US 2084321 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 22, 1937. E. coRRADlNo ET AL PROPELLING MECHANISM Filed Sept. 7, 1935 5 Sheets-Sheet l @LAWN INVENTORS [Ivrea-) Curran/fno A. Verdr f Pl); ATTORNEY 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 June 22, 1937. E. coRRADlNo ET An.
' PROPELLING MECHANISM Filed Sept. 7, 1933 June 22, 1937. E. co'RRADlNo ET AL PROPELL ING MECHANI SM Filed Sept. 7, 1953 5 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENToRs g frfresfo Carrara/"n0 BY 'JainA [fa/4rd@ q .al M
Mer ATTORNEY .une-22`, 1937. E. coRRADlNo Er AL PROPELLING MECHANI SM 5 Sheets-Sheet 4 Filed Sept. 7, 1953 INVENToRs vresa Correa/fnv BY la, 4. lfm-fr0" Me, ATroRNEY June '22', 1931.
E.V CORRADINO El' AL PROPELLING MECHANISM Filed Sept. '7, 1933 5 Sheets-Sheet WAN l l l l l /f 1 INVENToRs' Patented June 22, 1937 Unirse STATES PROPELLING MECHAN ISM Ernesto Corradino and John A. Verardo, New York, N. Y.
Application September '7, 1933, Serial No. 688,506
This invention relates to the art of propelling l boats and other conveyances and more particularly refers to improvements in propelling mechanisms, adapted to be manually operated.
5 As a general rule, hand-operated propelling mechanisms consist of arrangements of various elements whereby reciprocating motion produced by the hands or feet of the operator is transformed into rotatory motion of the propelling l element; said propelling element in a boat, for instance, being a propeller and in a land vehicle being a wheel or set of wheels.
The primary object of the present invention is to provide in a land or water conveyance, a novel l and improved type of propelling mechanism, adapted to be manually operated and comprising a minimum number of parts; said mechanism being particularly designed for the eicient utilization of the power generated by the operator and permitting said power'to be exerted in the easiest and least fatiguing manner.
Another object is to provide a novel and improved type of manually-operated propelling mechanism, comprising a reciprocating member adapted to be made operative at will in one or the other direction, or both in order to more efficiently utilize the power exerted by the operator.
A further object is to provide a novel and improved propelling mechanism, particularly adapted for the propulsion of boats, said mechanism consisting of a minimum number of parts and being, therefore, adapted to be made in extremely compact and rugged form, so as to occupy a minmum of space and provide a maximum of operating eiciency.
A still further object is to provide a handoperable conveyance, comprising as a part of its equipment the improved mechanism forming the main object of the present invention.
Other objects and advantages of the present invention will more fully appear as the description proceeds and will be set forth and claimed in the appended claims.
Our invention is illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. 1 is a central longitudinal section through an actuating device, which may be used as a part of our propelling mechanism;
Fig. 2 is a side elevation thereof;
Fig. 3 is a cross section view through line 3-3 of Fig. l;
Fig. 4 is a plan sectional View ofthe through line 4 4 of Fig. 1;
Fig. 5 is a plan View of a boat equipped with a (Cl. 'i4-57) propelling mechanism, including the device shown in Figs. 1 to 4;
Fig. 6 is a vertical longitudinal section thereof;
Fig. '7 is a vertical cross section thereof through line 1 1 of Fig. 6;
Fig. 8 is a vertical cross section of the same through line 8-8 of Fig. 6; and
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary plan view of a portion of a boat near its rear end, embodying our invention in a dierent form. l
The main characteristic of our invention is the use in connection with a propelling mechanism of an actuating device, adapted to be made in an extremely compact form, permitting of directly and efficiently transformingv the reciprocating motion of a hand-operated lever into rotary motion of a power shaft.
The actuating device can be so designed that reciprocating movement of the actuator can be transformed into either continuous or intermittent rotary motion in one direction of the shaft controlled thereby.
The operation of the actuating device is based on the mutual transformation of reciprocating into rotary motion and vice versa, which can take place between a male and a female threaded element when the thread is sufciently inclined to permit axial sliding of one element with respect to the other. Broadly speaking, means of this character for transforming reciprocating into rotary motion are not new, their use being well known, for instance, in connection with certain types of hand-operated drills.
The actuating device illustrated in Figs. 1 to 4 comprises an actuator 2), slidably inserted over a threaded shaft 2l, by means of two coaxial but axially spaced bushings 22, 23, which are preferably removable and are, therefore, threaded and screwed into the opposite ends of the body of actuator 2li, as shown'at 24, 25.
The body of actuator 20 is hollow and forms a chamber 26 within which are housed two nuts 21, 28, which are formed with a ratchet portion 29, 30, said nuts being inserted over threaded shaft 2l and being internally threaded so as to be operatively associated therewith.
