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Publication numberUS2087522 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJul 20, 1937
Filing dateApr 16, 1923
Priority dateApr 16, 1923
Publication numberUS 2087522 A, US 2087522A, US-A-2087522, US2087522 A, US2087522A
InventorsMcier Albert J
Original AssigneeRockwood Gypsum Corp Of Americ
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gypsum timber
US 2087522 A
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

July zo,- 1937. A. J. MEER 2,087,522

GYISUM `'IIMBELR Filed April 16, 1923 3 Sheets-Sheet l Inven tor.;

Y A Ber /Vez-'er .By n

'His' Aitor-ni A. J. MEIER GYPSUM TIMBER Jfy 20, 1937.

Filed April 1e, 192s 5 shets-sheepz l'nvento r.' v r Jf/,Vlez'esr' His Attorney A. J. MEIER GYPsUM TIMBER July 20, 1937.

Filed April 16, 1923 ."5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Inventor.'

)Y H115 Attorne Patented July 20, 1937 GYPSUM TEMBER Albert 5. Meier, St. Louis, ll/io., assigner, by mesne assignments, to Rockwood Gypsum Corporation of America, Si. Louis, Mo., a corporation of Nevada Application April i6, 1923, Serial No. 632,425

2l Claims.

This invention relates to building timbers, and more particularly to such timbers articially manufactured by casting out of lithic material.

In accordance with the present invention the material used for the manufacture of this timber is gypsum in the calcined form which, after being mixed with water, may be pouredintomolds in a manner similar to the manufacture of reenforced concrete structures or the like. Gypsum in this or similar forms has been used for casting various shapes, such as small Statuary and ornaments of various kinds. This material is also cheap and easy to handle. It is not strong enough, however, to lend itself readily to struc,- tural purposes in the same way as cement concrete which may be reenforced by steel in those parts which are subjected to tensile stresses.

One or the objects of this invention is to provide a building' timbervof cast gypsum which may be effectively used in building construction.

AAnother object of this invention is to provide a timber of cast gypsum, Vhaving incorporated therein a suitable binder, such as bagasse.

Another ob-ject is to provide a timber of cast gypsum, which is adapted to form, with suitable means, a load bearing element.

Another object of this invention is to provide a timber of cast gypsum which is arranged to receive concrete in order to form a beam.

Further objects will appear from the detail description taken in connection with the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure l is a perspective View illustrating a timber embodying this invention;

Figure v2.is an enlarged end View of Figure 1;

Figure 3 is a partial cross-sectional view of a oor built of these timbers;

Figure 4 and 5 are perspective views illustrating other modified forms of the timber embodying this invention;

Figures 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 illustrate still further embodiments of this invention; and

Figure 1l is a perspective View showing the general plan of Wall and floor construction in accordance with this invention.

While the complete building structure is described in this specication, the Wall structure per se is not claimed herein but is claimed in my coi-pending application Serial No. 142,636 'lled May 14, 1937, which is a division of this application.

In accordance with this invention, a timber is provided, formed of cast gypsum. Inaccordance with this invention, a hollow building structure timber of cast gypsum is provided, which is characterized by the feature that it has a length which is large compared to its transverse dimension, but is of suilicient rigidity and strength to carry a load when supported at its ends. t, therefore, distinguishes from building blocks and the like, which are not timl'rers` This timber preferabiy has incorporated therein and with the gypsum, a suitable binder, such as bagasse, although other brous binders, such as cut rope or wood chips may be used. The timber may also be suitably lo reinforced with rods, bars or other elements such as are employed in the reinforcement of concrete generally.

In practice, where a binder, such as bagasse, is used, the binder, in the proportion of 5% to 10% of the total mass, and in shredded form and short lengths of the size of hogs hair, is mixed with the Water in order to form. a thick soupy mixture. To this is then added the calcined gypsum, and the whole is cast in a suitable form or mold.

The timber when used for a wall is formed to provide one or more cavities or cells therealong, .and it may be formed to provide a tongue and groove therealong. The timber may also be provided With channels or other means in order to provide a plaster-receiving and retaining face. When erected in a wall, certain of the cavities may be lled with concrete, suitably reinforced, in order to provide supporting means for the Wall.

Where the timber is to form a iloo-r or other load bearing part, it is constructed to receive concrete in order to provide a beam. Accordingly the timber is formed to provide a channel adapted to receive concrete, suitably reinforced; and in order to pro-vide for shipment the timber has a series of cavities therealong, the Wall of one of which may be broken open toV provide the channel.

