US 2087834 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
y 2 1937- c. w. BROWN ET AL. 2,037,834
FLUID IMPELLER AND TURBINE I Filed May 23, 1932 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Zhwentor attorneys y 1937- c. w. BROWN ET AL 2,087,834
FLUID IMPELLER AND TURBINE Filed May 25, 1952 "2 Sheet s-Sheet 2 3nventor s GttornegS I Patented July 20, 1937 PATENT OFFICE" FLUID IMPELLER AND TURBINE Chester W. Brown and Erwin F. Dosie,
Application May 23, 1932, Serial No. 612,928
19 Claims. This invention relates to improvements in fluid impellers and turbines. While the device here- 15 tend to. impede free flow of fluid through devices for imparting; or receiving motion to or from the fluid passing therethrough.
More specifically stated, it is the object of this invention to provide a runner or rotor having an 20 axially disposed inlet almost equal in diameter to the entire rotor and an outlet at least as great in area'asthe inlet, the said rotor being so designed as to provide a multiplicity of passages between the inlet and outlet, each adapted to receive fluid from a particular sub-divided portion of the fluid stream entering the inlet.
One of the desirable objectives of the construction herein disclosed is the provision of a device which, when operated as a fluid impeller, 30 will draw fluid from an area almost equal to the area which it occupies, the suction or partial vacuum created in the operation of the device being approximately equal throughout said area.
By reason of this feature the device is peculiarly 35 adapted for use as a propeller, and some forms of the invention are calculated to deliver the fluid in a direction partially or entirely axial, whereby to be'efiicient in transforming rotative to axial motion. v
40 It is a further object of the invention to provide a device in which the axial and radial forces developed in the operation of the device may be substantially neutralized whereby to eliminate thrust on the driving shaft.
45 A device made in' accordance with this invention is useful for some purposes when operating unenclosed, and for other purposes itshould be encased. For the latter purposes, it isone of the objects to provide an organization in which fluid 50 admitted to a casing, housing a runner and made in accordance with this invention, will follow more or less smoothly a predetermined helical spiral path from the inlet to the discharge port of the casing without any abrupt change in direction, and without encountering any surfaces or obstructions such as might tend to create substantial eddy currents or otherresistance factors.
In the drawings:
Figure 1 is a view partially inside elevation and partially in axial section, showing a rotor or runner device embodying the present invention.
"Figure 2 is a front elevation of the device shown in Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a view partially in side elevation andpartially in axial section, showing a modified embodiment of a rotor or runner device incorporating the invention. v
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 3 showing a further modification.
Figure 5 is an enlarged fragmentary view in perspective, of a single plate employed in the device shown in Figures 1 and 2, showing the arrangement whereby-a spacer is embossed from said plate.
Figure. 6 is a detail view on a reduced scale showing the application of a specialized form of flat impeller embodying the invention to a motor armature shaft for use as a fan, the device being organized to balance .or neutralize all forces to which the armature shaft is subject.
Figure '7 is a detail view in axial section through a fluid impelling device embodyingthe invention and including a runner somewhat similar to that shown in Figures 1 and 2.
Figure 8 is a frontelevation of the device shown s in Figure 7, a portion of casing being broken away to expose the face of the runner or rotor.
Figure 9 is a front elevation of a modified form of rotor employing spokes to support each annulus directly from the shaft.
Like parts areidentified by the same reference characters throughout the several views.
The rotor or runner .shown in Figs. 1 and 2 includes amounting plate i0 carried bya shaft H. This plate preferably comprises a solid or imperforate disk to which are secured by bolts 5 I2 a. number of annular plates l5 which have internal openings of progressively increasing-diameter, the said annular plates being spaced from each other as shown, to provide narrow circumferential slot-like passages for the discharge of fluid. The means whereby the plates are spaced from each other may conveniently comprise integrally embossed portions l6 of the plates, as shown in Figs. 2 and 5, the spacing bosses being preferably stream lined in the direction of fluid I delivery so as to involve minimum interference with the smoothness of fluid discharge. The embossed spacing portions I5 of the plates are apertured to receive the mounting bolts I2.
The resulting runner or rotor has an inlet opening almost as large in diameter as the full diameter of the rotor, the last plate I5 in the series preferably having very little radial extent, as shown in Fig. 2. The successively decreasing radii of the openings of successive plates in the series leading toward the mounting plate I0 give the inlet the appearance of a conical inlet.
