|Publication number||US2083617 A|
|Publication date||Jun 15, 1937|
|Filing date||Oct 18, 1934|
|Priority date||Oct 18, 1934|
|Publication number||US 2083617 A, US 2083617A, US-A-2083617, US2083617 A, US2083617A|
|Inventors||Leroy L Salfisberg|
|Original Assignee||Ivers Lee Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (37), Classifications (11)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
June 15, 1937. L. l.. sALFlsBERG 2,083,617
PACKAGING MACHINE Filed oct. 18, V1934 2 sheets-sheet 1 Ln N INVENTOR LEl'mj L. Ealiishur w am ATTORNEY June 15, 1937. 1 L .'SALFxsBERG PACKAGING MACHINE Filed oct. 18, 1954 i 2 sheets-sheet 2 .Z Y .wv
Y l Il INVNTOR L Ealiisljerg Lelfug BY Patented June 15, 1937 PACKAGING MACHINE Leroy L. Sionsberg, south orange, N. J., signor f to Ivers-Lee Company, Newark, N. J., a corporation of Delaware Application October 18, 1934, Serial No. '148,846
'lhis invention pertains in general to packaging equipment and speciiically relates to a form of automatic packaging machine.
One of the objects of the invention is to provide a construction of packaging for effecting a continuous and rapid' process in the production of packages.
A further object of the invention consists in producing a machine organization for the fabrication of packages having individual commoditycontaining enclosures for packaged commodities.
A further object of the invention comprises providing a construction of packaging machine utilizing a plurality of sources of packaging material utilized in a continuous heat sealing packaging operation for producing packages of a novel character.
These and other objects reside in a construction of packaging machine and a method of manufacture as will be readily apparent from the following description in conjunction with the appended drawings in which like reference numerals designate corresponding parts and in which:
Fig. 1 is a front view, partially sectioned, of the central portion of one embodiment of a packaging machine according to this invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical sectional view taken centrally of the representation of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view of the composite heating, crimping and pressing equipment employed in the invention;
Fig. 4 is a plan view of a typical package which may be fabricated by the machine here disclosed; 3,-, and
Fig. 5 is a side view of the package structure of Fig. 4.
This invention contemplates the use of a plurality of feeder rolls of packaging material which 49 are positioned for feeding toward centrally positioned sealing and crimping equipment associated with a feeding mechanism which permits a continuous and rapid manufacturing process in the fabrication of packages of the type indi- 45 cated. The feeding mechanism cooperates with the sealing and crimping equipment to properly position commodity articles between opposed layers of the packaging material at spaced intervals, while the sealing equipment crimps the 50 packaging material together at areas other than those occupied by the package, at the same time heating these areas in an oxidation process to form, by rapid production methods, a novel form of package.
Referring to the drawings in detail and particularly to Fig. 1, there is provided a general mounting structure Lhaving two reel spindles 2 and 3 positioned upon opposite sides thereof. Mounted upon these reel spindles 2 and 3 are reels 4 and 5, respectively. These reels 4 and 5 are provided with central cores upon4 which rolls of packaging material 6 and 'l are respectively stowed for rotatable feeding purposes. The packaging material so provided is preferably of transparent strip or ribbon formation and is of a composition such as regenerated cellulose, with a heat treatment coating thereon, although other material may be employed. Extending from the rolls 6 and 1 are leader strips 8 and 9, respectively. These leaders feed into the heating and sealing equipment described in more detail later.
Upon an upper portion of the mounting structure I there are provided two pressure members II and I2 in the form of bars pivotally mounted so as to engage in peripheral contact with the reels 6 and I to maintain the proper tension on the leader strips and avoid uncoiling of the rolls of -packaging material. These members II and I 2 are provided with longitudinal slots, not shown, within which hand adjustable weight members I3 and Il may be adjustably positioned. These weight members, when adjusted back and forth in their respective slots, regulate the pressure applied to the rolls 6 and 1 to maintain the proper tension for different types of material.
The leader strips 8 and 9 extend centrally of the mounting structure in directions toward each other and pass over idler rollers I5 and I6 and thence to the package forming and sealing equipment. This equipment includes a pair of rollers II and I8 whichcombine several functions in their action vand'will now be considered in detail. Each roller is provided with two annular rows of peripheral recesses I9, and, in the present representation, there are six recesses in each row whereby each roller is provided with twelve recesses in all. It will be understood, of course, that the number of recesses and rows of recesses may be Varied to meet various packaging requirements.
