US 2085472 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 29, 1937. s. E. ROUSH 2,035,472
' METALLIC FRAME CONSTRUCTION June 19, 1935 2 SheetsSheet 2 Samuel ZIFous/u,
Patented June 29, 1937 UNITED STATES 2,085,472 -METALlJC FRAME CONSTRUCTION Samuel E. Roush, Midland, Mich.
Application June 19,
This invention relates to metallic frame constructions for buildings.
More particularly, the present invention relates to metallic structural units, and to combinations thereof in the construction of the frames of buildings.
It is a well known fact, that in assembling structural elements to provide frame structures for buildings, the strength and resistance of such structure is equivalent to that of the weakest point, and the art of nailing and its insufficiency involves a greater percentage of defects than all other factors combined. Due to the additional time required and the method employed, careful I inspection and supervision to prevent this difiiculty or deficiency only adds additional cost and defeats the purpose of the great majority of building contractors, namely, the saving of time and expense. This, the greatest of all defects. has by force of custom and years of practice been overlooked by a majority of contractors.
The advantages inuring to metal frame construction in dwellings and other buildings are well recognized. However, the problem of ready attachment of the interior and exterior structural elements has not heretofore been solved satisfactorily, and, with the parts necessary to the economical and ready assembly heretofore lacking, the cost of such construction has effectively prevented its general adoption.
It is therefore my intention by this invention to protect the individual owner and the community against the defects and other objections incident to the practice involving the art of nailing in assembling the structural elements of frame constructions for buildings.
It is also an important object of my invention to provide such metallic units as are necessary for a complete frame structure, replacing metal for wood, and providing for the economical assembly of the units without the necessity of special machines or tools, and without requiring skilled mechanics to do the work.
' Although provisions for the ready attachment of wood elements to these metallic units has been made herein, it is nevertheless an object of my invention to provide for the elimination of substantially all wood as a permanent building element, because of its expansion and contraction by reason of climatic elements, and because even .masonry cannot withstand expansion without cracking or warping when applied in conjunction with wood. This applies to wall surfaces, flooring and where two wood members arejoined together.
1935, Serial No. 27,449
Although my principal aim is to provide a metal frame-work and attain the objects aforesaid, it is also my object to protect nearly all metal against corrosion by not exposing it to.the elements of weather, and to make it possible to use economically those elements of construction known to withstand the elements of weather by the elimination of expansion elements which would destroy their functions, the metal units used in my assembly that become exposed to the elements being proportionately small and being made of non-corrosive metal. I provide framing for roof, wall or floor construction formed of metal, especially for moderate cost construction such as homes, eliminating wooden structural elements entirely but providing for nailing as has been common with wood framing.
Other objects and features of the present invention will become apparent from the following description when considered in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary perspective view, partly broken away and in section, showing the corner portion of a building frame constructed in accordance with the present invention.
Figure 2 is a fragmentary horizontal section on the plane of line 2-2 of Figure 1, illustrating the corner of a building constructed in accordance with the present invention and utilizing the frame construction of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary vertical section through an upper fioor of a building embodying the present frame construction, the plane of section being indicated by line 3-3 of Figure 1.
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3, of the main floor of a building embodying the present invention, the plane of section being indicated by the line 4-4 of Figure 1.
Figure 5 is a view similar to Figure 4 illustrating a modified form of joist unit employed in place of the form of joist unit shown in Figures 4 and 9.
Figure fishows in end elevation and in fragmentary side elevation the form of vertical stud unit employed in the frame construction of Figure 1.
' Figure '7 is a. view similar to Figure 6, of the horizontal foundation or capunit employed in the frame construction of Figure 1.
Figure 8 is a view similar to Figure 7 of a modified form of horizontal foundation unit which may be employed at the bottom of the frame of Figure 1 in place of the unit of Figure '7; and
Figure 9 shows in vertical transverse section and in fragmentary side elevation the construction of structural unit employed in the frame of Figure 1 for floor joists and rafters.