Chamber 26 is divided into two sections, each corresponding in length to the nut 2l or 28, housed therein, by a rib 3l, which forms an abutment for the inner end of said nuts.
Threaded shaft 2i is shown with two intersecting sets of threads 552-32 and Eil-33', one set consisting of two parallel right hand threads and the other set consisting of two similar parallel left hand. threads. One of the nuts, for i11- stance, nut `28 is provided with internal threads, engaging the right hand threads 32-.-32 of'shaft L 2|, whereas the other nut 21 is provided with internal threads Vengaging the set Vof left` handV 1 threads"3,3-33.V 5,; n Y It is, therefore, obvious that ifthe actuator is axially'shifted in one direction with respect to shaft 2|, while said shaft is restrained against rotation, `one of the nuts will rotate `in one directionv and the other nutwill rotate in the-opposite direction; and if Vthe actuator is axially shifted in thej opposite direction the two nuts will reverse their 1 respective directions of rotation. In a similar manner, if Vthe actuator is axially shifted with respect to theY shaft, while'theshaftfis permitted to rotate, and one ortheother nut is restrained` against rotation, theV shaftV will be alternately rotated rstin one and thenin the other direction during reciprocating motion'of the actuator.
It is, of course, also possibleV to restrain one'or the other' nut against rotation inkone direction only, in which case the shaft` will `be rotated intermittently inthe same'directionwhen the actuatorV is caused torreciprocate with respect thereto. From these remarks it follows that if one of the t nuts is restrained against rotation in one sense motion of the actuator vresults in this case in a Ycontinuous rotary motion diretion.
Fig; 3, it isV seen that both nuts are Referring to restrained againstrotation in a clockwise direction while being free to rotate in a counterclockf wise direction. This end is attained by means of two pawls 34, 35, respectively engaging ratchet portions 29, 30of nuts 21, 28, said pawls being pivotallymounted at a central point 36. The actuator is formed'with an upper chamber 31, in
which are housed two levers 38, 39, pivotally o mounted at 40, 4|, respectively, said leversex-Y tending in two oppositely inclined directions and Y. each having an inner arm 42, 43, connectedlto k pawls 34, 35, by means of links 44, 45,` respec- 50V tively, andra longer arm 46, 41, said arms 46, 41, being connected to each other by arspring 48.
Levers 38, 39 Vare so arrangedthat spring 48 Y acts as a snap-over spring whenfeither or bothV of said levers 38,39, are swungrfrom one of their extreme positions to the other. For instance, if lever 38 is swung to position 38', shown in dotted Y lines, spring 48 will be caused to pass beyond the dead point and will, therefore, come to occupy'the position of leverg38 is left unchanged, so that pawl Y `further shifted in the same direction it will mesh position shown in dotted linesat 48', where it retains lever 38 in its newY positionV with Yrespect to lever 39, the position of which has remained unchanged.A In the Lnew position 38? of lever 38, pawl` 34 will have been moved to aposition where it no longer engages nut. 21, so that said nut is Yno longer restrained against rotation ,in either direction. In a similar manner, lever V39canV be moved to its other extreme position whilethe 35 will become disengaged from nut 28 while nut 21 willV still be engaged by pawl 34; or else both lever'38 and lever 39 can be movedto their extreme positions where both nuts will be disen` gagedY from their Vrespective pawls. Y -Y ,Y Inforder to swing levers 378, 39, `fromrone position to the other, the outer end of each one of said of` shaft 2| in a given levers is slotted, as shown at49, 50,l and vengages a Y rod 5,3--54 is provided. YSaid Vpush rods projecty through the cover 55 of chamber 31 `and can be, Vdepressed by means of buttons' 56,51.
It is'thus'seen that by'virtue of the arrangement described, itis possible to set both pawls into engagement with their respective nuts so that reciprocatingmotionV of the actuator will be transformed into continuous rotaryl Vmotion of pin 5 |-52, with whichV the lower end of a push Vsite direction; or the .other pawl can be set in'ts disengaged position Whilethe formeris set in its Vposition, of engagement, with the result that the actuator will become inoperative when shifted'in the direction in which it was formerly operative, andrWill become operative when shifted'in the di.
rection in which Vit was formerlyinoperative; or
else both pawlscan be set in their disengaged po# sition, with the result that reciprocating'motion of the actuator will not cause any rotarygmotion of the shaft but will only cause the nutsz'torotate idly with respect tosaid shaft, inoppositedif'rections; their respective direction of rotation chang.-`
ing with each change` in the direction ofthe Vmovementof the actuator..V Y Y ,Y A propelling mechanism,- in which the device" Yjust described can beemployed to advantage, is
illustrated in Figs. 5 to 8. From said guresand Y from Figs. 2 to 4, it will be. seen that the reciproeating movement of the actuator 20, with respect to threaded shaft 2|, can' be produced by means of a forked lever 58, pivotallymounted on hori- Y 1 zontal pivots 59 of brackets 6|),l 6| upwardly Yextending from'the bottom` of boat 62. The two transversely spaced prongs 63, 64 of forkedlever 58 are each provided with a slot 65, which operatively engages arroller 66, mounted on pin 61, laterally projecting from the body of actuator 2i).
