my novel concept of a limp dispensing unit of oil, most of the potential capabilities which that concept makes available. It is, compared with tin or glass, not only relatively inexpensive but is readily disposed of as undergoing complete combustion in any stove or incinerator. The seals which I rave indicated as preferably of metal while not :ombustible have a -sufcient salvage value to ustify handling. More than that, by reason, if their potential advertising value, they make a. basis of systematic rebate premium or like nerchandising basis which also affords an economic factor of great utility.
As at first suggested, my invention is not only :apable of, but well adapted to a wide range of embodiments and practices.
While proportions may be varied, my invention provides for relative proportions of practical advantage. Rigid containers, such as cans or bottles when packed in cases, leave considerable waste space. My concept provides for a flexible conforming unit which can be made 4of slightly greater diameter than the side dimension of the rigid cell so that by its own slumping and conforming it tends to ll in the corners of the cell and so reduce empty and waste voids in the pack as a whole. In the instance of the illustrative unit above discussed; I preferably use a unit of two and three-quarters inch diameter and pack it in a, case having cells of two and six-tenths side dimensions.
The skin of the unit is preferably smooth and non-frictional and the cell walls are also preferably smooth and non-frictional so that the units may be packed or unpacked freely and yet have a maximum lnterengagement due to the conformability of the flexible cylindrical unit to the rigid retaining Wall of their cells. The units and cells may, of course, be of other form of cross-section than the circle and square, but these are simple and desirable.
All such modifications and variants are to be understood as within my concept.
What I therefore claim and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:-
1. In combination with a fluid-dispensing unit comprising a self-cushioning, conformable fluid encasement of thin, tough, pliant, transparent, readily disruptible cellulosic material containing fluid and a protective cushioning medium, and an elongated relatively rigid top seal, a reenforcing` pack comprising a rigid cell, said fluiddispensing unit being adapted to be inserted within and conform to the contour of said rigid cell whereby to be supported during shipment or storage, said seal being of a length somewhat greater than any dimension of said cell and being bent upon itself for insertion in said cell to provide a spring interlock of encasement and cell, and being adapted upon further bending to release said encasement from said cell and providing a handle whereby said unit may be inserted into and removed from said cell and transported to the point of use.
2. In combination with a fluid dispensing unit comprising a self-cushioning, conformable fluid encasement of thin, tough, pliant, transparent, readily disruptible cellulosic material containing fluid and a protective cushioning medium, and an elongated relatively rigid top seal, a reenforcingpackn comprisingY a rigid rectangular cell, said seal being of a length greater than'any dimension of said cell and being adapted to be bent upon itself and inserted in said cell diagonally thereof to provide a spring interlock of encasement and cell and being adapted upon further bending to release said encasement from said cell and providing a handle whereby said unit may be inserted into and removed from said cell and transported to the point of use.
3. In combination with a self-cushioning, conformable fluid encasement containing fluid and a protective cushioning medium, and an elongated relatively rigid top seal, a reenforcing pack comprising a rigid cell, said fluid encasement being adapted to be inserted within and conform to the contours of said rigid cell whereby to be supported during shipment or storage, said seal being of a length somewhat greater than any dimension of said cell and being bent upon itself for insertion into said cell to provide a spring interlock of encasement and cell, and being adapted upon further bending to release said encasement from said cell and providing a handle whereby said unit may be inserted into and removed from said cell and transported to the point of use.
4. A duid-dispensing unit comprising a unitary conformable fluid-containing encasement of cellophane and an elongated substantially rigid but bendable metallic sealing strip crimped on the open end of said encasement and providing a handle therefor.
ALBERT R. SPEARE.