Referring also to Fig. 2, the rollers I1 and I8 are provided with a plurality of stripper fingers 2I which are secured to a boss 22 on the general mounting structure I. 'I'hese stripper fingers are positioned in annular slots in the reels I'I and I8, so as to occupy positions behind the recesses I9 at the point of intersection of the rollers I1 and I8. The purpose of these stripper lingers 2| is to guide the leader strips 8 and 9 into and out of the rollers I1 and I8 and particularly to avoid a tendency of the packaging material to wrap around the rollers.
In the area surrounding the recesses I9 on the rollers I1 and I8, there is provided a. crosshatched crimping surface. The crimping surfaces of the rollers I1 and I8 are complementary to each other and mesh with one another to produce an interdigitation of the opposed layers of packaging material fed by the rollers. However, the crimping area surrounding the recesses I9 is interrupted at spaced intervals and provided with complementary cutting knives which will be better understood in connection with the description of the product formed by the machine, as Will be hereinafter pointed out.
The rollers I1 and I8 aresecured upon shafts 24 and 25 which are rotatably mounted through bearings in the boss 22. Referring to Fig. 3, it will be seen that the shaft 24 is hollow for a portion of its length coextensive with the roller I1. In this hollow portion a heater cartridge 26 is provided which includes a resistance element for heating the roller I 1 to a temperature sufilcient to cause oxidation and a physiochemical change in the regenerated cellulose packaging material when in contact therewith. At the outer extremity of the shaft 24 an insulating element 21 is provided with collector rings which connect with opposite terminals of the heater cartridge 26. The collector rings on the element 21 are engaged by contact brushes respectively carried by a terminal mounting 28 secured to the boss 22 by'mounting elemnt 29. The terminal mounting 28 is provided with suitable leads so that electrical energy may be supplied in the proper amount to the heater element internal of the roller I1. 'I'he roller I8 is provided with a similar heating arrangement.
To effect the complementary rotation of the rollers I1 and I8, the shafts 24 and 25 are provided With gears 3U and 3|, respectively, as is shown in dotted line in Fig. 1. These two gears engage each other so as to cause the rotation of the rollers I1 and |8`in timed relationship with respect to other moving parts of the packaging machine and with respect to each other in a manner such that the recesses I9 coincide with each other as the rollers I1 and I8 are rotated in opposite directions. The crimping surfaces of the rollers I1 and I8 then mesh with each other in a complementary fashion to cause a forced interdigitation of the layers of packaging material fed therebetween.
Referring to Fig. 2, the shaft 25 extends through a bearing and boss 32 in a rear wall of the mounting structure I. The shaft 25 is coupledthrough bevel gears 33 and 35 to a shaft 35. The shaft 36 is journalled in a bearing member 31 and terminates in a clutch driven-member 38. Another shaft 39 is mounted in alignment with the shaft 36 and is mechanically coupled through suitable reduction gearing with an electric driving motor not shown in the drawings. The shaft 39 is provided with a clutch drivingmember 40 for engagement with the clutch driven-member 38. The clutch driving-member 48 is associated with a shift collar 42 mounted on the shaft 39 in a manner such as to receive rotary movement while being susceptible to axial movement along the shaft 39. A shift yoke 43 mechanically engages the collar 42 for imparting this axial movement to permitengagement and disengagement of the members 38 and 40 under control of a handle 44, as shown in Fig. 1. The
handle 44 can be actuated to selectively drive the operating mechanism of the packaging machine as desired while maintaining a continuous operation of the driving motor.
Consideration will now be given to the commodity feeding mechanism employed in the package fabricating organization. In the present invention, this mechanism is shown as being particularly designed for feeding commodity articles such as medicinal pellets and the like, but it is to be understood that modifications can be made to t other types of articles Without departing from the scope of the invention.
A commodity releasing structure 45 is positioned directly above the intersection of the two rollers I1 and I8. This structure has an internal chamber through which the pellets 45 feed by gravity from a connected chute or throat 41 extending upwardly therefrom. This throat 41 is of the type having an open portion for permitting access to the commodity feed line. At its upper extremity, the throat connects with a suitable form of storage hopper for depositing the commodity articles in thc throat and which does not, in itself, form part of the present invention.