'I'he actuator can axially reciprocate withY respect to threaded? shaft 2| inserted therethrough,
Y causingsaid shaft to rotate in the manner previously explained; and the reciprocating VVmovement of theiactuator can be produced by swinging lever 58 back and forth, as will beunderstood.
.Shaft 2| is mounted on supports 68, 69, and ex-V tends rearwardly` and throughanother support 10, the rearmost end of` said shaft carrying a gear wheel 1|.V lAt the rear end of the boat is rotatably mountedV a` propeller shaft12, projecting through the rear` end support 13"and carryinga propeller 14. VThe front ory inner portion of said propeller shaft carries a pinion 15 and a toothed flywheel 16.V The rotarymovementof shaft 2| isY transmitted to theV propeller'shaft12 through the inter.-VY
mediary of'a countershaft 11., carrying a pinion 18, permanently in mesh with gear wheel 1| ,and a gear wheel 19, normally in mesh with pinion 15.
Gear'wheel 19 is formediintegral with a clutch collar 89 and isY shiftable' along countershaft 11,
so thatif said gear'wheel is shifted immediately to the left of `pinion 15 prope11ershaft1-rwi11be: come disconnected andif said gear wheel-19 is vided with an operating handle 85. It will thus be seen that by operation of clutch lever 83, it is possible to set the transmission gearing for forward, or neutral, or reverse rotation of the propeller shaft. The boat is also preferably provided with a rudder 85, having a cross member E31, adapted to be actuated by wires or cables, such as 33, 88', riding on guide pulleys 89, Sil, in the usual manner.
The arrangement described permits of a man sitting at the rear, upon seat 9|, operating the clutch and the rudder whenever necessary, the position of seat 9| permitting also the normal operation of lever 58 by the same man. If only one man is manning the boat, one of push rods 53, 5s, will be pressed down so as to disengage the corresponding pawl 34, 35, from its respective nut 21, 28, shown in Fig. 1; the pawl left in an operative position being the one corresponding to the swinging movement of lever 58 towards the rear, that is, when the operator can exert a pull on said lever to best advantage. For thisrpurpose the lever is preferably provided with a link 52, pivotally mounted at 93, to the upper end of said lever 58, said link being provided with a cross handle Sil, adapted to be conveniently grasped by the hands of the operator.
Another operator can occupy seat 95 at the forward end of the boat, facing the other operator. In this case, another link 95, also pivoted at 93, to lever 58 can be added, said link S6 being provided with a cross handle 91, adapted to be grasped by the hands of the second operator.
It will be understood that when only one operator is manning the boat, threaded shaft 2| will be actuated intermittently at each forward stroke of actuator 2t, whereas when two operators are available, both the forward and the rearward strokes of actuator 2|! will cause shaft 2| to rotate, so that the rotation of shaft 2| is practically continuous, both pawls 34, 35, being, of course, made operative.
It is thus seen that by simple manipulation of push rods 53, 54, the mechanism can be set by one or the other man, or both, while clutch lever 83 and cables 83, B8', complete the means for controlling the operation of the boat by reversing the propelling action and by steering.
Our propelling device can also be applied to boats of relatively large size, such as life-saving boats, for instance, where crews of four to ten, or more, men can be employed to man the boat. Such boats are usually wide enough to permit two rows of men to sit side by side and, therefore, two threaded shafts, each operated by the men in one of the rows, can be provided. An arrangement of this type is illustrated in Fig. 9, where |63 designates a life saving boat, a portion of which near the rear end thereof only is shown.
A cross member |56 is provided with bearings |55, |65, eduidistant from and located one at each side of central bearing |51. Bearings |65, |55, support the rear ends of shafts |58, |69, respectively, which have threaded portions between supports, such as |15, |1|, etc., |15', |11', etc., an actuator such as |12, |13, being provided between each set of supports.
t will thus be understood that each shaft |68, HES, can be manned by two or more nien, sitting one in front of the other in a longitudinal row, the threads in shafts |53, |55, and in their correspending actuators being so arranged that shafts |558, |55, rotate in reverse directions.
Said shafts are each provided at the rear end with a gear wheel |14, |15, said gear wheels being in mesh with a central gear wheel |15, carried by shaft |11, rotatably mounted in bearing |61. The rear end of shaft |11 carries a gear wheel |18, which is in mesh with a pinion |19, carried by a countershaft |80.
