|Publication number||US2090214 A|
|Publication date||Aug 17, 1937|
|Filing date||Mar 12, 1935|
|Priority date||Mar 12, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2090214 A, US 2090214A, US-A-2090214, US2090214 A, US2090214A|
|Original Assignee||Pietro Maniscalco|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (13), Classifications (17)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 17, 1937o i P, MANISCALCO 2,090,214
COMPRESSED AIR POWER UNIT ilad Maron 12, 1935 frime/@far MMM [if: l muy Patented Aug. 17, 1937 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE comanssaolrowaa UNIT y Pietro Maniscaloo, Toledo. Ohio'- Applicatior; No. 10,664
This invention relates to a compressed air power unit.
One of the main objects o! this invention is to provide a power unit or mechanism whereby a I maximum of power is obtainable from a given quantity of fuel used by internal combustion, and whereby a large amount of the power which is at present wasted by the consumption of the fuel with the ordinary machine and method will 10 be conserved and utilized for developing useful energy.
Another object of this invention is to provide a power unit that utilizes superheated compressed air which has its pressure and volume enhance'd l. by the inclusion of a superheated steam content in the compressed air.
A further object is to provide a power unit whereby the hot waste gases, which are usually exhausted from the internalcombustion engine,
so are utilized to provide useful energy, and whereby the generally employed back-pressure producing mumers are no longer required.
These and various other objects and advantages will become apparent from the following 25 description, taken in connection with the accompanying drawing, in which the invention is illustrated in' its preferred form of construction, it being understood that various other arrangements and forms of construction may be resortedA to $0 for carrying out the objects and purposes of this invention.
Figure 1, shown in the drawing, is chiefly diagrammatic, illustrating this invention in its preferred form. t
Figure 2 shows a sectional view taken through the injection nozzle. Y
Briefly, this improved power unit comprises a prime mover, such as an internal combustion engine, and. an air compressor which is driven o thereby and delivers compressed air to a reser- I voir wherefrom it is conducted to anair motor, to be used as desired for doing work. A heat interchanging device is provided in the connect- 45 ing conduits between said members for utilizing the exhaust gases emanating from thefengine, to superheat the compressed air in its utransit from the compressor to the motor; and air moistening means is also provided to saturate the 50 superheated compressed air in its travel to the motor. The combined output of energy produced by this unit is then utilized for doing work, to drive an automobile, a stationary machine, a locomotive, an airplane, etc. j The drawing illustrates this invention in its I preferred form of construction which comprises a prime mover 8,- preferably in the form of an internal combustion engine, which may be a twocycle engine of the Diesel type, but the usill four-cycle engine and other types of engines may o also be utilized in this unit. A
The prime mover or engine l is directly connected to an air compressor 1, preferably by an end to end connection with the two axes aligned, the engine shaft 8, being connected through a l0 combined ily wheel and coupling 8 of any suitable type 'with the shaft 1' oi the compressor. The form of compressor illustrated includes cylinders I0, II and l2. 1
The compressed air is delivered from cylinder II through a conduit Il to a reservoir Il, wherefrom it is conducted through a conduit Il to the heat interchanger I8, 'a control valve I1 being interposed in conduit Il. Y
The heat interchanger I8 is closely connected l) with the engine I for receiving the exhaust gases therefrom and it comprises a main heating chamber I8 and a preliminary heating chamber I9 extending from one end thereof and wherethrough an outlet or discharge tube 2l extends for lead- 25 ing exhaust gases from chamber I8 through-the outlet end 2U' of said tube to the air. Baiile plates or partition walls 2I are provided in overlapping relation in the main chamber, substantially as indicated, for deilecting and slackening the flow Iof the exhaust gases through the heat interchanger.
Conduit Il enters the heat interchanger -through preliminary chamber I9 and extends 35 through tube 20, being then continued in the form of curved portions 22 which pass to and fro around the overlapping parts of the consecutive baille plates 2l, substantially as indicated in the drawing. The forward end of the curved portions is mounted in the end wan is' of the msm 4 chamber.
An insulating air chamber or dead air chamber 22 surrounds the greater part of the main chamber to conserve the heat therein. A chamber 24 extends from end wall I8', alongside of the engine 8 and is connected thereto, as by means 25, so that the exhaust pipe 28 and its several branch pipes 21, which extend from the engine cylinders, are housed in said chamber 24. 50 The exhaust pipe 28 opens into chamber I8 so that the exhaust gases from the engine will flow in. a serpentine path through the various coms partments of chamber I8 and around the curved portions 22 therein, to heat the compressed air is of the type shown in the patent to Evinrude,`
1,819,323 of August 18, 1931, a throttle valve 3| and a reducing valve 32 being interposedin said conduit 29 for controlling the ilow of air to the motor. The power produced is transmitted from the motor through its shaft 33 to the desired engine or mechanism for driving it and utilizing the energy provided by this unit. The superheated air, combined with the steam content, permits the use of a compressed air motor 30 and f greatly aids economy by utilizing this vapor in expansion.
Means is also provided with this invention tor saturating the compressed air, and although the induction of moisture into the compressed air may be effected either before, during or after the superheating process, in order to include a superheated steam content therein, it is preferably effected as indicated in the drawing. This means may include a moisture injecting device or the like, and as herein shown, it includes an in- `lector of a conventional type like that shown in the patent to Mullholand, 35,575, of June 10, 1862, to which a pipe 36 conducts compressed air from air pipe I3, through a junction element 31, a control valve 38 being interposed in said i pipe. vA pipe 39 conducts the saturated compressed air from the injector topipe I5.