Referring in detail to the drawings, the metallic frame construction is erected upon a suitable foundation 5 of brick or other masonry, and such frame include: metallic foundation structural units A of the construction shown in Figure 7 laid horizontally upon the brick or masonry foundation 5 in end to end relation entirely around the latter. Each foundation unit A consists of two parts, each consisting of a strip of sheet metal bent into. angle iron formation. These parts indicated at 6 and 6a, are of similar form and size, and they are assembled with a flange of one flatly engaging a flange of the other and welded or otherwise secured together at the contacting faces of said flanges. A structural unit of T-beam cross section is thus had whose cross flange portion rests flatly upon the foundation 5 and whose intermediate flange of double thickness projects upwardly. This upwardly projecting intermediate flange of unit A is provided at suitable regularly spaced intervals with vertical slots I that extend downwardly from the upper free edge of such intermediate flange, and which are provided for a purpose which will presently become apparent. Erected at suitable spaced intervals upon the foundation units A are spaced vertical studs B, also consisting of special metallic structural units. Each of the studs B consists of two similar parts 8 and 8a as shown in Figure 6, each part consisting of a strip of sheet metal offset laterally as at 9 and then bent into right angular formation as at Ill along each longitudinal edge portion. These parts 8 and 8a are assembled with their flat intermediate portions in contiguous relation and welded or otherwise secured together, thus providing a stud unit of general I-beam cross section which is very strong and readily constructed. When the parts 8 and 8a are thus assembled and joined, the offset portions 9 and right angular portions III of the two parts cooperate to provide recesses II in the longitudinal edges of the unit adapted to receive a material suitable for retaining nails and screws driven into the same, as indicated at I2 in Figures 2 and 3. The offset portions 9 form a resilient connection between the right angular portions I and the flat intermediate portions of the parts 8 and 8a, so that when the nail retaining material I2 is forced into the recesses II between the inner flanges of "the right angular portions l0, such material will be resiliently gripped and held in place within such recesses. The elements or material I2 may consist of material which will harden when exposed to the air, and which is in a normal somewhat fluent or plastic state when forced into the recesses II. It will be particularly noted that the outer flanges of the right angular portions III are relatively wide and extend in opposite directions at each edge of the unit at right angles to the web portion of such unit so as to provide fiat abutments or supports for surface elements. As shown in Figures 2 and 3, the outer surface elements may consist of heavy fiber wall boards l3 held'in place by nails I4 or the like driven therethrough and into the nail retaining inserts l2 of the studs B. As is also shown in these figures, the inner surface elements of the building wall may consist of ordinary wall boards l5 pressed into place against the inner faces of the outer flanges of the right angular portions III on the inner longitudinal edge of the stud, so that the adjacent vertical edges of said wall boards I5 engage the inner flanges of the right angular portions l0 and are resiliently held inplace by the latter. A suitable plaster coating. I6 is provided on the exposed surface of the wall boards I5 and over the adjacent lateral flanges of the studs B to provide the desired interior finish for the wall. However, as an alternative construction, the wall boards l5 may be simply laid against the outer faces of the lateral flanges on the inner longitudinal edges of the studs B as indicated at l5a in Figure 2, the wall boards l5a simply abutting each other at adjacent edges as indicated at IT.
The stud units B have the web portions thereof provided with relatively large openings I8 to provide for passage of cables, pipes and the like therethrough so as to be concealed within the wall construction and conveniently run wherever desired without interfering with the frame structure. Also, the ends of the studs B are centrally slotted as at I9 longitudinally and for a short distance. This permits the lower ends of the studs to be fitted over the upstanding flanges of the foundation units A, the coacting slots 1 of said foundation units and I9 of said studs permitting the lower ends of the latter to be engaged with the cross flanges of said units A to rest upon the latter. In this way, the units A and B are effectively interlocked and the stud units B are effectively held in their proper places insofar as lateral displacement is concerned. Cap units A, similar to the foundation units A, are laid horizontally upon the upper ends of the studs B, but in an inverted position with the slotted intermediate flanges thereof projecting downwardly into the longitudinal slots I9 in the upper ends of said stud units B. Lateral displacement of the studs at their upper ends and relative to each other is thus prevented by the cap units A.