When the device is rotated, the centrifugal force developed in the fluid contained in the channels between the plates I5 and plate I0 will cause all such fluid to flow toward the periphery of the several plates where it will be discharged uniformly in all directions. The fluid thus discharged will be replaced by other fluid moving into the conical inlet, sub-divided by the several plates, and similarly discharged from the periphery.
The capacity of each of the radial discharge passages between consecutive plates of the series will. preferably be so chosen with reference to the differential. area between consecutive plates at either side of the passage that the several passages will handle substantially alike the annular column of fluid which encounters the exposed annular surface of the plate bounding the passage at its inner side. In other words, the flow will be uniform or substantially uniform across the entire diameter of the inlet, the incoming fluid being in effect sub-divided by the inner margins of the several annuli into concentric tubular columns of fluid, each of which in turn will encounter a particular annulus adjacent its inner margins, and will flow radially across the face of such annulus to the constricted annular space or discharge passage to the point of delivery. No vanes need be used in a device of this kind, the friction of the fluid on the surfaces of the plates being relied upon to ensure its centrifugal discharge.
While planiform plates have been shown in Figs. 1 and 2, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that they may be made conical, as
shown at I50 in Fig. 3. In the Fig. 3 construction the direction of discharge is somewhat toward the rear of the impeller.
plates might be unduly restricted if all the plates had a like radial extent.
also be used for -many other purposes. greater number of plates above the mounting- In Fig. 6 is shown a construction in which the annular plates I5 above the mounting plate II) are duplicated by a lesser number of plates I5 below the mounting plate I0. The shaft II in this instance is disposed vertically and comprises the armature shaft of a motor I8." Such a device is highly useful as a table fan, andmay plate creates a greater vacuum above the rotor than that which exists beneath it, the differential being so workedout as to provide a force' which, in the normal operation of the mechanism, will substantially equal the weight of the .tial fluid admission 13011; 23.
The construction shown in Figs. 7 and 8 is,
particularly designed for use as a pump. At relatively heavy mounting plate III] is employed on the drive shaft III which turns in suitable bearings provided in casing I9. The removable closure 20 attherear of the casing is recessed to receive the impeller mounting plate III], and a similar recess in casing I9 receives the outer annulus 2| of the series carried by the plate IIII. The intermediate annuli I5 are identical with those disclosed in Figs. 1 and 2.
The spacing between the annuli, however, has been graduated to exemplify another aspect of the invention, the plates having the largest openings being spaced farther apart than the plates at the other ends of the series where the central openings are small. This feature is of assistance suction at the center. Within limits, the closer the plates are fixed with reference to each other, the greater will be their frictional action on the fluid, and hence the greater will be the suction produced. There will be a natural tendency for I the flow to be uniform throughout all parts of allof the devices disclosed herein, and the present embodiment showing a difference in spacing between plates is illustrative of means which may -be employed to correct any difference in-flow which may be observed in a particular installation.
The casing I9 provides two annular chambers 22 and 25. The former is in registry with the inlet of the rotor or impeller and has a tangen- The discharge chamber 25 is concentric with and disposed about the periphery of the runner or impeller,
and has a tangential .outlet at 2 extending in the same direction in which fluid is traveling when admitted to the casing through port 23.
The arrangement disclosed is such that fluid is at no time subjected to any sudden change of direction in traversing the device. It is given a. helical movement in chamber 22-\,by the annular form of the chamber and by the disposition of the tangential admission port 23. It continues this helical movement in a spiral direction through the impeller and continues to rotate in chamber 25 toward the point of tangential discharge at 24.
The construction of the rotor shown in Figs. 9 and 10 is essentially similar to those previously disclosed herein with the single exception that the annuli I55, instead of being carried by a -mounting plate, are provided with spokes I58 and hub portions I51, and stamped integrally therewith, the latter being preferably provided with integral key'tongues I58 for mounting directly upon the splined shaft 2. The thinness of the spokes minimizes their interference with fluid entering the rotor through the graduated central apertures of its successive annuli.
