US 2087161 A
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Patented July 13, 1937 PATENTjoF Ica IooMrosr'trrou FOR orrent. USE
William O. Maura-Stamford, 001111., assignorto US. Industrial, Alcohol a., New York, N. Y.,
a corporation of West Virginia No' Drawing.
Application November Serial No. 51,479
.13 Claims. (c1. 167-90) The object of the invention is to provlde improved astringent compositions for application to the human skin, more especially to inhibit or control perspiration. Such compositions may be termed deodorants. j
Unlike ordinary perspiration deodorizing "or inhibiting preparations, which are thin liquids, and usually aqueous solutions, the compositions, of this invention are semi-solid and strongly alcoholic. Consequently they do not spill like true liquids, they are convenient to use, and dry quickly. The compositions contain much alcohol, small amounts of wax and soap, and a requisite amount of an astringent salt.
I havediscovered that excellentiproducts of this kind can be obtained if certain soaps, namely those of aluminum or zinc, are incorporated in y the compositions; and that though thesesoaps are "substantially insoluble in water and only slightly soluble in hot alcoholic media, they may be dissolved in a hot alcoholic. menstruum if either aluminum chloride or zinc chloride is present. Each of these salts is an eifective anti-perspiration astringent.
From the fact that hot solutions of the alcohol, the astringent salt and the aluminum or zinc I soap, without the wax, remain liquid aftercooling, it is evident that these soaps arenot, in themselves, solidifying agents. With the wax, however, homogeneous masses of any desired consistency ranging from creamy to firm and virtually solid are obtained. It may be that the soaps in question serve in some way as auxiliary solidifying agents, but their primary and important function is to keep the wax, in the presence of the astringent salt, from crys'tallizing or sepa rating in such manner as to produce undesirable graininess or roughness inxthe texture of the composition which is to be applied tothe human body. The mechanism of theiraction may be that of emulsifiers or protective colloids. In any event the compositions containing them are agreeable to use, and because the application is smooth and even, perspiration is more eflectively controlled and there is littleor no disagreeable after-feeling on the skin. i 1
'Ihedifference between preparations containing aluminum or zinc soaps as modifiers, and those containing only a wax, an astringent salt and an alcoholic medium can be demonstrated by a microscopic examination. I
Under a magnification of about IOOdiameters, compositions of the type disclosedin this invention are found to be substantially free of aggragates of wax. On the other hand if the metallic soap is omitted',-a similar inspection reveals the presence of a large number of wax particles of varying sizes,- and'in some instances, having angular shapes.
Especially desirable compositions are had when 5 the soap is of the same metallic radical as that contained in the astringent salt. Usable prodducts may be made, however, with a salt of one of the metallic radicals and a soap of the other radical. Soaps such as stearates, palmitates and oleates, and mixtures thereof, may be used.
A variety of waxes or waxy substances may be employed, such as candelilla wax, carnauba wax,
,spermaceti and beeswax, either singly or in admixture with each other. T5
The term alcohol or alcoholic as used herein refers only to ethyl alcohol and propyl alcohol l (normal or isopropyl) or mixtures of these. Where ethyl alcohol is given as a constituent it will be understood that it maybe either the pure alcohol or alcohol denatured according to a formula approved for topical use.
The following examples illustrate the invention:
Example 1 c I 12 gms. of candelilla wax and 16 gms. of aluminum stearate are covered with a mixture of 108 cc. of absolute ethylalcohol denatured according to some U. S. Government formula approved for topical use, and 116 cc. of 91% (volume) isopropyl alcohol. 112.36 gms. of anhydrous aluminum chloride are now added gradually. 1After all the astringent salt has been added the mixture is boiled under reflux, which prevents loss, until solution is effected. 0.7 cc. of perfume base is then added, and the mixtureis poured into containers to cool. The, resulting product is of smooth, firm, strong consistency, having a flow point of about 131- 133 F., and resistant to shock. Notwithstanding the mechanical rigidity of the system, portions of the composition can easily be removed from the container by means of the fingers or otherwise for application to the skin. At body temperaure and under moderately brisk rubbing the portions so removed liquefy readily, good penetration is obtained, and the application dries rapidly because of the evaporation of the alcohol. In the use of such a composition there need be no waste since the nature of the material is such that the right amount may be taken from the container, applied directly and solely tothe skin areato be treated and then rubbed in. Not only is the drying period very short, but there is littleor no need to rinse the treated area of the skin with water. Finally,.the
of withstanding the shocks of shipment and the skin, so severely as do water solutions of astringent deodorant's, nor does it attack the clothing so readily.