Referring to the accompanying drawings and more particularly to Figures l, 2 and 3, Figure 1 40 shows a general view of a building timber embodying this invention, the particular one shown being designed to form a iloor timber. It is cast in a generally rectangular hollow form, the body i of the timber having three longitudinal cavities 45 extending throughout its length, a center cavity 2 and lateral cavities 3. Metal reenforcing elements Il and 5 may, if desired, be'imbedded in the walls of the timber as illustrated in Figures 1 and 2. These reenforcing elements may be of any desired form best suited for the purpose. Longitudinal members 5 may be placed at the corners and transversemembers l may be imbedded in the Walls. It Will be noted that the upper Wall 6 of the center cavity 2 is not only formed without reenforcement, but is made thinner than the other walls. This is for the purpose of rendering the wall 6 friable so that it may be broken out for a purpose which will be presently explained.

Figure 3 illustrates a floor construction using these timbers. The timbers I are assembled in adjoining relation as illustrated, being suitably supported by means not shown in this View. After assembling the units, the walls 6 of each will be broken out throughout its length so that the center cavity 2 of each unit is left open at -the top. This cavity now provides a form or channel in which a reenforced concrete beam may be cast. Reenforcing bars 'I may be placed in thecavity and the concrete filling 8 may then be poured in the usual Way. If desired, suitable strips 9 be imbedded in the concrete filling to provide nailing strips for the floor I8. It will be noted that the side walls ofthe cavity 2 slope toward each other toward the top. The concrete beam which is cast in this cavity Will, therefore, have a dove tailed shape adapted to securely interlock the same with the timbers I.

The Wall timbers I I may be formed as illustrated in Figures 4 to 10 inclusive.V These are cast in a substantially rectangular 'lorm in crosssection having a cavity I2 as illustrated in Figure 4 or a number of cavities as illustrated in Figure 5, according to the service for which the unit is intended. One edge of the timber is provided with a tongue I3 and the opposite edge with a groove I so that the adjoining timbers may be interlocked by engagement of tongues and grooves in a well known manner. One or both -faces of the timber may be provided with transverse grooves I 5 for the engagement of plaster or other suitable facing to be applied to the wall as a finish.

in casting these timbers, a suitable paper facing E6 may be placed in the mold so that the finished timber will be provided with a reenforcing facing of paper, fabric or other fibrous material which will not only assist in reenforcing the surface but will also provide a surface to Which materials used Vfor finishing will adhere. It is, of course, immaterial whether the paper be inserted in the mold and attached to the surface during the casting operation or the casting be completed rst and the facing applied afterward. Figure 7 shows the facing I6 applied to two opposite sides of the timber. In Figure 8 the facing is carried completely around the timber and in Figure 9 a facing I'I is also applied to the interior surface of the cavity I2.

kIn Figure il is illustrated a method of constructing the Wall in accordance with this invention. As will be seen the timbers II are placed 11p-right on a suitable foundation and in adjoining relation with one another, the tongues of one timber engaging the grooves in the adjoining one in practice the tongues and grooves will be so smooth as to form a sufficiently tight joint, however, if desired a layer of mortar may be provided to complete the joint. These timbers are in practice long enough to complete the wall between two floors; however, shorter lengths may be placed, one upon the other in vertical sections so that the cavities of all those in a vertical stack will register with one another. When a suitable height kof wall has been built-up, certain selected cavities have inserted therein one or more re- Yenforcing members I8 which may be steel rods such as are ordinarily used in reenforced concrete constructions. When these reenforcing members have been suitably positioned in the cavities, these cavities are filled with concrete so as to form columns adapted to providesupports for the oors and also to stiffen the Wall structure.

When the Wall has been built any desired facing may be applied to the outer surface thereof.

The construction `of a building in accordance with this invention is illustrated in Figure 11. In this construction the walls are first erected by setting up timbers II in adjoining relation, as previously described, on a suitable foundation. When a sumcient height of Wall has-been built up, reenforcements I8 are inserted andthe corresponding cavities lled with concrete as previously described. This provides -a series of reenforced concrete columns at regular intervals along the Wall. The oors may then be laid on by placing timbers I of the type shown in Figures l and 2 upon the walls so that their ends are supported b-y the up-right timbers II. When these floor timbers have been put in place the friable partition-s 6 are broken out and reenforcements 'I set in place. members may also be arranged lengthwise along the Walls over the tops of the 11p-right timbers I I. These are shown at 33. When all reenforcing rods have been set in place the cavities in the timbers II and I which are not to .be filled have their openings suitably closed after which concrete may be poured into the channels 26 and also into the spaces between the ends of the floor timbers I and over the tops of the wall timbers II, suitable forms in the shape of boards 30 having been first provided so as to retain the concrete in shape along the top of a wall. This flling of concrete will thus provide a series of reen.- forc'ed concrete beams 3| bridging from Wall to wall and supporting the timbers I. 'I'he ends of these beams are connected by means of the concrete lling along the border 32 with the columns formed by the fillings 23. It will be noted that the border 32 provides a reenforced concrete beam running along the top of each Wall and joining the columns 23. The floor beams 3|, also of reenforced concrete, are connected at their ends with the columns through these beams along the top of the wall. It will thus be evident that a strong and rigid frame-work of reenforced concrete is provided which supports the wall timbers II and `the floor timbers I.