As described in connection with the arrangement of Figs. 5 to 8, countershaft |30 carries ka` gear wheel |85 shiftable along said countershaft by means of a clutch collar |32. Said gear wheel 13| is normally in mesh with the pinion |83, carried by propeller shaft |84, rotatably mounted in bearing m5, said propeller shaft carrying a flywheel IBG and a gear wheel |81. Gear wheel |81 is permanently in mesh with an idler pinion |88 with which gear wheel |8| will mesh when said gear wheel is shifted to the left with respect to Fig. 9, in order to produce reverse motion of the propeller shaft.
Thus, wheel is nXed on a shaft |93, rotatably mounted in a bearing EM and carrying at its inner end a conical pinion |95. Said pinion is in mesh with a conical gear wheel |55, carried by longitudinal shaft |91, which is rotatably mounted in supports |98, |39., 25B. The front portion |91 of said shaft |91, intervening between supports |95, Zet, is threaded with both right and left threads and carries an actuator 20| of the type shown in Fig. 1 Said actuator is operated by means of a hand lever 252, pivotally mounted at 253 onto bracket 2M, inwardly extending from the side of body |89.
It will be observed that the threaded shafts can rotate in the direction in which they are driven by their actuating device, even if their actuating device is held stationary; therefore, even if the actuating levers or lever are operative in one direction only, producing an intermittent driving action, the propelling mechanism can be provided at some convenient point with a flywheel, as shown, rendering its action virtually continuous.
The constructional details` of our invention may vary from those shown without departing from the inventive idea; the drawings will, therefore, be understood as being intended for illustrative purposes only and not in a limiting sense. We, accordingly, reserve the right to carry our invention into practice in all those ways and manners which may enter, fairly, into the scope of the appended claims.
l. A device of the class described comprising a rotatably mounted shaft having relatively steep left and right hand threads, and an actuating device for said shaft, including an actuator mounted on and reciprocatable along said shaft, twcinternally threaded nut elements inserted over said shaft within said actuator, one of said nut elements engaging the left hand thread and the other the right hand thread of said shaft, a ratchet integral with each nut adapted, when engaged by a pawl, to prevent rotation of said nut in a given direction, which is the same for both nuts, a pivotally mounted pawl movable in a l plane parallel to the axis of said shaft adapted to be set in and out of engagement with each ratchet, a lever for actuating each pawl, and a snap over spring interposed between the two levers, adapted to hold either or both pawls in their operative or inoperative position.
2. A device of the class described comprising a rotatably mounted shaft having relatively steep left and right hand threads, and an actuating device for said shaft, including an actuator mounted on and reciprocatable' along said shaft,
two internally threaded nut elements'inserted Y `i over said shaft-Within saidv actuator, one of said nutelements engaging the left hand thread and the other the right hand thread 'of said shaft, a ratchet integralrwthV each ,nut 'adapted when ratchet, a lever for actuating each pawl, means position.
for operating each lever independently of the other, and a snap over spring connecting thev two levers, said spring being adapted to hold VVeither or both pawls in their operative orrinoperative 3." A device of the class described, comprising a shaft having relatively steep left and right hand '20 Y Y 'cluding anY actuator mounted on and reciprocattnreads, an actuating device for said shaft, in-y able along said shaft, two internally threaded nut elements inserted over said shaft, mounted to Yfollow the axial displacements of said actuf i ator, one of said nut elements engaging Ythe left hand thread andthe other the Vright hand thread of said shaft, meansfor selectivelyrestraining VVeither` or both of said nut elements Yagainst rotation in the same direction, While at the same time in the plane of itsrmovem permitting rotation thereof in the opposite direcy tion, a pivotally mounted lever oscillatablein a vertical plane, for `causing reciprocatingmovement of said actuator, and tworhandleniembers mountedconV and extending in opposite directions of said lever. Y c
LA conveyance comprising a shaft having relatively steep left and right hand threads, an V Yactuating device for` saidv shaft, including an actuator mounted on and reoiprocatable along said shaft, two internally threaded nut elements inent from the upperend serted over said shaft, mounted toA follow the axial displacements of said actuator, one of said" nut-elements engaging the left hand thread and the other the right hand thread of said shaft, means for selectively restraining either or both of said nut elements against rotation in the same irection, While at the same time permitting rota# tion thereof in the opposite direction, a pivotally mounted lever oscillatable in a vertical plane, for
causing reciprocating movementof said actuator,V n andtwo handle members pivotallyf mounted onl and adaptedto extend in opposite directions in the Vplane of its movement'from Ythe uppijlend of said lever. Y ERNESTO CORRADINO.
JOHN A; VERARDO.