Figure 11 illustrates a preferred application of the invention for propulsion of any device 2,087,884 through a fluid. The fact thatthe opening in the impeller is almost as large as the diameter of the propeller makes the device peculiarly useful as a propeller because it acts on almost all of the fluid which it displaces in its movement. The propulsion installation shown in Fig. 11 is adaptable for use in airships, submarines, torpedoes, outboard motors, and other bodies designed for movement through air, water or other fluids.
The body 30 to be propelled is preferably stream lined to present a torpedo contour with a fairly blunt nose as shown. An axially extending power shaft 3| drives an impeller unit 32 which may be exactly like those shown in Figs. 1 and 2, or like those shown in Fig. 3 or 10. The discharge from the impeller 32 is received into an annular space 33 between the outer surface 34 of body 30, and a correspondingly formed conical shell 35 spaced from the body by webs 36.
The suction produced at the inlet of impeller 32 upon rotation of shaft 3| has a very powerful propulsive effect on body 30, tending to move the body axially to the right as viewed in Fig. 11. A very substantial additional propulsive effect is created by the discharge of the fluid against shell 35 which turns the fluid rearwardly and receives a reactive force tending to propel body 30 toward the right as viewed in Fig. 11.
The fluid leaving shell 35 and passing outwardly across surface 34 of body 30 tends to follow a rectilinear path from which surface 34 deviates. Thus a partial vacuum is produced on surface 34 similar to that which is produced on the upper surface of an aerofoil in the flight of an airplane. This vacuum also is the cause of a tendency of body 30 to be propelled to the right as viewed in Fig. 11. Thus, in the Fig. 11 construction, the impeller, its casing and the form of the body with which the impeller and casing are used, are all co-operative to produce a propulsive effect on such body.
Devices of the character disclosed have been demonstrated to be remarkable in their efliciency because of the efiiciency of the impeller, which, whether cased or operating in free space, is adapted to handle without loss of power an extremely large volume of fluid in proportion to its overall dimensions.
The various embodiments of the invention selected for illustration herein, are intended merely to exemplify a few of the many possible variations to which the invention is adapted. In each of the many fields in which the device is used there will necessarily be some adaptation of its form. Among the uses to which the device may be adapted it may be mentioned; that it is suitable for use as a fan in propulsion of gaseous or liquid fluids; for use as a propeller operating either in gaseous or liquid fluids for the propulsion of air, land or'water vehicles; for use as a pump for fluids of all kinds; for.use in creating partial vacuums; for use in picking up and distributing light solids such as dust and flour, and for use in the circulation of fluids where no defi nite path of circulation is indicated, as for example, in circulating the air in a room without substantial draft.
The deviceherein disclosed is not only simple in construction and inexpensive to manufacture,
be designed in advance to consume any given quantity of power at any given speed of operation. Unlike an ordinary propeller or pump, it does not require operation at relatively low speeds-to maintain its efficiency. It will-operate efficiently evenat the highest speeds at which a steam turbine or electric motor may be driven. Thus, the use of reduction gearing is made unnecessary and the full power of high speed turbines or driving motors may be consumed efficiently in a direct drive installation.
1. An impeller comprising the combination with rotatable mounting means, of means providing fluid passages opening axially in opposite directions and discharging peripherally, said passages having a differential capacity such that the reaction toward fluid admitted thereto will oppose the action of gravity on the impeller when the axis of rotation thereof is vertical.
- 2. In a device of the character described, a balanced rotor comprising a vertical shaft, a series of mutually spaced annuli having openings of large diameter at each end of the series, and openings of progressively decreasing diameter in successive annuli toward a point intermediate the ends of the series, and means for supporting the several annuli from the shaft, the fluid handling capacity of the annuli below the point of minimum cross section of opening being less than the capacity of the annuli above said point by an amount in such proportion to' the desired speed of operation of the annuli that the differential reaction of fluid moving toward said point from the top and the bottom of the series of plates is approximately equal and opposite to the force exerted by gravity on said shaft.
3. In a device of the character described, the
combination with a vertical shaft and a mount plates mutually spaced and having openings progressively increasing in diameter from a point intermediate the ends of said series of plates toward both ends thereof, said point being nearer the lower end of the series than the top end thereof, whereby'to establish a differential suction at the ends of the series tending to balance the weightofsaid shaft and plates.