Succeeding stories may be built one upon the other by the` same method, each succeeding story serving as a foundation for the one above it. Y It will be noted that this invention provides a novel and economical method of building construction. Hollow lithic timbers are provided for both wall and floor construction. `In the .Wall timbers cavities are provided within which reenforced concrete columns may be formed. In "the floor timbers suitable cavities arelalso provided wherein reenforced concrete beams may be cast. By the method 4of construction described the colurnns and beams are connected by a reenforced concrete beam along the wall .so that a strong and rigid structural frame is provided. The wall and floor structures are formed by building into this frame the timbers as described herein. Thus a strong and rigid shell is provided which is of the nature of the hollow tile construction so as to provide suitable heat insulating qualities and which also lends itself tov the application of yvarious forms of surface dressing for decorative and other purposes.

It is obvious that various changes may be made in details of construction without departing from If desired reenforcing the spirit of this invention; it is, therefore, to be understood that this invention is not to be limited to the specific details shown and described.

Having thus described the invention, what is claimed is:

1. A self-supporting building structure timber of cast gypsum and of general rectangular hollow cross-section, characterized by the fea-ture that it has a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension but is of sufficient rigidity and strength to stand when supported at its ends, said timber being constructed to receive concrete for interlocking therewith andv for interlocking and anchoring the timber with its supports.

2. A self-supporting building structure timber of cast gypsum having a series. of cavities there- -along formed by an internal web and lateral walls along and integral with the timber body, characterized by the feature that it has a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension but is of suiicientv rigidity and strength to stand when supported at its ends, said timber being constructed `to receive concrete for interlocking therewith and for interlocking and anchoring the timber with its supports.

3. A self-supporting building structure timber of c-ast gypsum having a series of cavities therealong formed by internal webs and lateral walls along and integral with the timber body, characterized by the feature that it has a length Which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension but is of suicient rigidity and strength to stand when supported at its ends', said timber being constructed to receive concrete for interlocking therewith and for interlocking and anchoring the timber with its supports.

4. A self-supporting building structure timber of cast gysum whose length is large compared to its greaest transverse dimension and having a series of cavities therealong formed by lateral walls and an intermediate web, said timber being constructed to receive concrete for interlocking therewith and for interlocking and anchoring the timber with its supports.

5. A building structure comprising supports spaced to provide an extended span, and a building structure unit of gypsum having a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension and adapted tospan said supports, said unit being constructed to receive concrete for interlocking therewith and for interlocking and anchoring the unit with said supports.

6. A building structure comprising supports spaced to provide an extended span, and a building structure unit of gypsum having a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension and adapted to span said supports, said unit having means for receiving and interlocking with concrete to provide an element structurally connecting said supports and for supporting said unit therealong.

7. A building structure comprising supports spaced to provide an extended span, and a building structure unit of gypsum having a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension and adapted to span said supports, said unit being recessed therealong to provide a form adapted to receive concrete in order to form an element structurally connecting said supports and for supporting said unit.

8. A building structure comprising walls spaced to provide an extended span, building structure units of gypsum each of a length to span said Walls, said units having recesses therealong and from wall to wall, and concrete beams formed within said recesses and spanning from wall to wall.

9. in a building structure in which ther supports are spaced to form an extended span which are connected by concrete columns or beams, a building structure unit ci gypsum having a length which is larged compared to its greatest transverse dimension and adapted to span the supports, said unit being recessed therealoing to provide a form. to receive concrete in order to form an element structurally connecting said supports and i'or s l0. In ther art or erecting building structures the waiis or iioors or" which are composed of gypsum units and in which the structure is reinforced by concrete within and along some of the units to provide columns or beams, the process comprising placing a gypsum unit of a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension and which has a recess therealong, in position to span the supports, and placing the concrete within the recess and to connect with the supports.

l1. In the art or erecting floors, the process comprising, placing a series of hollow timbers of cast gypsum in adjoining relation, breaking open certain of the cavities to form channels, placing reenforcing elements to extend along said channels, and iilling the channels with concrete to be supported by said timbers until it sets in order to provide beams.

l2. In the art oi erecting floors, the process comprising, casting hollow gypsum timbers, placing a series of such timbers in adjoining relation, breaking open certain of the cavities to form channels, placing reenforcing elements to extend along said channels, and filling the channels with concrete to be supported by said timbers until it sets in order to provide beams extending along said timbers adapted to support the same.