A special corner stud C is employed at each corner of the building frame for strengthening the frame construction at this point and for joining the wall boards I5 and Mia and I3. As shown clearly in Figure 2, the corner stud unit C consists of two parts 20 and 20a which are similar, and each of which consists of a strip of sheet metal having one edge portion bent laterally at an obtuse angle as at 2|. Each part is also offset laterally at its other longitudinal edge as indicated at 9a, and is then bent into acute angle formation as at Illa. The parts 20 and 20a are assembled with their fiat intermediate web portions in contiguous. relation and welded or otherwise secured together, so that the flanges 2| of these parts extend at right angles toeach other to flatly engage the adjacent edge portions of wall boards a. At the same time the formation of the parts and 20a as at 9a and Illa at their other longitudinal edges provide for a recess in this longitudinal edge of the unit that contains a nail retaining insert H11, and the outer flanges of the acute angle portions Illa extend at right angles to each other to engage the inner faces of the adjacent wall boards I3 where they meet at the corner of the wall. An angle iron cap plate 22 is preferably placed on the outside of the corner formed by these meeting wall boards I3, andnails Ila are driven through the cap plate 22a into the nail retaining insert In to maintain said cap plate against the adjacent wall boards I3 at this corner with such wall boards tightly held against the outer flanges of unit C provided by the acute angle portions Illa. It will be understood that the unit C has its web centrally longitudinally slotted at the ends in the same manner as the slots ii! are provided in the studs B, for interlocking with the foundation and cap units A and A as above described with respect to said stud units 13.
While the foundation units A have been shown and described as employed with the frame construction-of Figure 1, a special foundation and beam unit may be employed in place thereof, which special unit is of the construction shown in Figure 8. More particularly, however, the
unit of Figure 8 is adapted to be used under intcrior partitions not supported by the masonry foundation. In this capacity, the unit of Figure 8 will act as a partition supporting joist arranged to interlock with the vertical studs used in the partition construction. As shown, the unit of Figure 8 simply consists of a unit similar to the unit A of Figure 7 and composed of the parts 6b and 60, such unit A being used in connection with an I- beam composed of two similar channels 23 and 23a welded or otherwise secured back to back so as to face laterally, and having the lower horizontal flanges of the parts 6b and 60 attached to the top horizontal flanges thereof by welding or the like. The unit of Figure 8 thus comprises four parts consisting of the two angles 6b and 6c and the two channels 23 and 23a, the two angles providing a part of T-beam formation, and the two channels forming a part of I-beam formation. It will be seen that the channels 23 and 23;: provide grooves between the horizontal flanges thereof into which other structural members may be inserted.
Units B similar to the studs ,3 may be utilized in the upper part of the frame structure as floor or ceiling-joists, as shown. These joistsv units B may be supported at their ends by engaging in cut-outs provided in the inner flanges of the studs B as indicated at 24 in Figure 1, the floor boards 25 being laid across the top flanges of said joists B and secured in place by nailing to the nail receiving inserts in the upper edges of said joists B, similar to the manner in which the wall boards 13 are attached to the studs B as illustrated in Figure 3. In a like manner, the ceiling 26 may be associated with these joists and constructed in the same manner as above described with respect to the wall boards l5 and v their plaster coating IS in the wall construction of Figure 3. This is generally disclosed in Figure 1 and will be readily apparent to those skilled in the art.
Where special heavy floor construction is provided for the main floor of the building, special floor joists D may be employed, the same being of the construction better shown in Figures.4 and 9 or Figure 5. As illustrated in Figures 1, 4 and 9, these special floor joists D are constructed exactly like the studs B except that instead of providing the openings I8 of studs B, substantially circular lugs are stamped at intervals from the web portions of the parts 8 and 8a as at 21 to extend laterally in opposite directions from the web of the unit at a desired point intermediate the edge flanges of said unit. As disclosed in Figuresri and 5, the function of these tongues 21 is to form supports for'wall boards 28 laid horizontally in spaced parallel relation to and below the floor boards 25a. The wall boards 28 provide a surface upon which-may be poured a concrete floor foundation 29 upon which the floor boards by like reference characters.
25a are directly laid and secured by nailing to the nail holding inserts of the floor joist units D. The ceiling is provided in conjunction with the joists D in the same manner illustrated in Figure 1 with respect to the ceiling 26 associated with the upper floor joists B. Obviously, the tongues 21 may be provided any desired distance from the upper flanges of joist units D, according to the thickness of concrete foundation required at 29. As the construction of floor joist D is similar in all other respect to. the construction of the studs B, similar parts of both units are indicated by like reference characters.
