US 2086505 A
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July 6, 1937. |A C, KLOECKENER 2,086,505
METHOD OF WEAVING TISSUE FIGURED FABRIC AND RESULTIMG WOVEN FABRIC Filed Jan. 5l, 1934 s a a s u I? INVENTOR Patented July 6, 1937 NETE@ STATES rimasti PATENT @FFICE METHOD 0F WEAVNG TllSSUlE FIGURED FABRE@ AND RESULTING WOVEN FAB- RHC Application `anuary 3l, 1934, Serial No. 709,085
VMy present invention relates to fabrics and more particularly to an improved method of producing so-called tissue (or tissue-over) figures upon woven fabrics and a fabric containing tissue figures.
Tissue figures as known in the art of weaving are figures where threads that are not part of the main weave, are embodied into such weave so that they by floating on the surface of same, form decorative effects or figures. These figures are utilized for various purposes, especially so in true multi-colored brocade weaves, also in necktie silks as well as in various smaller fields of textile production. All tissue figures used in these trades are produced through the introduction of additional shuttles on the loom producing such weaves as described below. On very rare occasions the tissue figures on brocades for drapery purposes have been produced through additional warpthreads, such warp threads usually being clipped off by hand or machine on the reverse side of the fabric so that the tissue figure forming threads are incorporated only in such part of the design where they are called for on the face of the fabric. Such practice of clipping the tissue forming threads on the reverse side of the goods, While not absolutely necessary, is followed because of the danger of such loosely iioating threads on the reverse side of the fabric being pulled very easily in the handling of the cloth, in which oase the decorative effect on` the face of the goods is pulled and destroyed.
It is well known that heretofore essentially all tissue decorating figures have been produced in the art through weaving a ground weave with one shuttle and by using another shuttle that, usually alternating` with the iirst shuttle, produces a figure the size and shape of which is controlled through the harness or Jacquard harness employed in the loom, by laying floating threads over the surface of the cloth which are introduced by the shuttle containing the tissue thread into the weave in between every pick of the shuttle that produces the ground weave. While the tissue figure producing shuttle introduces its filling into the weave the drawing-olf mechanism (or regulator) of the loom does not work -so that the reed of the loom tends to shove the lioats produced by the tissue shuttle to the face of the goods. In other words, when counting with a suitable glass the ground picks of a weave as just described, the number of ground fillings introduced by the ground shuttle will be substantially even at any place of the Weave and of substantial regularity as to the intervals between each filling thread.
A weave as just described can also be produced by a single shuttle in which case the single shuttle when producing the tissue gures works in such a manner that the regulator of the loom does not draw oli the weave while the pick that produces the tissue figures is beaten up by the reed.
Such tissue weaves as known, for instance in neckwear silks, are commercially produced as above described but are also made with more than two shuttles so that in a yarn dyed construction of such neckwear silk there are employed apart from the ground shuttle, two and three or more tissue shuttles that produce socalled tissue figures in two, three, or more colors on the surface of the weave. In each case where such tissue carrying shuttles are operating, the regulator of the loom is usually not operated. There are circumstances, particularly when the density of the filling threads is too high, where the regulator may draw olf the weave; this is true even when a tissue thread yis introduced into the weave.
It is readily seen from the above that the density of filling threads required for the production of a sightly tissue decorated piece of silk is very high in that generally only every second thread can be used for the production of tissue figures. Commercially therefore a tissue figured silk weave carriesin the average filling threads to an amount of 9D and up to 180 threads per inch. The producing capacity of a loom weaving such tissue fabrics is therefore markedly low when compared with other silks that range from 40 and seldom over 120 picks per inch. Y
In embodying the filling threads that form the tissue in the'standard tissue weave, provision must be made that these threads are properly incorporated into the weave so that they will have a marked spreading eifect at those points where they form the tissue figures and so that when they fioat on the back of the goods they are held with suflicient tightness to prevent them from being subjected to pull or tear, in, for instance, a necktie, where on improperly Woven tissue weaves the pulls and tears are liable to draw tight the threads in the places where they form the tissue figure on the surface of the goods, thereby destroying the value and beauty of such tissue ligure. The usual way of thus safeguarding the floating tissue threads on theback of the goods is to tie them into the ground weave in such a Way that these tying points do not show on the surface of the weave. To make such tissue filling hide in its tying points from the surface of the weave, requires a certain minimum density of the warp, a fact which is well known in the art.