'4. In a device of the character described, the combination with a vertical shaft, of a rotor arranged for discharge substantially throughout its" periphery, said rotor comprising a series of annuli, and means supporting said annuli fromsaid shaft, said,annuli having central openings progressively increasing in diameter toward the ends of said series from a point intermediate such ends, the fluid impelling capacity of the annuli above said point being in excess of the fluid impelling capacity of the annuli below said point, whereby to tend to balance the weight of said annuli and shaft, and radial forces to which said rotor is subjected by the reaction of the fluid impelled being substantially balanced.
5. Iri a device of the character described, a casing having substantially co-axial and substantially circular chambers provided respectively with tangential inlet and outlet passages opening directly thereto, the outer wall of each such passage being substantially flush with the periphery of the chamber with which it communicates, said casing providing an annular space affording communication between the outer periphery of the inner chamber and the inner periphery of the outer chamber, and a rotor arranged to revolve in said space and provided with tion in which fluid rotates in both of said chambers in accordance with the direction of its tan- ,5 gential delivery into the first of said chambers and discharge from the second.
6. A device of the character described, comprising the combination with a casing providing an annular inlet chamber, a co-axial discharge 10 chamber of larger diameter, said chamber being substantially circular, an annular space aflording communication between said chambers, of inlet and outlet ducts disposed tangentially with re-' spect to the respective chambers, whereby to in- 15 duce circumferential flow of a fluid in the same direction throughout both said chambers, and a rotor comprising spaced annuli mounted in the annular passage between said chambers and pro- 'vided with central openings communicating with 20 the inlet chamber and radial discharge passages communicating with the discharge chamber, said rotor being-arranged to rotate in the said direction of circumferential fluid travel in said chamhers. a
25 7. In a device of the character described, a casing provided with axially ofiset annular inlet and outlet chambers having substantially circular out-' er peripheries concentrically arranged and of difierent diameters, tangential inlet and outlet 30 ducts leading to and from the respective chambers and so disposed as to accommodate fluid rotating continuously in the samedirection, an annular passage leading directly from the largest diameter of the smaller chamber to the smallest 35 diameter of the larger chamber, and a rotor positioned between said chambers in said passage and afiording communication therebetween, said rotor comprising annuli of progressively decreasing opening across the end of the smaller chamber,
40' and means connecting said annuli in mutually spaced relation, the annulus with the largest opening being presented to the inlet chamber and the spaces between said annuli being arranged to discharge directly into the outlet cham- 45 her.
' 8. In a deviceof the character described, the combination with a casing having concentric 'annular chambers of difierent diameters having substantially circular outer peripheral walls and fio -being in axially offset relation, a shaft extending axially to said casing, and a rotor mounted on said shaft and affording communication between said chambers, said rotor comprising a series of mutually spaced annuli, the internal di- 55 ameter of the annulus next to the smaller chamber einglsubstantlally equal to the maximum iameter of said chamber-and directly communieating therewith and the spaces between said annuli being arranged to discharge into the larger 60 chamber, the openings in the-respective annuli being progressively decreased in diameter in accordance with their remoteness from the smaller chamber, themespectivegchambers having inlet and outlet ducts disposed tangentially to receive 65 and discharge a fluid revolving in said chambers in the direction of rotation of said annuli.
9. The combination with a body requiring pro.- pulsion and having a generally conical bow, of'a propelling rotor mounted to turn thereon in ad- 70 vance of said body and comprising spaced annular plates arrangedto receive fluid from the path of advance of said body to discharge such fluid peripherally,
10. The combination with a body requiring pro- 75 pulsion'and having a generally conical bow, of a propelling rotor mounted to turn thereon in advance of said body and comprising spaced annular plates arranged to receive fluid from the path of advance of said body to discharge such fluid peripherally, together with a deflecting 5 apron arranged about said rotor in spaced relation to said body and positioned to deflect rearwardly the fluid discharged peripherally from said rotor.
11. The combination with a body requiring propulsion, of a propelling rotor mounted to-turn I thereon in advance, of said body and comprising spaced annular plates arranged to receive fluid from the path of advance of said body .to discharge sucfi fluid peripherally, together'with a deflecting apron arranged about said rotor in spaced relation to said body and positioned to deflect rearwardly the fluid discharged peripherally from said rotor, said body having a stream line form deviating from the path of discharge of fluid, whereby to receive propulsive movement occasioned by the void created by the discharge of such fluid.