If in the foregoing example carnauba wax is used in like amount in place of candelilla, a comparable substance is produced, though it may be noted that while the flow point of the composition with carnauba wax (about 170 F.) is materially higher than that of Example 1, the carnauba wax composition has less resistance to shock.
For firm, substantially solid products, capable temperatures of hot climates, the water' content of the compositions 'should' be limited within about 10% of the total weight and preferably within about 6%. Too much water weakens the structure and lowers the flow point, so that the structure lacks solidity. On the other hand, for soft creams or for'forms sufliciently flowable to bedispensed from collapsible tubes, more water is permissible.
Substantially or entirely, anhydrous compositions are made with anhydrous alcohol and the astringent salt i i anhydrous form. Some water in the composition lessens darkening of the composition due to heating of the wax and the action of aluminum chloride on wax. I
The astringent saltmay be used in either the anhydrous or the hydrated, form. In the followingexample hydrated aluminum chloride is employed.
. Example 2 1 Aluminum chloride (AlCl3,6HzO) 22.5 gms. Candelilla wax j 12.0 gms.
Aluminum stearate 16.0 gms. Absolute(100%) ethyl alcohol 108.0 cc; 98% isopropyl alcohol... 108.0 cc;
' Of perfume base 0.7 cc.
These constituents may be all added at once, and are boiled under a reflux until solution is effected, after which thefluid mixture is put in containers and allowed to cool and set.
While mixtures of ethyl and propyl alcohols seem to be preferable in some of the compositions, satisfactory results are obtained when all of the alcohol is ethyl alcohol or when all of it is propyl.
The quantities of the ingredients, soap (of aluminum or zinc), wax and astringent salt, always in minor proportions, maybe varied.
'More or less astringent salt'is introduced into the composition to give either a stronger or less pronouncedperspiration-inhibiting effect. The salt may be added up to, or even somewhat beyond, thelimit of solubility'in the menstruum.
In place of thmalumin'um stearate of these exif the insoluble soap and the soluble salt have the 'same metallic radical.
Sufficient aluminum or zinc soap is added to inhibit to a" substantial degree granulation of the wax.
7 Example 3 I 12 gms. of carnauba wax, 16 gms; zinc steara-te, 108 cc. absolute ethyl alcohol, 108-cc. 98% isop'ropyl alcohol,' and 22.5 gm's zinc chloride are boiled under reflux. The liquid mixture is poured into containers. When the'product sets, it is of firm, strong consistency, adapted for application to the skin in the manner that has beendescribed.
If in a composition'of the kind to which thispreparation does not harden and irritate the um oxide has proved to be advantageous not only to cause the product to be lighter in color but also because it improves the texture and the physical effect of these compositions. When one of the compositions containing titanium oxide is applied, the skin and its hairs are left in much the same condition as if the surface had been dusted afterward with talc. Titanium oxide at about 2% of the total weight makes very white an aluminum chloride composition of the kind to which this invention relates.
1. A composition for topical use, containing an astringent salt selected from the group consisting of aluminum chloride and zinc chloride, a soap of one of these metals, wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
2. A composition for topical'use, containing an astringent salt selected from the group consisting of aluminum chloride and zinc chloride, a soap of the same metallic radical as that contained in the salt, wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
3. A composition for topical use, containing aluminum chloride, aluminum soap, wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
4. A composition for topical use, containing zinc chloride, zinc soap, wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
5. A composition for typical use, containing an astringent salt selected from the group consisting of aluminum chloride and zinc chloride, candelilla wax, soap of one of the aforementioned 8. A composition for topical use, containing aluminum chloride, carnauba wax, aluminum soap, anda predominant amount of alcohol.
9. A solid or semi-solid composition for topical use, containing aluminum chloride, candelilla wax, a soap of the group of metals consisting of aluminum and zinc, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
I 10. A solid or semi-solid composition for topical use, containing aluminum chloride, carnauba wax, a soap of the group of metals consisting of "aluminum and zinc, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
11'. A solid or semi-solid composition for topical use, containing aluminum chloride, aluminum stearate, candelilla wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
12. A solid or semi-solid composition for topical use, containing zinc chloride, zinc stearate,
candelilla wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
ii 13. A solid or semi-solid composition for topical use, containing zinc chloride, vwax, sufficient zinc 'stearate to inhibit granulation of the wax, and a predominant amount of alcohol.
' WILLIAM C. MOORE.