It is well known in the art that through selection of weave in conjunction with stoppage of the regulator no particular difficulty is experienced in hiding tissue filling points from the obverse face of a tissue filling decorated fabric. However, the stopping of the regulator to permit the tissue thread to disappear in its tying points on the back of the goods, is not available when constructing weaves with tissue iigures, formed through additional warp threads which means tissue warp threads that in their position to the finished weave are vertical to the position of the tissue filling threads known in the art on a ground weave, and the merit and newness of the present invention reside also in the fact that a iethod has been developed that permits the hiding of the tying points from. the face of the weave that is decorated with warp tissue iigures.
lilly invention relates to the production of such tissue figures by using added warp threads upon woven fabrics' and in which fabrics the tissue forming threads are so incorporated into the warp of the fabric as to produce a fabric that can be woven with many less picks than the usual tissue fabric, which is produced only with filling tissue figures, and thereby decreasing its cost of manufacture most pronouncedly. Warp tissue fabric made in accordance with my invention may be subjected to use and wear without injury to the tissue gures thereon.
Therefore: ari object of my invention is an improved method of weaving a warp tissue decorated fabric.
An object of my invention is an improved warp tissue fabric which while being very much cheaper to produce than the filling tissue kgures heretofore produced, possesses `high wearing merit.
Further features and objects of the invention will be more fully understood from the following detailed description and the accompanying drawing, in which Figure l illustrates the obverse face side of a piece of Woven fabric with tissue figures thereon produced according to my invention;
Figure 2 is an enlarged view of the obverse face side of a piece of woven fabric with tissue figures thereon and with certain parts broken away to illustrate my improved fabric and method of producing the same;
Figure 3 is a vertical section on the line 3--3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a section on the line 1 -4 of Figure 2;
Figure 5 is a section on the line 5-5 of Figure 2; and
Figure 6 is a reverse face view of the fabric shown in Figure 2.
Referring to the drawing, there is shown in Fig. l a piece of woven fabric lil, having on the obverse face thereof the tissue figures H and i2, and the ground warp figures i3, all these iigures being distributed over the surface of the fabric lil. In the illustrated embodiment the tissue figures li and l2, in conjunction with the ground warp figures i3, make up the design appearing on the obverse face of the fabric l5; such design may be varied as occasion or necessity may require, and the design shown is merely illustrative of but one embodiment of my invention.
Both tissue figures M and I2 are composed of warp threads that are added to the warp threads that form the ground weave, the latter warp threads being of even density throughout the width of the fabric. These two different sets of warp threads may according to design be warped on one or more beams. In other words, in contrast to the existing tissue decorated fabrics which in their tissue effect are formed only by floating threads of the filling that is furnished usually by one or more additional shuttles, in my invention the tissue forming threads are located not inthe filling of the weave but in the warp of the weave. In this way I am able to produce designs as complex as desired by means of relatively simple weaving apparatus, which means by a single shuttle loom in contrast to a multi-shuttle loom used at present in the art which is usually equipped to operate up to seven shuttles. X
Being able as shown below, to avoid the showing of the tying points of the warp tissue threads on the surface of the goods, it will be seen that the decorative value of a fabric Woven according to my invention is no longer dependent upon a large number of shuttles and particularly and consequently upon the high number of picks predicated by such number of shuttles. trast with the established method it is well possible to weave according to my invention a highly decorated tissue fabric with as low as forty to fifty picks, thereby increasing the productive capacity between three and four times over the amount produceable by the method of producing tissue decorating figures with tissue carrying shuttle and bringing about such productive capacity on a loom that is simpler to operate and consequently cheaper in the manufacture of such weaves.
A fabric made in accordance with my invention is afforded a double wearing face, termed herein as obverse and reverse faces, and has the further advantage that the means for tying the extra Warp threads to the body of the fabric do not show on the obverse face thereof. Referring to Fig. 2, which is an enlarged face view of a portion of Fig. l, the Warp threads of the ground warp are designated ill, and those of the extra, tissue forming, Warp threads, are marked I5, from which the tissue figures li and l2 are formed. The threads carried into the weave by the single shuttle required to produce it, are designated by the reference character I6 and are used not only in forming the weave of the ground warp but also as a means to tie or otherwise secur-e to this ground warp weave the extra warp threads from which the tissue figures Il and l2 are formed.