At the outer extremity of the releasing structure a retaining spring 48 is positioned to retain the pellets 46 in a position such that the endmost pellet in the line of pellets is prevented from falling through a hole 49 in the bottom of the release structure. This hole 49 is directly in alignment with opposed rows of recesses I9 in the rollers I1 and I8. Another hole is provided in the upper portion of the release structure in alignment with the other rows of recesses I9. However, this hole is normally occupied by a trap member 5I which, as shown in Fig. 1,' is pivoted to an upward extending portion 52 of the release structure 45. A spring 53 normally holds this trap member 5i in a position such as to occupy this hole in the under portion of the release structure 45, thereby preventing the pellets 46.
from falling through into the crimping rollers.
Reciprocatively mounted through the upper portion of the release structure 45, is a bifurcated plunger member 54, the legs of which are in respective alignment with the two rows of recesses in cach of the rollers I1 and I8. The plunger member 54 is pivotally suspended from two bars 55 and 58, mounted on pivot rods 51 and 58 extending transversely between walls of the general mounting structure I. The bars 55 and 55 co-act to impart substantially rectilinear reciprocative motion to the plunger member 54 through the release structure 45.
'I'he plunger member 54 is provided on one side with an extension 59 adapted to engage With a projection 5I on the pivoted trap member 5I so that Va downward movement of the plunger 54 causes the trap member 5I to be pushed aside against the action of spring 53, thereby permitting a pellet to fall through the hole in the under portion of release structure 45, normally occupied by the trap member 5I. Simultaneously with such an operation, one leg of the bifurcated plunger 54 engages with the spring 48 to force the same out of position and permit the end-most pellet 4G to fall through the hole 49, the adjacent leg of the bifurcated plunger 54 actingto push the pellet therethrough. At the same time the other leg of the bifurcated-plunger 54 follows a pellet through the hole initially occupied by part of the trap member 5I. The two legs of the bifurcated member 54 follow through to position the pellets with respect to the package material being fed through the rollers I1 and I8. A specially formed cam 62, mounted on the shaft 25, engages with a rider 68 secured to one end of the bar 56 to impart a specially timed reciprocative motion to the plunger 64. This motion is of a nature such that when recesses in the crimping rollers I1 and I8 are approaching a horizontal line extending through the axes of both rollers, so as to receive pellets from the release structure 45, the plunger 54 is made to effect the release of two pellets and follow these pellets through, thereby holding them in position between the opposed layers of packaging material for a time until the subsequent rotation'of the rollers I1 and I8 produces a closed condition of the opposed recesses in the rollers more in a horizontal alignment whereupon the plunger member 54 is withdrawn to resume its normal upward position.
When returned to its normally upward position, the legs of the plunger member 54 have been withdrawn from the internal passageway of the release structure 45 so that the line of pellets is moved down by gravity to position further pellets for insertion between the crimping rollers I1 and I8. It will be particularly noted that the distance between the rows of recesses in either of the rollers, and the spacing between the first and third pellets of the ille is substantially the same. Such a spatial arrangement utilizes the intervening or second pellet for spacing purposes before its subsequent use in the package. Thus, a single feed line of ille formation is utilized to permit multiple transfer of articles therefroml into a multiple formed package structure.
Bar 55 is provided at its rearward extremity with a suitable tension spring 64 in conjunction with an adjusting member 65 for imparting a force through the plunger 55 to the bar 56 to effect the continuous peripheral engagement of the rider 63 with cam 62.
In accordance with this invention there is also provided an arrangement for severing the fabricated package structure at timed intervals to produce composite package units. The time of severance is so determined that all of the package units are preferably of similar structure and cut at the same place. In considering this severing equipment in detail, there are provided two stationary cutting members 66 and 61, rigidly xed to the bottom of the boss 22 and upon opposite sides of the course taken by the package structure as it emerges from between the two rollers I1 and I8. Beneath the two stationary cutting members 66 and 61, and in abutting relationship thereto, there is provided a movable knife member 68, mounted upon a shaft 69 rotatably positioned in bearing 18. The bearing 1D is secured to a front wall of the general mounting structure I. A coil spring 12 is provided on the shaft 69 between the bearing 18 and knife member 68 for urging the latter into a predetermined position.