13. in the art of erecting iioors, the process comprising, casting gypsum to form timbers each with a series of cavities therealong, placing a series of such timbers in adjoining relation, breaking open certain of the cavities toi form channels, placing reeniorcing elements to extend along said channels, and filling the channels with concrete to be supported by said timbers until it sets in order to provide beams extending along said timbers adapted to support the'same.

14. A floor structure timber of cast gypsum characterized by the features, that it has a length which is large compared to its greatest transverse dimension, that a cavity extends therealong and is closed by a frangible top wall having weakened portions to be broken out after the timber is placed in the structure so as to provide a channel open at its ends adapted to receive concrete to iorrn a supporting beam interlocking with its end supports, and that said timber has sufficient strength and rigidity to support the concrete in said cavity until it sets.

15. In the art of erecting floors, the process comprising, placing a series oi elongated hollow timbers on spaced supports to form a floor, each to span the space between supports, and in adjoining relation with each other; breaking open cavities along certain timbers, placing reinforcing elements along those cavities, and filling those cavities with concrete in such a manner as to interlock with those timbers so as to cause those timbers to support the concrete iilling until it sets whereby to form a concrete beam supporting said timbers.

16. A building structure comprising, a series of hollow gypsum timbers placed in adjoining relation to form a wall, a series of hollow gypsum timbers placed in adjoining relation to form a floor, certain of the wall cavities being filled with concrete to provide supports, and certain of said door cavities being channeled and filled with concrete to provide beams.

17. A building structure comprising, a series of hollow gypsum timbers placed in adjoining relation to form a wall, a series of hollow gypsum timbers placed in adjoining relation to form a oor, Vcertain of the wall cavities being filled with concrete to provide supports, certain of said floor cavities being channeled and filled with concrete toprovide beams, and said supports and said beams being connected by concrete.

i8. A building structure, comprising, a series of precast hollow gypsum timbers of a contin uous length to span from floor to ceiling placed in adjoining relation to form a Wall, a series of precast hollow gypsum floor timbers, of a continuous length to span the space between supports, resting on said wall, and a concrete interlock between said wall and said floor timbers.

19. A building structure, comprising, a series of precast hollow gypsum timbers of a continuous length to span from loor to ceiling placed in adjoining relation to form a wall, certain of said timbers being iilled with concrete to provide reenforcing columns in said wall, Va series` of precast hollow gypsum floor timbers, of a continuous length to span the space `between supports, resting on said wall, and a concrete interlock between said wall and` said oor timbers.

20. A building structure, comprising, a series of precast hollow gypsum timbers of a continuous length to span from oor to" ceiling placed in adjoining relation to form a wall, certain of said timbers being filledk with concrete to pro- Vide reenforcing` columns in said wall, a series of precast hollow gypsum floor timbers, of a continuous` length to span the space between supports, resting on saidwall, certain of said floor timbers having cavities extending therealong and lled with concrete to provide reenorcing floor beams interlocked with said wall, and a concrete interlock between said wall and said floor timbers.

21. A building structure, comprising, a series of precast hollow gypsum timbers of a continuous length to span from iloor to ceiling placed in adjoining relation to form a wall, certain of said timbers being lled with concrete to provide reenforcing columns in said wall, a series of precast hollow gypsum floor timbers, of a continuous length to span the space between supports, resting on said wall, certain of said floor timbers having cavities extending therealong and iilled with concrete to provide reenforcing oor beams interlocked with said wall, and a concrete interlock between said wall and said loortimbers joining said columns and said beams into a unitary frame.

ALBERT J. MEIER.

CERTIFICATE OF CORRECTION.

.Patent NO. 2,087,522. July 20, 1937.

ALBERT J. MEIER.

lt is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of rthe above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page l, first column, line 38, for Figure" read Figures; line 39, strike out the word "modfied"; and second column, line 46, after the comma insert the word and comma namely,; page 5, second column, line 8, claim 9, -for "larged" read large; and that the said Letters Patent should be read with these corrections therein that the same may conform to the record of the case in the Patent Office.

Signed and sealed this 5th day of October, A. D. 1937.

Henry Van Arsdale (Seal) Acting Commissioner of Patents.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US5177924 *Apr 16, 1992Jan 12, 1993Stefan KakukLightweight building component
Classifications
U.S. Classification52/100, 52/261
International ClassificationE04B5/18, E04B5/17
Cooperative ClassificationE04C1/38
European ClassificationE04C1/38