The moisture is supplied to the injector in the form of warm water, which is conducted by a pipe or conduit 4| which leads and carries warm water from the hot water draw-oil tube 42 extending from the water jacket of the engine to lead the water therefrom to a cooling device, as aradiator 43. A control valve 44 is also added in pipe 4| for controlling the ow of water therethrough to the injector. To compensate for the small amount of moisture used'in this unit, the cool water container, as'the radiator 43 herein, may have its capacity enlarged.
Suitable indicators and safety devices will also be employed, like the air pressure indicator 45 and safety valve 40 on the reservoir to maintain the desired air pressure in the reservoir. By withdrawing the heat from the exhaust gases in this unit I greatly eliminate fire hazards and other harmful and dangerous results from the gases in their hot and high velocity state.
It is apparent that with this improved power unit a small amount of hot water or moisture is added to the compressed air, thereby producing a certain amount of highly superheated'steam content Within the superheated compressed air, for further increasing the'volume and pressure 65 thereof. The formerly wasted heat energy of the exhaust gases is greatly utilized, and the usually required muiflers are obviated. By the use of the highly compressed air and by suitably manipulating valve 3I, this improved power unit will thus furnish a more uniform power to the mechanism to be driven thereby, than is possible with the customary direct application of power of the gas engine to the mechanism to be driven thereby, and it provides a more exible and promptly responsive application of power.
1. A power unit comprising an internal combustion engine having a water jacketed cooling system, an air compressor and means for driving it by the engine, a reservoir and conduit means for conducting compressed air thereto from the compressor, a heat interchanger and means for conducting compressed air therethrough from the reservoir. said heat interchanger including a serpentine conduit and means for conducting the exhaust gases from the engine through the said serpentine conduit. in counterilow over the compressed air conducting means therein, air moistening means including a member feeding into the air beyond the reservoir, means for conducting hot liquid to said member from the water jacket o! the engine, also means for conductingcompressed air to said member to force the flow of liquid, and an air motor and valve controlled means conducting heated and moistened compressed air thereto from the heat interchanger.
2. A power unit consisting of an internal com` bustion engine having a water jacket with a hot water draw-oi! pipe, an air compressor mounted adjacent thereto and Ydriven thereby, a heat l interchanger adJacent to the engine and including a main chamber having a series of baille plates arranged in overlapping relation therein to deect exhaust gases to and tro therethrough, a reservoir adjacent the compressor, a conduit conducting compressed air from the compressor to the reservoir, a valve controlled conduit conducting compressed air from the reservoir through the heat interchanger and to and fro around the baille' plates in the main chamber, air moistening means including a liquid feeding member connected to and discharging into the conduit extending from the reservoir to the heat interchanger, a valve controlled pipe conducting moisture to the member from the hot water draw-oil' pipe on the water Jacket o! the engine, means conducting compressed air to the member to speed the ow of liquid, an air motor, and conduit means having control valve means therein to conduct 'and control the heated and moistened compressed air from the interchanger to the motor.
3. A power unit comprising an internal combustion engine havingra water jacketed cooling system, and air compressor driven thereby. a.
reservoir for receiving compressed air therefrom, a heat interchanger connected with the engine, conduit means for conducting -compressed air from the reservoir through said heat interchang` er, means for conducting the' hot exhaust gases from the engine in heat transfer relationshiprwith the heat interchanger, an air motor and valve controlled conduit means conducting air thereto from the heat interchanger, air moistening means including a liquid injector member for introducing moisture into the compressed air to provide a steam content therein, means for conducting hot liquid to said liquid injector member from the water jacket ot the engine, means for conducting compressed air to said liquid injector for inducing the now of liquid therefrom, and conduit means to conduct said mixture of air and moisture into the compressedA air conducting means between the reservoir and the air motor.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3055647 *||Jun 3, 1958||Sep 25, 1962||Ingersoll Rand Co||Compressed gas system|
|US3597621 *||Oct 31, 1968||Aug 3, 1971||Kiichi Yamada||Special thermal electric power generating unit using pressurized hot air together with superheated steam|
|US3986575 *||Mar 21, 1975||Oct 19, 1976||Ernst Eggmann||Hybrid motor unit with energy storage|
|US4121423 *||May 31, 1977||Oct 24, 1978||Automotive Propulsion Laboratories, Ltd.||Compound internal-combustion hot-gas engines|
|US6301891||Jan 3, 2001||Oct 16, 2001||The United States Of America As Represented By The Environmental Protection Agency||High efficiency, air bottoming engine|
|US6415607 *||Sep 17, 2001||Jul 9, 2002||The United States Of America As Represented By The Administrator Of The U.S. Environmental Agency||High efficiency, air bottoming engine|
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|US20090077964 *||Sep 25, 2007||Mar 26, 2009||Crate Barry T||Rotary vane engine system|
|US20090205892 *||Feb 19, 2008||Aug 20, 2009||Caterpillar Inc.||Hydraulic hybrid powertrain with exhaust-heated accumulator|
|DE4310100A1 *||Mar 23, 1993||Sep 29, 1994||Mannesmann Ag||Verfahren und Vorrichtung zum Verdichten eines gasförmigen Mediums|
|EP0248640A1 *||Jun 2, 1987||Dec 9, 1987||Tonen Sekiyukagaku K.K.||Method and apparatus for producing high-temperature high-pressure gas|
|WO2001006108A1 *||Jul 6, 2000||Jan 25, 2001||Us Environment||High efficiency, air bottoming engine|
|WO2009039613A1 *||Aug 28, 2008||Apr 2, 2009||Engine Uity Ltd||Rotary vane engine system|
|U.S. Classification||60/616, 165/143|
|International Classification||F04B35/00, F04B39/06, F02B63/00, F02B75/02, F02B3/06, F02B63/06, F02B3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F02B2075/025, F02B63/06, F02B3/06, F04B39/06, F04B35/002|
|European Classification||F02B63/06, F04B39/06, F04B35/00C|