At the lower extremity of the shaft 68 a gear 13 is provided. This gear 13 engages with a toothed gear sector 14 which forms one end of a lever 15. 'This lever has a fulcrum point at the pivot bearing 16 and has a projecting end 11 provided with a follower element 18. The follower 18 engages in a groove in a type of cylinder cam 80. The cam 88 is mounted upon a shaft 8l extending through a suitable bearing in the rear wall of the general mounting structure I and which terminates in a gear 82. The gear 82 engages with an intermediary gear 83 in turn engaging with a driving gear 84 mounted upon the outer extremity or the shaft 25. These gears are of an easily demountable type for permitting substitution of different gear ratios in order to obtain different driving effects of the cam 80. The cam and groove therein, together with the driving gears therefore, are so constructed that a reciprocative motion is transmitted through the lever 15 and sector 14 to the gear 13. This reciprocative motion produces a quick shearing effect between the knife member 68 andthe cutting members 66 and 61. This reclprocative shearing effect severs the finished package structure into composite units. These units may be of any desired length depending on the adjusted timing of the knife 68. As the package units are severed by the knife action they may fall into a suitable hopper or conveyer provided for the purpose.
More detailed consideration will now be given to the package structure itself as produced by the packaging organization. Referring to Fig. 4, it will be seen that pellets 46 are disposed in longitudinal rows between two layers of regener-ated cellulose. This cellulose material has been interdigitated by the complementary crimping surfaces of the rollers I1 and I8 in-areas surrounding each of the pellets 46. It will be noted that the crimping. area surrounding each pellet is in the form of a square and that the squares for the various pellets are interrupted by a separation line A extending longitudinally of the package material and also by separation lines B" extending transversely of the material. These separation lines divide each of the pellets and its accompanying packaging material into individual squares. At the edge of each of the separation lines B, a perforation 86 is provided, while at the intersection of the separation lines B with the separation lines A, cross-perforation lines 81 are provided. The perforations extend entirely through both layers of the cellulose material and permit the easy separation of each of the package units from the composite package unit as a whole so that the consumer can detach a square containing one pellet for individual use. separation lines C are provided running through the rows of commodity-containing recesses. All of the perforations of the package structure are effected in the packaging material as they pass between the rollers I1 and I8, due to a cutting action of these rollers. It will be noted that knife elements 90 are provided on the roller I1. These knife elements engage with complementary portions of the roller I8 and cut the packaging material to produce the perforations 86 as the package material passes, between the rollers. Other knife elements are provided on the rollers I1 and I8 to eiecta perforation of the package at the intersection of the separation lines B with the separation line A.
It will now be seen that the rollers I1 and I8 simultaneously perform a' multitude of operations consisting of the feeding of the packaging material, the positioning of the commodity articles between opposed layers of the material, the interdigitation of the layers under pressure in areas surrounding the commodity articles, and the heating of these areas within a range to produce oxidization and physiochemical change of such areas to assume an embrittled character susceptible to easy tearing for promoting facile removal of the commodity articles from the packaging material. The package thus produced utilizes the normal tough and wiry nature of the regenerated cellulose for article containing envelope Other l areas, while the seal or bond areas surrounding the same are of an embrittled nature for gaining easy access to the envelope enclosure areas.
The machine in its entirety is operable for 5 producing the continuous and rapid fabrication of package units each containing individual commodity articles maintained in sealed and 'segregated spaced relationship. It will be noted that a plurality of sources of package material are used for feeding opposed layers of the coated regenerated cellulose material into the heating and crimping rollers I'I and I8. The commodity article feeding mechanism cooperates with the crimping rollers in timed relationship to deposit the commodity articles between the opposed layers of packaging material. It will be noted in this respect that the plunger element 54 has four cycles of operation. In the first cycle, the plunger is in an up-raised condition wherein the pellets 46 move into an initial position as fed through the throat 41; in the next cycle of opera, tion, the plunger 54 effects the release of a pair of these pellets and at the same time follows them through into a position between the opposed layers of packaging material in which opposed recesses of the rollers I`I and I8 engage with the pellet; in the next cycle of operation, the plunger 54 remains in this lower position until the recesses of rollers I 'I and I8 have rotated sufficiently to 30 properly secure the deposited pellets in closed relation between the packaging material. The plunger element 54 then completes its last cycle of operation by returning to its initial upward position and permitting the file of pellets to again be moved into a position ready for a repeat operation.