12. In a device of the character described, the
combination with a runner having fluid engaging portions, of a casing providing: a passage within which said portions are disposed, a first chamber of circular cross-section and elongated form opening at one end to said passage and provided adjacent the other end with a tangential port opening directly to said chamber with its outer wall substantially flush with the periphery of said chamber, and a second chamber of substantially annular form with the inner periphery of which substantially all portions of said passage communicate and which is provided with a tangential port disposed in a direction complementary to that of the first port, whereby fluid entering through one of said ports will rotate continuously in one direction in traversing said casing. 40
13. In a device of the character described, the combination with a chamber of circular crosssection and elongated form having a tangential port adjacent one end and being open at the other end, of a rotor disposed at the open end of said chamber and comprising a series of, friction plates spaced in suiiiciently close proximity to propel a fluid independently of vanes, the plate immediately adjacent said chamber having an aperture substantially identical in diameter with the diameter of said chamber and successive plates having apertures of successively reduced diameter, and means supporting said plates for rotation in the direction of rotation accommodated by said tangential port. 14. In a device of the character described, the combination with a chamber of circular crosssection and elongated form having a tangential port adjacent one end and being open at the other end, of a rotor disposed at the open end of said chamber and comprising a series of friction plates spaced in sufflciently close proximity to propel a fluid independently of vanes, the plate immediately adjacent said chamber having an aperture substantially identical in diameter with the diameter of said chamber and successiveplates having apertures of successively reduced diameter, and. means supporting said plates for rotation in the direction of rotation accommodated by said tangential port, the spacing be mutually spaced annular plates in sumciently close proximity to propel a fluid independently of vanes, the spacing between said plates being progressively decreased and said-plates having apertures progressively decreasing in diameter throughout the series and communicating with successive diminishing'spaces between the plates, the fluid handling capacity of the spaces between the plates and the successive apertures being so chosen that theinter-plate space just beyond each aperturehas a flow capacity substantially equal to the difference in capacity between that aperture and the next aperture of the series,
whereby the fluid handled is acted upon substantially without eddy currents.
16. In a device of the character described, a
rotor for fluid actuation comprising the com-.
sively decrease in area in the entrance direction of air from an end of the series at which air is admitted, whereby said plates perform the dual function of propulsion and fluid proportioning.
17. In a device of the-character described, the combination with a shaft, of a rotor arranged to discharge substantially unimpeded throughout its periphery, said rotor having annular plates in close proximity to each other with axially aligned central openings progressively decreasing in diameter from the end at which air is admitted to the series of plates toward the other, saidopenings communicating with the spaces between plates, andthe plates being sufficiently close to comprise substantially the sole propelling medium of fluid engaged thereby, and means supporting the plates from the shaft and including spacers disposed with their greatest length in line with the path of fluid flow whereby to pass fluid without substantial reaction thereon and without the creation of eddy currents, whereby said spaced plates, perform-the dual function of a propulsion means and a fluid proportioning means'without any substantial loss of energy in induced eddy currents.
18. The combination with a body having a convex bow portion laterally streamlined toward its forward end, a drive shaft projecting forwardly from said end, a propelling rotor mounted on said shaft inadvance of the body and comprising spaced annular plates substantially co-extensive with said end and arranged to receive fluid from the path of. advance of said body and to discharge such fluid peripherally, and an apron having its forward portion apertured to fit substantially about one of the foremost of said plates and extending thence in streamlined contour in spaced relation to the streamlined sides of said body.
'19. The combination with a body requiring propulsion and having a bow portion convexly formed to provide streamline surfaces terminating at a blunt nose, of a propelling rotor mounted in close proximity to said nose with itsperiphery arranged to discharge at said convex surfaces, said rotor comprising axially spaced annular plates having respective central openings progressively decreasing in size from the foremost of said plates toward the rearmost thereof, and an apron having means connecting it in spaced relation to said body to receive the peripheral discharge. from said rotor and to guide such discharge rearwardly about the 'convex surfaces thereof, the forward margin of said apron being in close proximity to the foremost plate, and the rear margin of said apron being disposed somewhat rearwardly of the rearmost plate, the exterior of said apron being likewise of streamline form.
CHESTER W. BROWN. ERWIN F. DOSIE.