Theonly distinction between the construction of Figure 5 and that of Figure 4 is that in Figure 5 the joist D is of modified form instead of the particular form illustrated in Figure 9.
This joist D comprises two parts each formed of sheet metal and witha double acute angle formation along each longitudinal edge as at Illa. The double acute angle formation at Illa is'employed in place of the lateral offset and right angle formation 9 and i respectively of the unit of Figure 9. The purpose of this change is to, provide a dove-tailed or undercut recess for the nail receiving insert at each longitudinal edge of the joist. Such nail receiving inserts are indicated in Figure at 12b, and the remainin features in this figure are similar to corresponding features of Figures 4 and 9 and are indicated Obviously, by providing dove-tailed or undercut recesses for reception of the nail holding inserts I2b, there is less likelihood of these inserts pulling out of place and permitting separation of the wall or floor members consisting of ceiling 26 and floor boards a.
From the foregoing description, it will be seen that I have provided certain structural elements of extremely simple and durable form which may be conveniently and cheaply manufactured and conjointly used to effectively carry out the stated objects of the invention. Construction similar to the floor construction of Figure 4 may be followed to some extent in constructing the roof, the units D being employed as rafters as generally shown in Figure 1. Of course, in roof constructioma suitable upper surface. for the roof will be provided in lieu of the floor boards 25a of Figure 4.
What I claim as new is:
1. In a building construction, a stud unit of general I-beam formation and comprising two parts of similar form, each part consisting of a strip of metal laterallyoffset and then bent into right angular formation along both longitudinal edges, the intermediate portions of said parts being flat and secured together to provide the web of said stud unit, said laterally offset portions of the stud parts providing resilient connections between the intermediate and right angular portions thereof for yieldingly retaining a nail receiving insert forced into the space between the inner flanges of the adjacent right angular portions of said parts.
2. In a building construction, a stud unit of general I-beam formation and comprising two parts of similar form, each part consisting of a strip of metal laterally offset and then bent into right angular formation along both longitudinal edges, the intermediate portions of said part: being flat and secured together to provide the web of said stud unit, said laterally offset portions of the stud parts providing resilient contween the inner flanges of the adjacent right angular portions of said parts, the outer flanges of said right angular portions providing flat lateral abutments for surface elements.
3. A metallic structural unit comprising two parts, each part consisting of a strip of metal formed to provide a perforated web portion and resilient yieldable angular longitudinal edge portions, said parts being joined at their web portions so that a space is provided between the angular longitudinal edge portions of said parts at each longitudinal edge of the unit adapted to receive and hold a material suitable for retaining nails or the like or to receive a hardening element such as plaster, so that said angular edge portions are rigidly held apart for positively retaining flber boards or like surface elements in place without reinforcing the back of the latter, said angular edge portions having outer and innerfianges respectively extending at an angle toand parallel with the web portions, said inner flanges acting to resiliently hold the surface elements in place against the inner faces of the outer flanges until the nail retaining material or plaster is placed in said recesses.
4. A metallic structural unit including two sir'nilar parts, each part consisting of a strip of metal offset laterally and bent into angular formation along one longitudinal edge, said parts having flat intermediate or web portions in contiguous relation and secured together, so that the laterally oflset and angular portions of the parts cooperate to provide resilient retaining elements for surface elements forced against the inner surfaces of the outer lateral flanges of said angular portions, and so that said laterally offset and angular portions of the two parts cooperate to provide a groove or recess in one longitudinal edge of the unit adapted to receive a material for holding the angular portions apart and positively retaining the surface elements in place.
5. A metallic structural unit including a member comprising two parts, each part consisting of a strip of metal angularly bent to provide an outwardly directed flange along one longitudinal edge, said parts having flat intermediate or web portions secured together in contiguous relation, each part being offset laterally and bent into angular formation along its other longitudinal edge, the laterally offset and angular edge portions of the two parts constituting spring-like members for yieldingly retaining surface elements, said laterally offset and angular portions of the two parts cooperating to form a groove in one 1ongitudinal edge'of the unit adapted to receive and hold a nail retaining insert.
SAMUEL E. ROUSH.