The completed package as fed from between the rollers is then severed at .desired positions by the knife element 68, the action of the knife element 40 68 being timed so that the package material is severed directly on one of the separation lines B extending transversely of the packaging material strips. Of course, the timing may be adjusted so that the severing may occur to produce a unit having any number of individual package squares therein. For example, a package unit with 2, 4, 6, 8 or more squares can be produced. In another form of my invention, it may be desirable to provide crimping and heating rollers in a different arrangement in which there are more or less rows of recesses I9 to produce different forms of packages. Recognizing that such modifications are within the purview of those skilled in the art, the present embodiment has been shown of a compound form for feeding articles to two rows of recesses which form is considered a typical example of operation.
All of the operable elements Work in an interrelated timed sequence drivenV from an electric motor which is not shown in the drawings. The
clutch may be operated by the hand lever 44 to engage or disengage the driven elements from the motor as desired. 'Ihe supply means for delivering the commodity articles to the throat 41 may be of any suitable type and may include movable parts such as a rotating drum and movable agitator, all of which may be driven, if desired, from the electric motor such as'through a 70 continuation of the shaft 36.
Although the invention has been described in a preferred form, it will be understood that various modifications and changes will occur to those skilled in the art. It 'is therefore not intended 7| that any limitations be attached to the foregoing other than those pointed out in the appended claims.
What I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States ls:
1. A package forming machine comprising means for supplying and feeding a packaging material in opposed layers, article feeding means for depositing commodity articles between said opposed layers and comprising, a chute for supplying commodity articles in file formation and .including a release arrangement for simultane- `ously releasing a plurality of articles therefrom in predetermined spaced relationship, means for periodically operating said release means; and package forming means including bonding equipment for joining said layers in spaced areas surrounding said articles, said bonding equipment comprising complementary rotatable rollers having heating elements for causing said rollers to heat said packaging material restrictively in said areas surrounding said articles.
2. A package fabricating machine in accordance with claim 1 in which said package forming means includes a severing device for severing predetermined portions of said layers at points intermediate said commodity articles enclosed therebetween.
3. A package fabricating machine in accordance with claim l in which said article feeding means comprises a release chamber, a throat for feedingindvidual articles thereto in a continuous file, and means for releasing alternate pairs of articles from said file into a position intermediate said layers of material, the articles intermediate said pairs acting as spacers until in turn transferred from said release arrangement.
4. A package fabricating machine in accordance with claim 1 in which said article feeding means comprises a release chamber, a throat for feeding commodity articles thereto in continuous file, and release means for releasing selected articles from vsaid file, said release means including plunger means operable to follow said articles into a position intermediate said layers of material.
5. A package fabricating 'machine comprising, a general mounting structure, means carried thereby for supporting rolls of strip packaging material, rollers carried by said general mounting structure and provided alternately with recesses i and bonding areas, means for supporting and driving said rollers in complementary engagement so that said recesses coincide with each other'in the concomitant rotation of said rollers, article feeding means including a release chamber, a throat for supplying articles thereto in file formation, and plunger means operable through said release chamber for transferring articles therefrom to'a position intermediate said rollers, a cam for effecting the reciprocative movement of said plunger means in a four-movement operation, as follows: rst, to permit said articles to enter saidchamber; second, to operate through said chamber to release articles therefrom; third, to hold said articles in a position intermediate said rollers; and, fourth, to return to said initial position; and means for driving said cam in timed relationship with the rotation of said rollers.
6. A package forming machine in accordance with claim 5 including severing means for cutting said strips of packaging material after bonding at points intermediate said articles held therebetween, said severing means comprising relatively movable elements, cam means for eiiecting said relative movement, and means for driving said cam means in timed relationship with the rotation of said rollers.
'7. A packaging apparatus comprising, means for feeding opposed layers of packaging material, package forming equipment having mutually engagable parts for sealing said layers of material together, means for storing commodity articles in file formation, transfer means for transferring said articles from said storage means to a point between said layers of material in engagement with said mutually engaging parts of said package forming equipment, and having parts thereof for holding said transferred articles in said position, said package forming equipment operating to seal said transferred articles between said layers of material.