The method of making the tissue iigures Il and l2 from the extra warp threads l5, as well as the decorative figures i3 that are formed by the ground warp threads li will be apparent from a study of the illustrated embodiment shown in Figures 3, 4, and 5, taken in connection with Figure 2. It will be seen that the number of extra Warp threads i5, is determined by the total width of tissue decorating iigures. il and It and that consequently any desired width of tissue decorating figures can be embodied in a weave made according to my invention. It is equally apparent that these tissue warp threads can be uniform or of different colors in relation to themselves as well as the color of the ground warp.
In con- Referring to Figure 4, which is a sectional view of the line 4--4 of Figure 2, looking in the direction of the applied arrows, it will be seen that the warp threads I4 are arranged alternately above and below the weft threads I6, across the width of the fabric IB. Also, that the extra tissue warp threads I5 are arranged in groups, those groups that are above the warp threads I4 representing the tissue figures IZ cn the obverse face of the fabric I0, while the groups below the warp threads Ill represent the length of the tissue warp threads I5 that are located on the reverse face of the fabric. The appearance of the tissue warp threads I5 on the obverse 0r reverse side of the weave is regulated through the weave forming mechanism as designed.
As indicated above, pursuant to my invention, I arrange to tie or otherwise secure, threads I5 to the fabric In by means of a weft or shuttle thread I6 as indicated by the reference character I'I in Figure 2, and as also clearly shown in Figure 4. As appears in Figure 2, the tissue warp threads I5 in the weave illustrated are caught up in pairs and to obviate that such threads be visible on the obverse face of the fabric II), I arrange the ground warp figure I3 on the obverse face of the fabric I in such a way that the iioating ground warp threads Ill in such figures I3, cover the tying points il. The ground warp gures i3, are so arranged throughout the obverse face of the fabric I as to retain and cover all of the pointsII. The appearance of the reverse face of fabric ID is shown in Figure 6 and it will be noted that the tying points I'I for the tissue warp threads I are sufficiently numerous to thoroughly incorporate such threads in the weave of the fabric. The resulting fabric therefore has in substance two wearing faces and may be used in situations where both faces are subject to wear.
In general, the tissue figures are formed in the obverse face of the resulting fabric by the employment of so-deiined extra warp threads and additional figures are formed on the obverse face by the utilization of the regular warp threads, such additional figures being utilized as a means of ornamentation or as a, combined means of ornamentation and covering for the tying points of the defined extra warp threads.
The extra warp threads are preferably, though not necessarily, of a different color from the regular warp threads or from the weft threads, in order that the tissue figures made by such extra warp threads shall stand out from the background formed from the regular Warp and weft threads.
To those skilled in the art it is obvious that by careful study a large variety of weaves are available that will if properly applied, according to my invention, hide the tying points of the warp tissue threads from the obverse face of the goods.
l. An improved tissue gured fabric comprising a weave composed of regular warp and weft threads, and having extra warp threads arranged in groups across the width of the fabric, tissue figures formed on the obverse face of the fabric by the extra warp threads, tying the floating portion of the extra warp threads extending between the tissue figures and on the reverse face of the weave to the weave at a plurality of points across the groups of said extra Warp threads by means of the weft threads, and having the tie points of the extra warp threads hidden from View on the obverse face of the fabric by floating figures formed of regular warp threads.
2. An improved tissue figured fabric comprising a weave composed of the regular warp and weft threads, and having extra warp threads arranged in groups being parallel to each other and parallel to the lengths of the fabric, tissue figures formed on the obverse face of the fabric by the extra warp threads and with the fioating portion of said extra warp threads on the reverse face of the weave tied to the weave at a plurality of points across the groups of extra warp threads by successively picking up the individual threads of the extra warp threads at a plurality of points between the tissue gures by means of the weft threads, and covering the normally exposed tie points of the floating portion of the extra Warp threads on the face of the fabric by means of floating figures on the obverse face of the fabric by floating figures formed of the warp threads.
l FRITZ C. KLOECKENER.