8. A packaging apparatus comprising, a pair of rotative elements having alternate recesses and sealing surfaces, said elements being mounted for rotation with the recesses and sealing surfaces coming into respective mutual engagement in rotation, means for feeding opposed layers of sealable packaging material between said rotative elements, storage means for storing articles in file formation, transfer means for transferring articles from said storage means to a position between said layers of material adjacent said rotative elements, and mechanically interconnected driving means for causing said transfer means to transfer saidarticles to said position between said layers of material at a time when the opv alignment whereby said recesses engage said article through said layers to remove the same from said transferred position and seal said layers with said sealing surfaces to enclose said articles in said layers.
9. 'Ihe apparatus in accordance with claim 8 in which said transfer means includes parts for holding said transferred article in said transferred position for a predetermined time during which said recesses operate through said layers of material to remove said article from said transferred position in a package forming operation.
10. Apparatus in accordance with claim 8 in which said transfer means comprises a plunger for selectively removing articles from said file formation, said plunger acting to follow a selected article to said transferred position and hold said article in said transferred position until caught by said rotative element.
fer means operates to release selected articles from said file formation to be deposited in a predetermined position intersecting said rotative elements.
LEROY L. SALFISBERG.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2437881 *||Jan 12, 1944||Mar 16, 1948||Miles Lab||Crushing roll apparatus for reducing to powder materials packaged in tablet form|
|US2443327 *||Aug 1, 1944||Jun 15, 1948||Ivers Lee Co||Method of packaging and machine therefor|
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|US2468517 *||Aug 10, 1945||Apr 26, 1949||Ivers Lee Co||Method and machine for packaging or wrapping of articles|
|US2472440 *||Mar 7, 1946||Jun 7, 1949||Ivers Lee Co||Machine for fabricating packages|
|US2478505 *||Jan 30, 1946||Aug 9, 1949||Ivers Lee Co||Machine and method for packaging and crushing tablets|
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|US2494484 *||Jan 23, 1947||Jan 10, 1950||Charles Nicolle||Apparatus for obtaining multiple packages, especially adaptable for tablets and similar products|
|US2541387 *||Aug 15, 1946||Feb 13, 1951||Ivers Lee Co||Method of and machine for packaging flexible sheets|
|US2546698 *||Dec 26, 1945||Mar 27, 1951||Charles Nicolic||Sheet material with weakened tearing line|
|US2581724 *||Nov 23, 1946||Jan 8, 1952||Kartridg Pak Machine Co||Banding machine|
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|US2730852 *||Jun 26, 1952||Jan 17, 1956||Peter H Clark||Apparatus for making and separating envelopes and other containers|
|US2731891 *||Sep 23, 1952||Jan 24, 1956||Machines for sealing bags|
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|US2943428 *||Nov 1, 1956||Jul 5, 1960||Vol Pak Inc||High speed packaging machine|
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|US3035957 *||Jul 21, 1958||May 22, 1962||Avery Adhesive Products Inc||Adhesive product having a liner with embrittled zones|
|US3105609 *||Sep 11, 1961||Oct 1, 1963||Ivers Lee Co||Apparatus for feeding tablets|
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|US3391520 *||Nov 13, 1964||Jul 9, 1968||Pearson Candy Company||Apparatus for wrapping a confectionery product|
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|US5459983 *||Sep 14, 1992||Oct 24, 1995||Banner Gelatin Products Corp.||Tablet enrobing apparatus|
|US5460844 *||Oct 9, 1992||Oct 24, 1995||A. G. (Patents) Limited||Method and apparatus for manufacturing infusion packages|
|US5466474 *||Oct 9, 1992||Nov 14, 1995||A.G. (Patents) Limited (British Company)||Method and apparatus for manufacturing infusion packages|
|US20060021297 *||Jul 28, 2004||Feb 2, 2006||Heidelberger Druckmaschinen Ag||Method and device for wrapping multi-sheet printed products|
|U.S. Classification||53/554, 53/546, 206/484, 493/393, 206/820, 206/822|
|Cooperative Classification||Y10S206/822, B65B9/02, Y10S206/82|